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THE 

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FREEMASONS’ 



MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 


BY CHARLES W. MOORE, 

MAUD SECHETABT OF THE GBAUD LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY TUTTLE & DENNETT. 

1846. 


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FOR THE EDUCATION 
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THIS, 

THE FOURTH VOLUME OF THE FREEMASONS’ MAGAZINE, 

, • IS RESPECTFULLY 

DEDICATED. 




INDEX 


A. 

Address of R. W. John Soleyj 294 
“ of G. W. Warren, 296 
“ of C. W. Moore. 303 
“ of M. W. Augustus Peabody. 306 
“ of O. B. Rogers, 307 

“ of C. G. Pickman, 309 

M of Albert Case, 170,310 

“ of J. O. Skinner, 312 

11 of Denis Moore, 373 

Admission of clergymen; free, 6 
Alabama, 217 

Alahama, Grand Lodge of, 145 
Alfred the Great, 206 
Altenburg, the old Lodge at, 1G3 
American Aborigines, Freemasonry among, 
70 

Amee, Jacob, obituary notice of, 94 
An Impostor, 224 
An Oration, 308 
Ancient Regulations, 149 
Anecdote of Cupt. Chapin Sampson, 17 
Anecdote, Masonic, 121, 143, 228, 276, 367 
Are members of Lodges required to vote on 
the admission of candidates, 225 
Arkansas, 214 


B. 

Battle of Bannockburn, 278 

Bonaparte, Joseph, death of, 79 

Books, Masonic, 137 

Buchanan, James, obituary notice of, 360 

Bunker-Hill Monument, 114 

Bums Festival, 123 


C. 

Canada, 345 

Candidates, physical qualifications of, 5 
Capture of the Isle of Rhodes by the Turks, 
204 

Carbery, Lord, obituary notice of, 349 
Card, William M., expulsion of, 254 
Case, Albert, address of, 170,310 
Certificates, Grand Lodge, 129 
Chandler, Joseph R, remarks on Bunker- 
Hill, 327 

Charges in the Symbolic Degrees, 80 
Circular of Grand Lodge of Iowa, 280 
Clergymen, free admission of, 6 
Convocation, Royal Arch, at Chicago, HI. 363 
Correspondence, 27, 88, 112, 144, 212, 282, 
348, 376 


D. 

Dedication, Masonic, 360 
Degree of Heroine of Jericho, 323 
Dill, Ezra E., expulsion of, 157 
Durham, Earl of Monument to, 69 

E. 

Early History of Masonry in England, 25 
England, 244, 376 
Entered Apprentice’s Charge, 80 
Eulogy on the late Hon. B. Russell, 163 
Exclusion of the Jews by the Grand Lodge 
of Berlin, 21 

Expulsion, remarks on the penalty of, 44 
“ proceedings in cases of. 97 
“ of a Master of a Lodge, and act* 
ing G. Master of a Slate, by a subordinate 
Lodge, 33 

Expulsions, 157, 192, 253, 352 
Extract from doings of Bunker-Hill Monu- 
ment Association, 290 


F. 

Fellow-Craft’s Charge, 81 
Festival of St. John, at Toronto, Canada, 120 
Fielding, J. H., obituary notice of, 167 
Florida, 285 

Foreign matters, 39, 138 
France, 9t 

Franklin’s Opinion of Freemasonry, 24 
Freemasons, travelling, of the Middle Ages, 
1 3 

Freemasonry, Lexicon of, 327 

“ spirit and tendency of, 364 

“ among the American Aborigi- 

nes, 70 

Frendenburg, Abraham, an impostor, 224 


G. 


General Grand Chapter of the U. States, 181 
Germany, 91, 244 

Glover, George W. obituary notice of, 221 
Goodrich, Abijah, obituary notice of, 221 
Grand Encampments of Ohio and N. York, 
102 


Grand Lodge of Ireland, new regulation of, 27 
“ of New York, 62 

** of Michigan, 64, 345 

“ of Massachusetts, installation 

of officers of, 107 

“ of Mississippi, 31, 146, 346 

“ of Maryland, 381 



vi 


INDEX. 


Grand Lodge of Alabama, 145 
“ of Kentucky, 29, 153 

“ of Iowa, 154, 280 

Grand Ledge Certificates, 129 
Grand Masters or Patrons of England, 210, 
237, 265 


H. 

History of Initiation, 9, 41, 74, 103, 140, 175, 
207,231,262,338 

Holbrook, Moses, obituary notice of, 127 

I. 

Illinois, 215 
Impostor, an, 224 
India, 240 

Initiation, history of, 9. 41, 74, 103, 140, 175, 
207. 231, 262, 338 

Installation of the officers of G. Lodge of 
Massachusetts, 107 

Installation of officers of St John’s Lodge, 
Portsmouth, N. H., 146 
Installation of officers of Middlesex Lodge, 
Framingham, 147 
Introduction, 1 
Iowa, 154, 261 
Ireland, 38, 380 

Ireland, new regulation of G. Lodge of, 27 

J. 

Jackson, General, obituary notice of, 349 
Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, 239 
Jews, exclusion of by G. Lodge of Berlin, 21 
Jewish Freemasons and Prussian G. Lodge, 
193 


Kentucky, 29 

Kentucky, proposed regulations of G. Lodge 
of, 163 

King Chapel, Brunswick, Maine, laying Cor- 
ner Stone of, 331 

King Solomon’s Lodge in Perfection, 279 
Kingston, Canada, Festival and Ball at, 115 
Knight Templar— a Tale, 273 
Knights Templars formerly employed as ec- 
clesiastical messengers, 227 
Knights Templars’ first Church in England, 
199 

Knights Templars, two hundred and seventy 
slain, 239 

Knights Templars, institution of the illustri- 
ous Order of, 236 

Knights Templars represented iu the Eng- 
lish Parliament, 261 

Knights Templars exempted from paying 
Holy Land Tax, 276 
Knights Templars, persecution of, 268 
Knights of St. John capture the Isle of 
Rhodes, 284 

L. 

Laying Corner Stone of Sling Chapel, Bruns- 
wick, Me., 331 

Laying Corner Stone of the Jamsetjee Jee- 
jeebnoy Hospital, at Bombay, 46 
Lewis, James, obituary notice of, 166 


Lexicon of Freemasonry, 327 
Lodge, the old, at Altenburg, 163 
Lodges in Massachusetts, a table of, 138 
Lodges chartered by the G. Lodge of Mas- 
sachusetts from 1733 to 1844, 200 
Lodges, members of, are they required to vote 
on the admission of candidates, 225 
London, Canada, Masonic Ball at, 121 


M. 

Manockjee, Cursetjee, obituary notice of, 349 
Maryland, 381 

Masonry, the physical benefits of. 18 
14 early history of in England, 25 
“ in Switzerland, 62 

" in St. John, N. B., 62 

“ Secrets of, 16 

41 held sacred by a Pirate, 288 

Masonic Intelligence, 28, 91, 124, 189, 214, 
240, 285, 345, 376 

Masonic Chit Chat, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 
224, 256, 288, 320, 352, 384 
Masonic Rambles, 89 

11 Festival at Kingston, Canada, 115 
(l Ball at London, Canada, 121 
“ Anecdote, 121, 148, 276, 367 
l( reminiscence, 122 
“ Books, 137 
“ munificence at Paris, 230 
c( Charges, 234, 269 
“ celebration at Bunker-Hill, 289 

“ dedication, 360 

Master of a Lodge, power and duties of, 65 
Master Mason’s Apron— a Tale, 83 
Master Mason’s Charge, 82 
Maxwell, George M., expulsion of, 362 
Mclnnis, Edmund, obituary notice of, 349 
Michigan, 346 

Michigan, Grand Lodge of, 64 
Militi Templi — Scotland, 324 
Mississippi, 31, 346 
Mississippi, Grand Lodge of, 145 
Missouri Masonic College, 160, 187 
Moore, C. W., address of, 303 
Moore, Denis, address of, 373 
Monument to the late Earl of Durham, 69 
Morning Star Lodge, Worcester, Constitu- 
tion of, 168 


N. 

North Carolina, 218 


O. 

Obituary, 94. 126, 156, 221, 349 
Officers, register of, 95, 158, 223, 255, 351 
Ohio, 124, 189, 215 
Oration, 368 

Order of H-R-D-M, of Kilwinning, Scot- 
land, 278 


P. 

Peabody, Augustus, address of, 305 
Personal objections, do they justify a negative 
ballot in the admission of candidates, 326 
Physical qualifications of candidates, 5 
Physical benefits of Masonry, 18 
Pickman, C. G., address of, 309 



INDEX. 


Vll 


Poetry— An Erring Brother, 26— A Masonic 
Hymn, 51 — 1 Temple of Masonry, 167 — 
What is the Secret, 173 — The Widow’s 
Prayer, 222-r-Ode, *77— Hymn, 296— Ode, 
302— Poem, 314— Th^ Fraternal Corona- 
tion, 316 — Hymn, 334— Brunswick Corner 
Stone Festival, 336 — Masonic Verses, 362 
Powers and duties of a Master of a Lodge, 65 
Prezriminski, C. R., expulsion of, 157 
Presentation of a wreath to R. W. John So- 
ley, 316 

Proceedings in case of expulsion, 97 
Prussian G. Lodge and Jewish Freemasons, 
193 

Publication of Rejections, 321 
Purdy, Reuben, obituary notice of, 350 

q. 

Qualification of candidates, 5 

R. 

Regalia proper to be worn in a Lodge under 
the English jurisdiction, 143 
Register of Officers, 95, 158,223, 255, 351 
Rejections, publication of, 321 
Rhodes, Isle of, captured by the Turks, 204 
Rogers, C. B., address of, 307 
Rose Croix, the Degree of, 196 
Royal Arch Convocation at Chicago, 111., 353 
Russell, Benjamin, obituary notice of, 126 
“ “ eulogy on, 163 

S. 

Sampson, Capt. Chapin, aneedote of, 17 
Scotland, 379 
Secrets of Masonry, 161 
Seeds, Richard, expulsion of, 192 
Sketch of Travelling Masons in the Middle 
Ages, 13 

Skinner, Joseph O., address of, 312 


Soley, John, address of, 294 
l( 11 presentation of a wreath to, 315 
South Australia, 93 

Spirit and tendency of Freemasonry, 364 
Snow, Ezekiel L., obituary notice of, 221 
Spear, Samuel, obituary notice of, 156 
St. John the Baptist, character of, 54 
St. John, N. B., 112 

Supreme Council of 33d Degree for Northern 
Hemisphere, 319, 356 

Supreme Council ol 33d Degree for Southern 
Hemisphere, 320 
Sutton Chapter, 325 

T. 

Table of Lodges in Massachusetts, 136 
Table of Lodges chartered by the G. Lodge 
of Massachusetts, from 1733 to 1344, 200 
Templars’ Church, the first in England, 199 
Templars feast the Nobles in England, 279 
Tennessee, 216 

Tessera Hospitalis, or Rights of Hospitali- 
ty, 257 

Toffler, Peter, obituary notice of, 127 
Toronto, Canada, festival of St. John at, 120 
Travelling Freemasons, 13 
Tullidge, Joseph C., obituary notice of, 349 

V. 

View of original Monument on Bunker-Hill, 
290 

W. 

Wainwright, Marcus, alias A. B. Hardy, ex- 
pulsion of, 263 

Warren, G. W., address of, 296 
West Indies, 92 
Who is my Neighbor, 149 
Wisconsin, 247, 286 




THE 



FREEMASON S’ 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

Vol. IV.l BOSTON, NOVEMBER 1, 1844. [No. 1. 


INTRODUCTION. 

In presenting to our readers the first number of the fourth volume of 
this Magazine, we avail ourselves of the occasion to renew the expression 
of our acknowledgments for the encouragement and support the work has 
received. 

It has been our aim to give to the Fraternity a periodical, whose literary 
character should at least reflect no discredit on the Institution, while, as 
an exclusively Masonic journal, it should prove a source of information 
and instruction to the Brethren. We have endeavored to present, fairly 
and distinctly, the true character and beneficent objects of our association ; 
and, as far as possible, to guard it against the misrepresentations of the 
ignorant and th£ malevolence of the prejudiced. We have avoided per- 
sonal controversy with our opponents ; but have studiously met fheir ob- 
jections by a candid development and free discussion of the broad and 
imperishable principles on which our Institution is founded. This course 
we shall continue to pursue until driven from it by occurrences not now 
anticipated. 

The past has been an active and, in many respects, a propitious year 
for Freemasonry in this country. With perhaps two exceptions, the 
Lodges have been revived and are in active operation in every State and 
Territory within the jurisdiction of the United States. A uniform mode 
of Work has been generally adopted, — the principles and policy of the 
Institution are better understood ; and there is a more general desire 
for interchange of sentiments and reciprocation of fraternal kindnesses 
among the Brethren. There is more of Freemasonry abroad , and less 
of selfishness. The members understand each other better, and are 
more fully conversant with the condition and transactions of the different 
branches of the great family to which they belong. May we not add, they 
more correctly appreciate the great benevolent objects of their Frater- 
• nity ? 


1 




Q 


INTRODUCTION. 


That the Magazine has contributed, in some measure, to the attainment 
of this result, we have the assurances of intelligent Brethren in every 
section of the country. We may at least, without arrogating for it any 
undue credit, venture to say, that it has communicated intelligence, as to 
the condition of the Fraternity in different parts of the world, which could 
not probably have been obtained from any other source. It has, therefore, 
done some good in the past : we trust it may continue to do good in the 
future. 

Since first we launched our own highly favored bark on the ocean of 
experiment, others have been sent abroad to try their fortunes. Some of 
them were freighted with choice, and others with indifferent cargoes : — 
some were under the guidance of skilful pilots ; others were less fortu- 
nate : — some have continued steadily, and we trust successfully, on their 
voyage ; others have been stranded and shipwrecked. To the prosperous 
we tender the hand of fraternal kindness — to the unfortunate, the sympa- 
thies of one who has witnessed many similar disasters and well under- 
stands the difficulties of successfully navigating the somewhat capricious, 
but not always unpleasant sea of popular favor. 

The utility of well conducted periodicals, in advancing the interests and 
elevating the character of our Fraternity, cannot now fairly be considered 
a debatable question. They exist and are encouraged and patronized 
by the best and wisest of our Brethren, in all countries where Masonry 
has attained an elevated character and standing among cotemporary In- 
stitutions. In England, France and Germany, they hold a high rank in 
the periodical literature of the day, and are regarded as essential auxil- 
iaries in the economy of the Order. The experience of the last century 
has confirmed and established their utility. The Rev. Dr. Oliver, — 
beyond question the most learned and talented Mason in Europe, — has 
said, that “ those Brethren who are desirous of preventing the spread of 
Masonic information, are not only unjust to the Fraternity , but they inflict 
a grievous wound upon the Order” 

“ The popularity of Freemasonry,” he adds, u is admitted to be essen- 
tial to its prosperity. For a century it has been gradually advancing in 
public opinion, but its progress has been slow and uncertain. Its beauty 
and usefulness are now becoming more apparent. It is taking its rank 
amongst the Institutions of the country ; and if it be nourished by the pat- 
ronage of wealth and talent, it will be placed before mankind as an Or- 
der in which the pleasing pursuits of science are blended with morality 
and virtue on the one hand, and benevolence and charity on the other. 
And who can be so justly expected to advance its reputation as those 
who are acquainted with its merits, and entrusted with the direction of its 
affairs ? The public in general will entertain an indifferent opinion of its 
purity, if those who occupy the places of authority under its jurisdiction. 



INTRODUCTION. 


3 


display any reluctance to have its merits become the subject of open dis- 
cussion. It will be an anomaly in the nineteenth century, to hear com- 
plaints that the sources of information in any branch of science have been 
invidiously closed, and their investigation placed under an interdict. 

“ The dearth of Masonic writers is attributable, in a great degree, to 
this mistaken principle ; and therefore it constitutes a serious charge 
against Freemasonry as a professed science, that it has contributed so 
little to the general fund of intelligence by which the present age is dis- 
tinguished. 

' “ No one, except the Free and Accepted Mason, ever thinks of taking 
up a book on this forbidden subject for the purpose of increasing his 
stock of general knowledge. The prejudices of the people have been 
enlisted against it ; and therefore, to the common reader, it is devoid of in- 
terest. He feels indifferent about an institution which, he has been led to 
believe, possesses no claim upon his regard, no excitement for his indus- 
try, no merit to reward his application. But if the philosophy of Mason- 
ry were made an open subject of illustration and research ; if it were 
fairly brought before the public in a scientific form, it would receive the 
same attention that is bestowed on every other enquiry, whether in phy- 
sics or arts, in morality or religion. 

“ The rulers and governors of Masonry have at different periods, been 
imbued with a liberal spirit in this particular ; and at those seasons the 
Order has proportionably advanced both in individual utility and popular 
estimation. They have bestowed a passing glory on the Masonic world, 
like a beam of light illuminating a darkened atmosphere. The establish- 
ment of the Library and Museum, by the Grand Lodge (of England,) a 
few years ago, is an existing proof of the liberal policy exhibited by the 
late Grand Master (the Duke of Sussex,) on this important subject. 

“ The present times are distinguished by a general anxiety to produce 
a mental edification, and the melioration of society in all its grades. In 
conformity with this prevailing taste, Freemasonry must and will become 
a subject of open investigation. And to be justly appreciated it must be 
perfectly understood. It is evidently the duty of our rulers, therefore, 
both supreme and subordinate, to use every means at their command to 
direct the public taste into a legitimate channel ; lest their neglect be 
converted into an argument unfavorable to the existence of the Masonic 
edifice. It is, however, too securely based to be easily overthrown. But 
surely it would be better to guide the enquirer into a right path, than by 
endeavoring to suppress his desire for information, suffer him to stray 
into devious courses, which may terminate in error and absurdity. 

“ Thus it is to be presumed that in the highest quarters the opinion is 
entertained, that the greater facilities are afforded for enquiry, the more 
likely is the science to maintain its proper dignity of character ; while, if 



4 


INTRODUCTION. 


it be encircled with the shades of obscurity, it may, like the mole, blunder 
on in darkness, and never show its light before men, that they might see 
its good works, to the glory of Him in whose name it is founded, and 
whose splendor illuminates its deepest and most sublime mysteries. 

“ The more fair virtue’ s seen, the more she charms. 

Safe, plain, and easy, are her artless ways ; 

With face erect, her eyes look straight before ; 

For dauntless is her march, her steps secure. 

Not so pale fbaud j— : now here she turns, now there, 

Still seeking darker shades, secure in none ; 

Looks often hack, and wheeling round and round, 

Sinks headlong in the danger she would shun.” 

To these views of our learned transatlantic Brother, we presume 
there are few intelligent Masons in this country who wijl take excep- 
tion. There may be individual cases, but they are of rare occur- • 
rence. A reliance on intuition rather than studious application for 
knowledge, and a desire to be wise without the labor of acquiring wisdom, 
seldom make safe counsellors. “ There is no royal road to geometry 
was the apt remark of a philosopher of the last century. It is equally 
true of Freemasonry. The time is passed when a merely mechanical 
knowledge of the Masonic ritual is alone to distinguish the M rulers and 
governors” of the Fraternity. They must be able to give reasons for 
what they teach, or their teachings will pass away as the winds that blow. 
The Institution is to be tried and judged as well by the intelligence as the 
characters of its members. It should, therefore, be our endeavor to ele- 
vate both ; and we respectfully submit, that whatever tends to this result is 
worthy of the encouragement and support of our “ ancient Brotherhood.” 

We have frequently been called on, and perhaps have more frequently 
taken occasion, to discuss' important questions in Masonic Jurisprudence. 
Our opinions have been freely and frankly given. We have not sought 
to sustain or favor the particular views of any through friendship ; and, if 
we may rely on the teachings of our own heart, we have in no one in- 
stance been influenced by prejudice or a too tenacious attachment to pre- 
opinions hastily advanced. We have differed on essential matters from 
esteemed and intelligent Brethren ; but have never failed to give reasons 
for our difference and authority for our facts. Of the correctness of these 
opinions and the validity of our reasoning, the Brethren are the only pro- 
per judges. We regard discussions of the character here alluded to, as 
among the most interesting, and perhaps the most important, of our edito- 
rial labors. We shall continue them, as occasion may require. 

With these introductory remarks, we set forth on the duties of another 
year, trusting to a beneficent Providence for the wisdom and direction 
requisite to a successful prosecution of our labors. 

Boston, Nov. 1 , 1844 . 



PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. 


5 


PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. 

FREE ADMISSION OF CLERGYMEN. 

The following communication is from an intelligent and valued corres- 
pondent, and we take great pleasure in giving it a place in our pages. 
The inquiry is one of considerable interest, and in respect to which there 
is a diversity of opinion among Brethren well read in the Constitutions 
of the Order : 

Eureka , Masonic Hall, Richland, Miss,, Aug, 23, 1844. 
Comp. C. W. Moore, Boston, Mass. : 

You will readily excuse the liberty of this letter, as the object of it is to elicit 
from your able pen an analysis of Section 4, of Masonic Constitutions — relating 
to prerequisite qualifications of candidates. 

1 find sufficiency of evidence to satisfy my mind on the subject, contained in 
Magazine, Vol. 2, page 36 ; also, on p. 58, (Art. 58,) is found a regulation of the 
Grand Lodge of Kentucky, nearly to the point Others differing, however, has 
induced this inquiry, viz: 

A Minister of the Gospel, endowed with all the prerequisites referred to in 
Sec. 4, of the old Constitutions, save that of the sense of vision, (which not being 
such as would prevent him from receiving the necessary instruction,) petitioned 
Lodge No. 24, through his friend, who, fearing the result, owing to Constitu- 
tional objections, or otherwise, withdrew the same, before it was referred to a 
Committee. Sometime subsequently to this period, another petition is presented 
to Lodge, No. 17 ; which Lodge takes a favorable action, and in accord- 

ance therewith confers the first degree ; the friend of candidate withdraws appli- 
cation for second degree, apprehending Constitutional, or other objection, — can- 
didate by his friend procures certificate of good standing, of course, to the de- 
gree to which he is admitted. Candidate desires to advance, and petitions 
Eureka Lodge, for this privilege. How is it ? The sense alluded to seems 
indispensable, (if we were not primarily speculative,) to the performance of 
an imperative rule. It is said, however, that a previous rule is quite as impera- 
tive. Not so — because the previous rule depends on pecuniary contingency, 
while the other would demand physical or manual interposition, at once of grave 
and solemn importance. Forgive me for intruding other opinions, when your 
own is asked for. My sole object was to let you see the pivot on which the dis- 
cussion turns. This forms the sole objection, if this be tangible. Most gladly 
would he be received if this point was settled, for the Rev. Brother sustains a 
character without blemish. 

I advised a favorable action under a rule, that he stand suspended until the 
session of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi, when the Constitutional objection 
could be settled. Your views would greatly contribute to such a result 

One more question, if you please. What rule is found for gratuitously honoring 
Ministers of the Gospel with our privileges, beyond courtesy ? or do you so con- 
form in old Massachusetts ? It is a general rule in this State, I believe, but I 
have seen no authority for it I clearly believe that they should, at least, con- 
form to Grand Lodge tax on subordinates, as well as monthly dues to subordi- 
nate Lodges. What do you think of it ? J. J. D. 

The regulation referred to by our correspondent is undoubtedly of great 
antiquity, and is probably one of the original Constitutions collected and 
preserved by the assemblage of Masons held at York, in the early part of 
the tenth century. It provides, that every candidate for the mysteries of 
Masonry, shall be u free born, of mature and discreet age, of good report, 
of sufficient natural endowments, and the senses of a man, with an estate 



6 


PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. 


office, trade, occupation, or some visible way of acquiring an honest 
livelihood, and of working in his Craft.” It further declares, that he 
u must also be upright in body, not deformed or dismembered, at the 
time of making, but of hale and entire limbs.” 

A similar regulation was adopted at a general assembly of Masons, 
held at London, in 1663 — at which time the Earl of St. Alban’s was 
elected Grand Master, and Sir Christopher Wren, the architect, Junior 
Grand Warden. It was in the following terms : 

“ 2. That no person hereafter shall be accepted a Freemason, but such as are 
of able body, honest parentage, good reputation, and an observer of the laws of 
the land.” 

Taking these regulations as they stand, and interpreting them literally, 
there can be no doubt as to the physical qualifications of a candidate for 
admission to the honors of Masonry. They were adopted at a time when the 
Fraternity was almost exclusively an operative association. The admission 
of the deformed and maimed, who were disqualified for manual labor, 
was therefore to be guarded against, as a practice tending not only to 
embarrass the Brotherhood, but to lessen their ability to afford pecuniary- 
relief to such of their fellows as from sickness, or the occurrence of any 
of those accidents peculiar to their occupation, might require it. The reg- 
ulation may then have been wise and salutary. Is it so at the present time ? 
The Institution has ceased to be operative, and has become a purely spec- 
ulative, or moral and benevolent Fraternity. It is not now so essential that 
the candidate be of “ hale and entire limbs,” if he be of “ good report, of 
sufficient natural endowments,” and have u some visible way of acquir- 
ing an honest livelihood.” But where rests the authority to change the 
regulation ? If it exists, we would not exercise it. We would preserve 
the landmarks set up by our fathers, as a sacred legacy. But does it ne- 
cessarily follow that to do this, we must be bound by the letter, without 
regard to the spirit of the regulation, or the changes wrought by time 
in the character and objects of the Institution ? A regulation adopted dur- 
ing the reign of James II., provides, “ That no fellowe goe into the town 
by night, except he have a fellowe with him, who may bear him record 
that he was in an honest place.” We take it for granted that it will not 
be deemed expedient that the letter of this regulation should now be en- 
forced. It was undoubtedly originally a wise and salutary provision. 
The spirit of it is, that a Mason should walk uprightly in his vocation, 
avoiding all evil company and licentious habits. This is retained and in- 
culcated by the present regulations and charges. A literal construction 
of it would now be considered an absurdity. Do we not, therefore, do all 
that can reasonably be required of us, if we regard the spirit of regula- 
tions, the letter of which has, by necessary and unavoidable circumstances, 
become obsolete and impracticable ? 



PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. 


7 


Let us apply this reasoning to the regulation under consideration* We 
have seen that one of the objects proposed by it, was to protect the Institu- 
tion against the embarrassment and injurious effects which must necessa- 
rily follow the admission of persons, having no visible means of acquiring 
an honest livelihood , or ability to work in their Craft And here the 
question arises, whether the spirit of this regulation is impaired by the 
admission of a candidate possessed of “ visible means of acquiring an 
honest livelihood,” and in all respects capable of “ working in his Craft,” 
but who is laboring under a personal deformity ? If the deformity be not 
such as to disqualify him for receiving the necessary instructions, the 
true intent of the regulation, in our opinion, remains unimpaired ; and 
we believe this construction to be sustained and sanctioned by the usages 
of the Fraternity for the last century. In the book of ancient Constitu- 
tions published in England in 1754, which is a reprint of that of 1721 — 
*he first ever published — we find a corresponding regulation in the follow- 
ing terms : 

“ No Master should take an Apprentice, unless he has sufficient employment 
for him, and unless he be a perfect youth, having no maim or defect in his body, 
that may render him incapable of learning the art , or of serving his Master’s Lord, 
and of being made a Brother, and then a Fellow-Craft in due time.*” 

This, in our opinion, sustains the construction, that where the deformity, 
or personal defect, does not amount to inability te-obtain an u honest live- 
lihood,” it does not operate as^arbar against admission to the privileges 
of the Institution. The regulation was evidently designed to protect the 
Order against those whose connection with it would be an encumbrance 
on its charities. If this design be realized, we conceive that the true in- 
tention of the regulation is preserved, and the end proposed by it accom- 
plished. We cannot believe that it was ever intended to operate to the 
exclusion of worthy men, capable of providing for themselves and of con- 
tributing to the necessities of the unfortunate, for no better reason than 
that they are not in all respects whole and perfect as other men. Were it 
essential to the argument, numberless instances might be cited of the 
acceptance of candidates deficient in the required physical qualifications. 
Every country furnishes them, — our daily observation witnesses them. 
Many thousands of persons have in all ages been admitted to the Order, 
who were not operatives, and who, from their education and habits 
of life, were as incapable of using mechanical tools, as though they had 
been deformed or crippled. Does not this fact prove that there has 
always been a distinction made between those who were received as ap- 
prentices, with a view to become in due time operative Masons, and those 


*Sectioo 4th, page 149. 



8 


PHYSICAL QUALIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES. 


who were admitted, having no such intention, and were not, therefore, re- 
quired to serve the usual seven years’ apprenticeship ?* Is it not fairly and 
logically deducible from these premises, that the particular clause of the 
regulation under consideration, was specially and exclusively designed 
for the government of the operative branch of the Order ? If so, are we 
required to enforce its rigid observance, now that the Institution has lost its 
operative character and become a purely speculative, or moral and benev- 
olent Fraternity ? 

The present regulation of the Grand Lodge of England is, “ that every 
candidate must be a free man, and his own master, and, at the time of his 
initiation, be known to be in reputable circumstances. He should be a 
lover of the liberal arts and sciences, and have made some progress in 
one or other of them.”+ Possessing these qualifications, with a good 
character, and acknowledging the existence of a superintending Provi- 
dence, nothing more is required of him. 

The following from the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Massa- 
chusetts', is to the purpose, and in our view of the matter, covers the whole 
ground : 

Art 3. Sec. 4. By the ancient regulations, the physical deformity of an 
individual operates as a bar to his admission into the Fraternity. But in view of 
the fact, that this regulation was adopted for the government of the Craft, at a 
period when they united the character of operative with that of speculative Ma- 
sons, this Grand "Lodge, in common, it is believed, with most of her sister Grand 
Lodges in this country and in Europe, has authorised such a construction of the 
regulation, as that, where the deformity does not amount to an inability honestly 
to acquire the means of subsistence, it constitutes no hindrance to Initiation. 

The regulation of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, referred to by our 
correspondent, is as follows : 

“ Art 58. When the deformity of a candidate for Initiation is not such as to 
prevent him from being instructed in the arts and mysteries of Freemasonry, his 
admission will not be an infringement upon the landmarks, but will be perfectly 
consistent with the spirit of our Institution.” 

Our correspondent can best determine whether the particular case 
stated by him, comes within the rule as above defined. 

In respect to the gratuitous admission of clergymen, we have but few 
words to say. There is no specific constitutional regulation on the sub- 
ject. It is entirely a local matter, to be settled by each Grand Lodge for 
the government of the Lodges within its own jurisdiction. The practice 
in this country is not uniform. In Massachusetts, they were formerly ad- 
mitted without charge ; but the Grand Lodge a few years since, thought 
proper to change the regulation, and they now, in this respect, stand on 
an equality with other citizens. 


*“ No Master nor fellow shall lake no apprentice for less than seven years . "—Book of 
Constitutions, Art. 7 . 
tEnglish Constitutions, page 65, Sec. 3. 


HISTORY OF INITIATION, 


9 


HISTORY OF INITIATION, 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITE8 AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER I. 

Agreeably to promise, we herewith present our readers with the first of a 
series of Twelve Numbers on the History of Initiation. In the preparation 
of them we shall claim no credit for originality. For the materials of which they 
will be composed, we shall be almost exclusively indebted to the indefatigable 
labors and deep researches of our learned friend and Brother, the Rev. George 
Oliver, of England. We make this general acknowledgment at this time, in 
order to avoid the necessity of a too frequent reference to authorities hereafter ; 
believing that the reputation of the learned Brother named, will be a sufficient 
guaranty for the entire accuracy of the historical statements adduced. When- 
ever new matter is introduced, the authorities will be carefully cited. 

Initiation may be traced to a period of the most remote antiquity. In the in- 
fancy of the world the ceremonies would be few and unostentatious, and consist 
perhaps, like that of admission into Christianity, of a simple lustration, conferred 
alike on all, in the hope that all would practise the social duties of benevolence 
and good will to man, and unsophisticated devotion to God. It was after the 
stream of iniquity had inundated the world, and bad men had converted a sacred 
institution into ridicule, from its simplicity and easiness of access, that some dis- 
crimination became necessary, and the rites assumed a higher and more impo- 
sing form. The distinguished few who retained their fidelity, uncontaminated 
by the contagion of evil example, would soon be able to estimate the superior 
benefits of an isolated institution which afforded the high advantage of a select 
society, and kept at an unapproachable distance, the profane scoffer, from whose 
presence their pure devotions and social converse would be polluted by impiety, 
or interrupted by contumelious language or unholy mirth. To prevent such in- 
trusion, therefore, the rites of initiation would become progressively more compli- 
cated, and some distinctive tokens would be adopted as infallible tests to sepa- 
rate the pious worshipper from the licentious worldling ; and enable the former 
to detect with unerring certainty the truth or falsehood of any pretensions to a 
fraternity with the faithful followers of the true God. Their ordinary employ- 
ment was in the noble improvements of human nature, literature, and true reli- 
gion, the knowledge or contemplation of God and his wisdom in making, order- 
ing, and governing the world ; together with the study of the motions of the 
heavenly bodies, and the sciences of astronomy and geometry therein employed ; 
which are the noblest studies, and suppose or involve some skill in Letters,' first 
used in writing and in numbering. The study of Astronomy was indeed a fa- 
vorite pursuit with the pious race who flourished before the deluge, and from its 
sublimity would doubtless be one of the Sciences inculcated on the initiated. 
Whether it led to the practice of the Sabean, superstitioh is matter of conjecture ; 
2 



10 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


but we have no reason to believe that it produced any superstitious rites bear- 
ing a characteristic similar to the polluted Mysteries of the postdiluvians. Such 
was Initiation in these primeval ages, and thus it passed through the hands of 
the antediluvian patriarchs unalloyed by any innovations which might tend to 
vitiate its benefits, or circumscribe its blessings. 

But after the flood, the altar of Darkness was arrayed against the altar of 
Light ; the patriarchal ordinances were perverted ; the rites of Buddha were en- 
grafted on the pure ceremonies of the Masonic ritual, and the plains of Shinar 
resounded with the frantic yellings of the rebellious Cuthites. By subsequent 
corruptions, the arkite rites thus boldly introduced, at length assumed the more 
complex form of Brahmenism, and were at length solemnized with such splen- 
dor of ceremonial pomp and imposing magnificence of decoration, that they ex- 
cited universal notice, and tbeir peculiar symbols were introduced into the celes- 
tial sphere. The apostacy was attractive, and the spurious initiations succeeded 
almost perfectly in extinguishing the unpresuming blaze of truth, which is now 
denominated Masonry, supported only by the unpopular recommendations of 
silent devotion to God and unoffending simplicity to man ; accompanied by a 
life which shrunk from the ostentatious expressions of public applause, without 
any distinctions in this world, but such as emanate from piety and virtue. At 
the dispersion, the impious architects of Babel travelled into distant countries, 
each tribe under its ostensible leader, bearing the sacred Ark of the favorite 
deity, under whose protection they penetrated into unknown climes without dread 
or dismay. The surreptitious initiations of idolatrous observance swept through 
the world with the force and vigor of a mighty whirlwind, involving nation after 
nation in their gigantic focus, until they literally covered the earth as the waters 
cover the sea. They sprang up in the East like some insignificant plant, but 
grew and enlarged with such prodigious rapidity and strength, that soon their 
vigorous branches spread from east to west, from north to south. The conti- 
nent of Asia was pervaded in every part of its vast and spacious surface ; the 
shores of Africa basked under their shade, and disseminated their abominations ; 
they imparted activity to the adventurous designs of the Phenician merchants, and 
gave distinction to the Greek and Roman name ; the distant isles of Britain and 
Hibernia, the cold and inhospitable regions of Scandinavia and Iceland, alike 
yielded subserviency to their imperious sway ; and even the distant and unknown 
colonies which peopled the woods and forests of the new world, felt and acknow- 
ledged their utility in enslaving and reducing to abject submission the savage 
nature of their fierce inhabitants. 

Meanwhile the true Light of Masonry glimmered in the socket ; — feebly and 
more feebly were its beams emitted as the overpowering domination of its earth- 
born adversary made all nations and people and languages bend before it, until 
the fiickering3 of the dying flame gave portentious intimation of its approaching 
decay ; and nought earthly could have saved it from utter extinction, if, at the 
critical moment when its departing light made a last expiring effort for renewed 
existence, it had not been reinvigorated by the Essenes, a well-intentioned sect 
of people amongst the Jews, who took charge of the forsaken institution, cher- 
ished it in their bosom, until its rays of light once more began to illuminate the 
surrounding darkness ; and it thence continued to enlighten a narrow and re- 



HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


11 


stricted path, terminating however in the broad and glorious blaze of splendor 
that dissipated the unholy shades of idolatry in the person of Jesus Christ 

Long, long antecedent to the time when this benevolent dispensation was pro- 
mulgated which brought life and immortality to light, and clearly revealed those 
important truths which the metaphysical reasonings of heathen philosophy could 
neverfathom, were the practices exhibited which form the subject of these ar- 
ticles. In those distant times, and amongst the people who had renounced 
the homage which the creature owes to the Creator, the rites of initiation were 
so indispensable, that no one could rise to any degree of celebrity in the reli- 
gious or political institutions of polytheism, but by passing through this prelimi- 
nary form ; it was the only avenue to honpr, wealth, or fame ; and the peculiar 
blessings of immortality were restricted to those alone, who had borne without 
shrinking or complaint, the privations and actual terrors of this rigorous ordeaL 
To despise the Mysteries, or to omit the process of initiation, were to relinquish 
all the title to preferment ; and even the comforts and charms of domestic life 
were scarcely attainable without this indispensable qualification, which was sup- 
posed to restore the fallen soul to its original state of perfection ; for the unini- 
tiated person was virtually an outcast from society, an eternal object of suspi- 
cious jealousy and almost without the pale of legal protection. 

Initiation involved all the profuse and complicated mechanism of heathen my- 
thology ; and many of the political and domestic customs of antiquity may be 
traced to the" same inexhaustible and prolific source. It was considered to be a 
mystical death, or oblivion of all the stains and imperfections of a corrupted and 
an evil life, as well as a descent into hell, where every pollution was purged by 
lustrations of fire and water ; and the perfect Epoptes was then said to be regen- 
erated or new born, restored to a renovated existence of life, light, and purity, 
and placed under the divine protection. This was a figurative representation of 
the descent of Noah into the Ark, which was a place of refuge from a punish- 
ment inflicted on the sins with which the old world was stained. Here he re- 
mained in darkness and solitude, impressed with feelings of horror and appre- 
hension, not unaptly termed death, until the earth had been purified by a general 
lustration; and then with the seven just persons who were incarcerated with 
him, he emerged into the light and hope of a new* and perfect world on which 
the favor of heaven once more smiled, as it did on the first created man in the 
garden of Eden. The candidate, at his initiation, was a representative of the 
patriarch during his erratic voyage and subsequent delivery from destruction. 
Like Noah, he beheld in a figurative manner, the uncontrolled license of the iron 
age, the vicious anarchy and lawless contentions of the impious race before the 
flood, under the despotic sway of their prince Ophion, furious as wild and rave- 
nous beasts contending for their prey ; — like Noah, he descended into Hades, or 
the Ark, a place of solitude and darkness, and here in safety he heard the disso- 
lution of the world, the rush of waters, the dismemberment of the rocks and 
mountains, the bitter cries and shrieks of the desparing race of sinners in the 
agonies of remorse and death like Noah, he passed unhurt through the puri- 
fying element ; and being thus regenerated, like the deluvian patriarch he emerg- 
ed into a new life of purity and perfection, and rejoiced in the distinction which, 
he was taught to believe, his piety had conferred. 



12 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


A new language, mysterious and symbolical, was adapted to these celebra- 
tions ; and a system of hieroglyphics, legible only to the initiated, placed the 
learning, the morality, and the politics of every nation decidedly out of the reach 
of popular acquirement, as if they had been incased in a rock of adamant. And 
the jealousy of the hierophants, or the dispensers of these Mysteries, became at 
length so strongly excited, that, trembling for their Secret, they subsequently in- 
vented a new hieroglyphic or sacred symbolical character and language, which 
was exclusively appropriated to the highest Degree of their Order; in which it 
is probable that nearly the same symbolical characters were made use of, but the 
hidden meaning attached to each was entirely changed ; # so that even those who 
had been initiated into the preliminary Degrees, and made acquainted with the 
common curiologic and tropical hieroglyphics, were as completely ignorant of the 
nature and secrets of the ineffable degrees, to which but few were admitted, as 
the uninitiated themselves.! 

The places of initiation were contrived with much art and ingenuity, and the 
accompanying machinery with which they were fitted up, was calculated to ex- 
cite, in its most elevated form, every passion and affection of the mind. Thus 
the hierophant could rouse the feelings of horror and alarm ; light up the fire of 
devotion, or administer fuel to the flame of terror and dismay ; and when the 
soul had attained its highest climax of shuddering apprehension, he was furnish- 
ed with the means of soothing it to peace by phantasmagoric visions of flowery 
meads, purling streams of water, and all the tranquil scenery of nature in its 
most engaging form, accompanied with strains of heavenly music, the figurative 
harmony of the spheres. These places were indifferently a pyramid,! a pagoda, 
or a labyrinth, furnished with vaulted rooms, extensive wings connected by open 


♦So effectually was the meaning of these hieroglyphics hidden from all but the distin- 
guished few, that in process of time the interpretation was entirely lost. At the invasion 
of Cambyses, it was but imperfectly understood •, and in the time of Alexander the Macedo- 
nian, none could be found to shew the meaning of, or design anew, a hieroglyphical inscription. 

tThus, if in the common hieroglyphic, a hawk signified the human soul, in the sacred 
hieroglyphic it would stand for Expedition; and thus essentially would the signification of 
every particular emblem be altered. 

tThe pyramids were doubtless erected very soon after the dispersion, as copies of the 
great phallic tower on the plain of Shinar ; ana as the latter was designed for initiation, so 
were the former. We are told by an acute observer, that the second pyramid has two elab- 
orate pieces of cavern architecture attached to the north and west sides, thirty feet in depth, 
and fourteen hundred feet in length, hewn out of the solid rock on which the pyramid rests; 
and hollowed into an extensive range of apartments. The entrance is narrow, and the con- 
struction of the cells intricate, all involved in darkness, and many of them closed up with 
an accumulation of dust and rubbish. They had a communication with the interior of the 
pyramid, which cannot now be discovered, as many of the cells are entirely cnoked up; 
(Greaves. Pyram. vol. ii. p. 34.) and it may be added, that perhaps the only entrance was 
from the caverns beneath, into which the egress from the pyramid was by a shaft or well j 
for we know that pits or wells were occasionally used in the mysteries, (Fab. Pag. Idol, 
vol. iii. p. 187. Maur. Int. vol. v. p. 1061,) and a well did actually exist in the pyramid, 
the use of which is otherwise unknown. “ At the extremity of one of the passages/’ says 
Sir R. Wilson, “ is a well, the depth of which was never ascertained.” (Vid. also Po- 
cocke’s Descrip of the East. vol. i. p. 243.) Mr. Greaves thinks that these appartments 
were for the priests to lodge in j but independently of the consideration that such exten- 
sive excavations would nevsr have been made out of the hard rock with the chisel for mere 
dwellings, when buildings on the surface would have been erected at one hundredth part of 
the labor and expence, it is clear from the internal construction of these spacious caverns, 
that they were intended to contain the apparatus of initiation into the mysteries, and were 
exclusively devoted to this important purpose. 


SKETCH OF TRAVELLING FREEMASONS. 


13 


and spacious galleries, multitudes of secret vaults and dungeons, and vistas ter- 
minating in adyta, which were adorned with mysterious symbols carved on the 
walls and pillars, in every one of which was enfolded some philosophical or 
moral truth. Sometimes the place of initiation was constructed in a small island 
in the centre of a lake ; a hollow cavern natural or artificial, with sounding 
domes, tortuous passages, narrow orifices, and spacious sacelli ; and of such mag- 
nitude as to contain a numerous assembly of persons. In all practicable instan- 
ces, they were constructed within the recesses of a consecrated grove, which, in 
the torrid regions of the east, conveyed the united advantages of secrecy and 
shade ; and to inspire a still greater veneration they were popularly denominated 
Tombs , or places of sepulture. 4 


SKETCH OF THE TRAVELLING FREEMASONS 
OF THE MIDDLE AGES 

By Albert G. Mackey, M. D., Grand Secretary of the G. L of South Carolina. 

Though our Brethren generally have a very accurate notion of the state of 
the Order at the time of the building of King Solomon’s Temple, and of course 
are or ought to be acquainted with its progress since it has been modelled in its 
present organization, its history during the intermediate period, has not been as 
much attended to by Masonic students as its interest or its importance demands. 
There is indeed no portion of our annals so worthy of investigation as that which 
is embraced by the middle ages of Christendom, when the whole of Europe was 
perambulated by our Brethren in associations of travelling artizans under the 
name of “Free and Accepted Masons,” for the exclusive purpose of erecting reli- 
gious edifices. There is not a country of Europe, which does not at this day 
contain honorable evidences of the skill and industry of our Masonic ancestors. 
I therefore propose, in the present paper, to give a brief sketch of the origin, the 
progress and the character of these travelling architects. 

Clavel, in his “ Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc Ma^onnerie,” has traced the 
organization of these associations to the “ collegia artificum,” or colleges of arti- 
zans, which were instituted at Rome by Numa, in the year B. C. 714, and whose 
members were originally Greeks, imported by this lawgiver for the purpose of 
embellishing the city over which he reigned. 

That association existed in Rome in the time of the Emperors. They were 
endowed with certain privileges peculiar to themselves, such as a government by 
their own statutes, the power of making contracts as a corporation, and an im- 
munity from taxation. Their meetings were held in private, like the esoteric 
schools of the philosophers. Their presiding officers were called “ magistri.” 
They were divided into three classes corresponding with the three Degrees of 
Freemasonry, and they admitted into their ranks as honorary members, persons 
who were not by profession operative Masons. Finally, they used a symbolic 


♦Jul. Firm. de. error, p. 4. Diod. Bibl. p. 194. Hence were the pyramids of Egypt 
accounted to be Tombs. 




14 


SKETCH OP TRAVELLING FREEMASONS 


language drawn from the implements of Masonry, and they were in possession of 
a secret mode of recognition. 

In time, the “ collegia artificum” became the repositary of all the rites which 
were brought to Rome from foreign countries, and thus we may suppose the He- 
brew mysteries, or Temple Masonry, to have been introduced into that country. 
This supposition may derive some support from the fact, that in the time of Ju- 
lius Caesar, the Jews were first permitted to open their synagogues and worship 
the God* of their fathers, without restraint at Rome, — a toleration for which they 
were probably indebted to their fraternization with the members of the college of 
artificers ; and in the reign of Augustus, many of the Roman Knights embraced 
Judaism and publicly observed the Sabbath. 

These “ sodalitates,” or fraternities, began upon the invasion of the barbarians 
to decline in numbers, in respectability and power. But on the conversion of the 
whole empire, they or others of a similar character, began again to flourish. 
The priests of the Christian Church, became their patrons, and under their gui- 
dance they began to devote themselves to the building of churches and monas- 
teries. In the tenth century, they were established as a free guild or corporation 
in Lombardy. The most celebrated of these corporations in Italy was that of 
Como, and the name of “ Magistri Comacini,” or masters of Como, became at 
length, says Muratori, the generic name for all the associations of architects. 

From Lombardy, which they soon filled with religious edifices, they passed 
beyond the Alps, into all the countries, where Christianity, but recently estab- 
lished, required the erection of churches. The Popes encouraged their designs, 
and more than one Bull was despatched, coriferring on them privileges of the 
most extensive character. A monopoly was granted to them for the erection of 
all religious edifices ; they were declared independent of the sovereigns in whose 
dominions they might be temporarily residing, and subject only to their own pri- 
vate laws ; they were permitted to regulate the amount of their wages; were ex- 
empted from all kinds of taxation, and no Mason not belonging to their associa- 
tion was permitted to compete with or oppose them in the pursuit of employment 
And in one of the papal decrees on the subject of these artizans, the supreme 
Pontiff declares, that these regulations have been made “ after the example of 
Hiram, King of Tyre, when he sent artizans to King Solomon for the purpose of 
building the Temple of Jerusalem.” 

After filling the continent with cathedrals, parochial churches and monaste- 
ries, and increasing their own numbers by accessions of new members from all 
the countries in which they had been laboring, they passed over into England, 
and there introduced their peculiar style of building. Thence they travelled to 
Scotland, and there have rendered their existence ever memorable by establish- 
ing in the parish of Kilwinning, where they were erecting an abbey, the germ of 
Scottish Freemasonry, which has regularly descended through the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland to the present day. 

The government of these fraternities, wherever they might be for the time 
located, was very regular and uniform. When about to commence the erection 
of a religious edifice, they first built huts, or as they were termed Lodges, in the 
vicinity, in which they resided for the sake of economy as well as convenience. 
It is from these that the present name of our places of meeting is derived. Over 



OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 


IS 


every ten men was placed a warden, who paid them their wages and took care 
that there should be no needless expenditure of materials and no careless loss of 
implements. Over the whole a surveyor or master, called in their old documents, 
“ magister,” presided and directed the general labor. 

The abbe Grandidiea, in a letter at the end of the Marquis Luchet’s “Essai 
sur les Illumines,” has quoted from the ancient register of the Masons of Stras- 
burg, the regulations of the association which built the splendid cathedral of that 
city. I have not been successful in my efforts to obtain a sight of the original 
work, but the elaborate treatise of Clavel furnishes us with the most prominent 
details of all that Grandidier has preserved. The Cathedral of Strasburg was 
commenced in the year 1277, under the direction of Hervin de Stein bach. The 
Masons who under his supervision were engaged in the construction of this no- 
blest specimen of the Gothic style of architecture, were divided into the sepa- 
rate ranks of Masters, Craftsmen and Apprentices. The place where they as- 
sembled was called a “hutte,” a German word equivalent to our English term, 
Lodge. They employed the implements of Masonry as emblems, and wore them 
as insignia. They had certain signs and words of recognition, and received their 
new members with peculiar and secret ceremonies, admitting into their ranks 
many eminent persons who were not operative Masons by profession. 

The Fraternity of Strasburg became celebrated throughout Germany ; their 
superiority was acknowledged by the kindred associations, and they in time re- 
ceived the appellation of the u haupt hutte” or Grand Lodge, and exercised supre- 
macy over the huUen of Suabia, Hesse, Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony, Thuringia, 
and the countries bordering on the river Moselle. The Masters of these several 
Lodges assembled at Ratisbon in 1459, and on the 25th of April contracted an 
act of union, declaring the Chief of the Strasburg cathedral the only and perpet- 
ual Grand Master of the General Fraternity of Freemasons of Germany. 

Similar institutions existed in Frhnce and in Switzerland. In the latter coun- 
try the Graud Lodge was established originally at Berne, about the middle of the 
15th century, during the construction of the Cathedral of that place, but in 1502 
it was transferred to Zurich. 

The details of the proceedings of the travelling Freemasons in England, are 
more familiar as well as more interesting to us. They entered that kingdom at 
an early period. We have already seen that their organization in Italy, as a free 
guild, took place early in the 10th century, and we know from undoubted docu- 
ments, that Prince Edwin assembled the English Masons at York, in 926, when 
the first English Grand Lodge was constituted. It is from this general assembly 
of our ancestors at York, that all the existing constitutions of our English and 
American Lodges derive their authority. From that period the Fraternity with 
various intermissions continued to pursue their labors, and constructed many 
edifices which still remain as monuments of their skill as workmen and their taste 
as architects. Kings, in many instances, became their patrons, and their labors 
were superintended by powerful noblemen and eminent prelates, who for this 
purpose were admitted as members of the Fraternity. Many of the old charges 
for the better government of their Lodges have been preserved and are still to be 
found in our books of Constitutions, every line of which indicates that they were 



16 


SKETCH OP TRAVELLING FREEMASONS. 


originally drawn up for associations strictly and exclusively operative in their 
character. 

In glancing over the history of this singular body of architects; we are struck 
with several important peculiarities. 

, In the first place, they were strictly ecclesiastical in their character. The 
Pope, the Supreme Pontiff of the Church, was their patron and protector. They 
were supported and encouraged by Bishops and Abbots, and hence their chief 
'employment appears to have been in the construction of religious edifices. Like 
their ancestors, who were engaged in the erection of the magnificent Temple of 
Jerusalem, they devoted themselves to labor for the “ House of the Lord.” Ma- 
sonry was then, as it had been before and has ever been since, intimately con- 
nected with religion. 

They were originally all operatives. But the artizans of that period were not 
educated men, and they were compelled to seek among the clergy, the only men 
of learning, for those whose wisdom might contrive and whose cultivated taste 
might adorn the plans which they by their practical skill were to carry into effect 
Hence the germ of that speculative Masonry which once dividing the character 
of the fraternity with the operative, now completely occupies it, to the entire 
exclusion of the latter. 

But, lastly, from the circumstance of their union and concert, arose a unifor- 
mity of design in all the public buildings of that period — a uniformity so remark- 
able as to find its explanation only in the fact that their construction was com- 
mitted throughout the whole of Europe, if not always to the same individuals, at 
least to members of the same association. The remarks of Mr. Hope on this 
subject, in his “ History of Architecture,” (p. 239,) are well worthy of perusal. 
“The architects of all the sacred edifices of the Latin Church, wherever such 
arose, — North, South, East or West — thus derived their science from the same 
‘central school ; obeyed in their designs the same hierarchy ; were directed in 
their construction by the same principles of propriety and taste ; kept up with 
each other in the most distant parts to which they might be sent, the most con- 
stant correspondence ; and rendered every minute improvement the property of 
the whole body and a new conquest of the art The result of this unanimity 
Was, that at each successive period of the monastic dynasty, on whatever point a 
new Church or new monastery might be erected, it resembled all those raised at 
the same period in every place, however distant from it, as much as if both had 
been built in the same place by the same artist. For instance, we find at par- 
ticular epochs, Churches as far distant from each other as the North of Scotland 
and the South of Italy, to be minutely similar in all the essential characteristics.” 

In conclusion, we may remark with some pride as their descendants, that the 
world is indebted to this association for the introduction of the Gothic, or as it 
has lately been denominated, the pointed style of architecture. This style, so 
different from the Greek or Roman orders, whose pointed arches and minute tra- 
cery distinguish the solemn temples of the olden time, and whose ruins arrest the 
attention and claim the admiration of the spectator, has been universally acknow- 
ledged to be the invention of the Travelling Freemasons of the Middle Ages. 

Charleston, S, C. Oct . 7, 1844. * 



AN ANECDOTE. 


17 


ANECDOTE OF CAPTAIN CHAPIN SAMPSON, 

OP WEST GARDNER, MAINE. 

Friend Moore: — 

In your Magazine for August last, you gave an “ Interesting Anecdote,” of 
favors received from a Freemason, by a Brother, under very peculiar circumstan- 
ces. Allow me to relate an Anecdote, the particulars of which I received from 
the Brother who was kindly relieved when there was no hope of human aid. 

In the year 1795, the ship Betsy, which belonged to William H. Boardman, 
Esq., a distinguished merchant, of Boston, sailed from this port The ship was 
commanded by Captain Chapin Sampson, who is now eighty years of age, and is 
living in West Gardner, Maine. He has still “ a sound mind in a sound body.” 
He was entered an Apprentice Mason, in Liverpool, England, August 15, 1793. 
Was made a Royal Arch Mason in June, 1801. His Royal Arch Diploma is 
endorsed, “Ancient Lodge, No. 25. B. Thornton, — Z . — Liverpool, 11th June, 
1801.” 

His ship was taken off Malaga, by a Tripolitan Xebec, and the vessel and all 
on board carried into Tripoli Here Captain Sampson and his crew were strip- 
ped of their clothing, except a slight bit of cotton about their waists. Being the 
first American carried into Tripoli, he and his men were driven through the city 
chained, and were pelted by every offensive missile. He was then thrown into 
a dungeon, where he was kept a number of days. After that, he was taken out, 
and was set to work taking the cargo out of his ship. While Captain Sampson 
was engaged in this business, a Tripolitan officer, called Hassan Bey, and sus- 
taining a high official station in Tripoli, made himself known as a Freemason. 
He said that he should do for him all in his power, but that if it were known he fa- 
vored him, even his own life might be the forfeit Captain Sampson was soon 
liberated, was clothed, and furnished with many comparative comforts. An op- 
portunity of releasing him was found, and when he was about leaving Tripoli, 
Hassan Bey, still mindful of his Masonic duties, made him many presents. This 
worthy Tripolitan and faithful Brother, was, as he said, made a Freemason in 
France. 

A few years ago, the malignant sirocco of Anti masonry swept over this part of 
the country, and Captain Sampson was assailed with rancorous bitterness, because 
he would not yield to the fierce demands of the enemies of his Order, and bow 
down before the tempest He was too honest a man, and too faithful a Mason, to 
violate his obligations or yield one inch to the requirements of his opposers. 
He carried his colors at his mast heady and there they still are. 

When he shall be summoned from this world to another, he will be supported 
by his conscious rectitude. May the stone which shall mark his last resting 
place bear his best eulogium : Here lies the body of an honest man . 

Yours, Fraternally, 

Thomas Power. 


Boston, Od. 1844. 


3 



18 


PHYSICAL BENEFITS OF MASONRY. 


THE PHYSICAL BENEFITS OF MASONRY. 

BY BB. JOSEPH B. CHANDLER. 

[From an Address delivered before one of the Lodges in Philadelphia.] 

Not long since a constable of our city was instructed by a large property 
holder, to proceed to make attachment of household furniture for rent dues. The 
distress would reach nearly all that the law allowed to take ; and painful as was 
the task to the kind-hearted officer, it was, nevertheless, a duty. The tenant was 
a widow, with a little family of children. While the officer was sitting, distress- 
ed at the misery which he was compelled to inflict, the widow entered the room, 
bearing upon her the garments of her widowhood, whose freshness showed the 
recency of her loss, ana testifying by her manner the utter destitution to which 
this attachment was reducing her and her children. 

“ I know not,” said she, “ what to do. I have neither friend nor relation to 
whom to apply. I am alone— utterly alone — friendless — helpless:— destitute — a 
widow.” 

“ But,” said the officer, “ is there no association upon which you have a claim T* 

“ None ! I am a member of no beneficial society,” she replied. “ But I re- 
member,” she continued, “ that my husband has more than once told me that if I 
should ever be in distress, I might make this available” — and she drew out a Ma- 
sonic jewel. “ But it is now too late, I am afraid.” 

“Let me see it,” said the officer ; and with a skilful eye he examined the em- 
blem consecrated to charity, as a token of brotherly affection. The officer was a 
Mason, he new the name of the deceased, and recognized hi9 standing. 

“ We will see,” said the officer, “ what effect this will have, though the land- 
lord is no Mason. Who is your clergyman ?” The widow told him. The cler- 
gyman was a Mason. 

The attachment of goods was relinquished for a moment. The officer went to 
the clergyman, made known the distress of the widow, and her claims through 
Masonry. 

“ And who,” said the clergyman, “ is the landlord ?” and the constable inform- 
ed him. 

“ Ah !” said the clergyman, “does his religion teach him to set us no better exam- 
ple ? We must show him what Masonry requires at our hands. I have spent all 
of the last payment of my salary, but here is my note at a short date for the 
amount due ; the landlord will scarcely refuse that.” 

In twenty minutes the rent was paid. The kind hearted officer forgave his 
fees, and perhaps gave more, and the widow and the orphans blessed God for the 
benefits which they had enjoyed through Masonry. What a reaction in the feel- 
ings of that destitute mother and her children ! but how much more exquisite — 
how beyond all price and all appreciation must have been the delight of the cler- 
gyman and the officer ! True Masonry, my Brethren, affords to its children the 
rich luxury of doing good. The tears of grateful joy which the widow shed 
were made brilliant by the smiles of her relieved children, and became jewels of 
Masonry, whose price is above rubies. How lovely, how exalted is the charity 
which has such objects ; it elevates its exercisers to a participation of labor with 
Him who is the Father of the fatherless, and the widow’s God and guide. 

Abroad, too, the great spirit of good which pervades our Craft and sanctifies its 
principles is found operative for the advantage of its members, and through them 
productive of good to society. Not here alone, within the circle which includes 
so many Brethren, do we seek for and find the good effects of Freemasonry ; not 
alone in the crowded haunts of business, where Lodges are easily formed and 
kept alive by the continued influx of citizens and strangers — but wherever the 
solitary foot of a Mason is planted, wherever one Masonic heart beats, there is 
the influence of our Order, there is the attractive principle, that brings within its 
warmth and invites to kindly reciprocation every sufferer that .Providence throws 
upon the rights and claims of our Craft. Wherever a Mason is found — whether 
upon the giddy heights of the Appenines, on the scorching desert of Arabia, or 



PHYSICAL BENEFITS OF MASONRY. 


19 


on the stormy Capes of the northern seas — there benevolence has an advocate 
and an exponent; there she recognizes the sign, the ear is open to the sound, and 
the hand prompt to extend the duties of Freemasonry. 

It was m a tempestuous portion of the year 1790, that a large ship, which was 
making a slow progress up the Baltic sea, found itself suddenly wrapt in one of 
those wild gales that came down from the mountain gaps, sacrificing nearly all 
that stood in its course, and 

u Reared up the Baltic to a foaming fury.” 

In this situation, after gallant resistance to the tempest, the overladen vessel 
succombed, and man after man was swept from the deck, and carried onward 
u down the wind,” to be dashed upon the rocks of a lee-shore, or to be buried fath- 
oms below the stormy surface. When at length the vessel struck upon the shelv- 
ing shore, towards which she had drifted, the remaining portion of the crew lash- 
ed themselves to the spars, and awaited the surge that should wash them from the 
deck ; it came booming onward : of the few that had been spared thus far, one 
only— -the master of the vessel — reached the land. He reached it exhausted — 
inanimate; his first recognition was the kindly care of a friend, in the chamber of 
a sordid hovel — a chamber whose darkness was dispelled by the light of friend- 
ship, and where pains were assuaged by the attention of one pledged tb help, aid, 
and assist 

The first word of the sufferer was responded to by the kindly voice of a Ma- 
son ; unintelligible, indeed, excepting in the language of Masonry. Distance of 
birth and variety of profession constituted no bar to their humanity. The utter 
ignorance of each — of the other’s vernacular language — hindered not the delight- 
ful communion. A little jewel that rested on the bosom of the shipwrecked mar- 
iner denoted his Masonic character: — kindness, fraternal goodness, and love, 
were the glorious response ; and when the watchful and untiring benevolence of 
the Swedish Mason had raised up the sufferer from the bed of pain and suffering, 
true Masonic charity supplied his purse with the means of procuring passage to 
London, whence a return to the United States was easy. 

The jewel of the shipwrecked Brother is now in my possession — as his blood, 
also, flows through my veins. I hold the former as a rich heir-loom for my fami- 
ly, to be transmitted to my son as a Mason — as it was transmitted by my father 
to me. 

Masonry stills not the tempest when it blows with its utmost force — Masonry 
says not to the ocean embroiled with the winds of Heaven, “ Peace, be still !” — 
Masonry has no power to hush the voice of the thunder as it speaks its terrors to 
man— or to darken the lightning as it scathes the vision of its victims. These 
are the attributes of a higher power. But Masonry takes the victim of the 
storms, and wraps him about with comforts. She lifts the shipwreck mariner from 
the wave that was becoming his shroud, and warms him to life. She stands not 
at the door of the sepulehre, to roll away its stone, and bid the death-strickeri ten- 
ant come forth ; but she takes the bruised and crushed by the roadside, pours oil 
into their wounds, and supplies the means of extending life. These things has 
she done, and these things she continues to do. She goes not abroad to declare 
the results of her benevolent spirit, but when she looks back upon the result, she 
exclaims — “ I was eyes to the Mind, and feet was I to the lame !” 

But, my Brethren, the physical relief which Masons impart is not the greatest 
of her charities. Sometimes these seem forced upon us by the peculiar position 
of the sufferer, or imparted from the sudden impulses of correct feeling ; and even 
when they flow from the purest and most maturely weighed motives of good, and 
a sense of Masonic obligation, they do not imply that permanent and deep-seated 
sense of high moral duty which is the parent of that charity that looketh deep in- 
to the condition of a Brother, and seeks to lift him from the pit of moral degra- 
dation into which he has fallen, and to place his feet upon the firm ground of hon- 
or and self-respect ; — to rekindle in their ashes the slumbering spark of decency 
that seems to have been almost quenched, and to re-illuminate the temple in 
which first was placed the image of God. Masonry, however, has done this. She 



20 


PHYSICAL BENEFITS OF MASONRY. 


has not paused at physical ministrations ; she has not said “ be ye warmed and be 
ye clothed,” and then turned away from ministrations to the immortal mind that 
lay prostrate — debased — dishonored, and most fitly represented by the squalidness 
and misery of the exterior. 

Many years since, but within my own recollection, and generally under my own 
observation, the respectable firm of Howard & Thompson (I use fictitious names) 

in the city of , fell into some commercial difficulties, which the limited 

capital of the junior partner was unable to surmount The senior partner with 
the aid of friends compromised the debts, continued the business in his own name, 
and became, in time, a wealthy man. 

Thompson lacking energy of character, but possessing some pride, declined a 
subordinate station in a counting-room, until his habits became so bad that he was 
deemed unfit for any place of trust ; and he sunk from respectability to utter des- 
titution and misery with a rapidity I never saw before, nor since, equalled in any 
man to whom crime was not to be imputed. 

He became brutified : whole days would he lie on the public wharves, drunken 
with the liquor which he had extracted from the hogsheads being landed at the 
time ; and his rags hung upon him so carelessly that decency stood aghast at his 
appearance. He was not merely a drunkard, but he was drunk all the time ; and 
to him soberness was a rarity. He had not only lost all moral standing, all name 
of, or claim to, decency, but self-respect had fled, and he was the nearest approach 
in habits and appearance to the brute that 1 ever saw in man. 

One day — it was a clear sunshine of January— Thompson had thrown himself 
against the southern angle of a public building ; and about noon, as the members 

of the came from the Halls, he looked for a little eleemosynary aid that 

would enable him to add a loaf of bread to his more easily acquired liquor. But 
member after member passed on — the case was too disgusting to excite sympa- 
thy ; one member only was left ; he came round the corner of the building to- 
wards the place of egress from the premises, and attracted by the appearance of 
the wretch before him, he was about to offer alms, when, looking closer, he ex- 
claimed — “ Are not yon Thompson ?” “ Yes.” “ Well, here is something — but 
we are watched, come to my office this evening.” 

Thompson kept the promise, and presented himself at the office. He was not 
seen again for several weeks; and, if any thought of him, it was to congratulate 
themselves that they were relieved from the presence of such a squalid wretch. 

About two months afterwards, as the troop of the U. States marched through 
the city on their way to the north-western frontiers, Thompson was seen in the 
manly uniform, and wearing the neat plain epaulette of a lieutenant of infantry. 
He acquitted himself like a man, and died honorably a captain in the service. 

The world recollected that Thompson had been a member of one or two com- 
panies and associations, of which his patron and friend had been the principal ; 
and they imputed the kindness which lifted him from the degradation, to a social 
feeling on the part of his benefactor. 

But there are others who knew that the benefactor was Master of a Lodge, 
where Thompson was once an active and useful member ; and that, had appeals 
to the Master’s good feelings been earlier made, much suffering and disgrace 
would have been spared ; as it was, the relieved died a captain in the service, and 
the reliever lived to be Grand Master of a Grand Lodge. 

Beautiful illustration this of the power of Masonry to do good. How instructive 
would it be in us, ray Brethren, to know just what passed in the evening’s inter- 
view between these two Masons. To know the persuasions on the part of the 
senior, and the willing yieldings of the erring junior: to have witnessed the new 
gush of self-respect — its bright return to the heart — when it was proposed that he 
should hold a commission ; and that there was one who not only could have influ- 
ence with the government to procure the appointment, but still more, would have 
confidence in kirn, to be responsible for his future virtue. We may not lift the 
veil, ray Brethren, to look in upon the scene. Masonry, while she works such 
good, tiles the door, and lets others judge of the means by the beauty and excel- 
lence of the ends. 



EXCLUSION OP THE JEWS. 


21 


EXCLUSION OF THE JEWS BY THE GRAND 

LODGES AT BERLIN. 

The Grand Secretary in his report to the Grand Lodge of New York, made at 
its annual meeting in June last, brings this subject again before that body. The 
letter annexed presents the matter in its true light, and we trust the measures 
adopted may be persevered in until the interdict shall be removed. The subject 
is in excellent hands, and we cannot doubt that the Grand Lodges generally 
in this country, will cheerfully render any co-operation which may be required of 
them, in the attainment of a result so essential to the universality and consequent 
preservation of the Institution : 

It is known to the Grand Lodge that the three Grand Lodges at Berlin act in 
unison with each other, and that it is the practice of the Lodges which hold 
from them, and which are spread over a great part of Germany, to refuse admis- 
sion to Brethren from Foreign Lodges who are Israelites. One of their Lodges 
having refused a Brother bearing the Certificate of the Grand Lodge of the State 
of New York, on account of his religion, complaint was made to this Grand Lodge 
at the quarterly meeting in March, 1842, and was referred to the Grand Officers 
with powers. On the 19th of the same month despatches were forwarded to our 
Representative at Hamburg, instructing him to bring the subject to the notice of 
the Gr. Lodge there, and request their interest to obtain the removal of the ob- 
noxious rule of the Prussian Gr. Lodges. From subsequent correspondence it 
appeared that the Gr. Lodge of Hamburg had already expended all its efforts to 
bring the Prussian Gr. Lodges to a sense of the impropriety of their exclusive 
regulation. The Letter of the Grand Master of Hamburg on this deeply inter- 
esting subject, will be found in the printed report of the Committee on Foreign 
Correspondence of last year, which has attracted universal attention in the Gr. 
Lodges of this Continent From the transactions of the Gr. Lodge of the Three 
Globes, we perceive, that the subject of making an alteration of the law shutting 
out Israelites from Masonic privileges, has been discussed in that body, at the 
instance of- the Gr. Lodge of the Netherlands; and that an alteration proposed 
was sustained by a majority of votes, but failed for want of a two-third vote, and 
could not be again revived under a year. The receipt of communications imme- 
diately from that Gr. Lodge presented a favorable occasion to press the subject 
anew, and in terms that could not admit of being misunderstood. A copy of the 
letter dated the 28th of July, 1843, was despatched by the hands of a Brother on 
the 12th of September, and is as follows : 


New York , July 28, 1843. 

To the Most Worshipful, 

The Grand Master, Grand Officers and Members of the Grand Lodge of the 
Three Globes, at the East of Berlin. 

Most Worshipful and Worshipful Brethren : — 

It has been but a short time since a direct correspondence has been opened 
between the Grand Lodge of the State of New York and the Gr. Lodges of Ger- 
many, and we have reioiced in the prospect which for the first time dawned upon 
the Masonic World, that through the medium of Representatives, mutually ex- 
changed by the Great Masonic Powers of the two Hemispheres, a perfect har- 
mony and unity of action might be effected, and that the claim of each true Ma- 
son — that he is a Brother of the great fraternity spread over the whole earth- 
might be established as a practical verity, without dispute and without suspicion. 

But almost at the commencement of this promising fraternal intercourse, we 
have received information of certain restrictions being in force in some of the 
German Lodges, hitherto unknown to us ; which we could not have believed, but 



22 


EXCLUSION OF THE JEWS 


on the most indisputable testimony, and, as it has been proved to us to have been 
enforced against Brethren of the Jewish faith, bearing certificates of this Grand 
Lodge, we do, in the most solemn manner known to Masons, record our PRO- 
TEST : and we, in the pure spirit of Brotherly kindness, call upon our Brethren 
of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes, to restore the ancient Corner Stone of 
the Masonic Order to its place in the Great Temple of Humanity. 

We have remarked particularly the address of the M. W. Grand Master, after 
the debate on the subject now presented, on the 3d of March, 1842, and assum- 
ing that the grounds stated by him are the true grounds of objection to the ad- 
mission to your Lodges of our Brethren of the faith of Solomon, we are constrain- 
ed to believe, either that our German Brethren who refuse them admission to their 
Lodges, have changed the Landmarks of their Order, or that the Institution to 
which they belong is radically different from the Masonry of England, Scotland, 
aud the United States. 

Separated from each other by the space of a thousand leagues, and influenced 
by the ardent desire of consolidating the true Fraternity of Free and Accepted 
Masons upon the firm and immutable foundation on which it was first erected, 
and which the projected improvements of ingenious modern theorists have only 
tended to disintegrate and deface, we feel bound to lay before you our Masonic 
creed, and await your decision whether the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes 
and the Grand Lodges of North America are of one origin and form parts of one 
Institution or not 

We have been taught, and have been in the practice of teaching, that Masonry 
is Universal . That in every part of the earth the Masonic Fraternity is one band 
of Brothers ; the children of one Father ; united by one fundamental constitution , 
and one sacred covenant ; and never to be disturbed by questions of particular 
creeds, or the systems of Church or State which agitate the world : and on this 
latter point your own statute, No. 3, is sufficiently explicit : — 

“ 8lle Stsats poUttscte unb ftrrc&Uc&e Staflelegenbeften sfnb bem <&rben ftrnb 
unb bon bessen Sbat^gkeft ganj auflgesc&lossen.” 

The traditions and historical records of our Order, date its foundation from thfc 
erection of the Temple at Jerusalem by a Hebrew King, many of its laws and 
customs are derived from the Mosaic fountain, the writings of Moses and the 
Prophets are open upon our altars, and the Great God in whose name our Lodges 
are consecrated, is equally the object of adoration to the Jew and the Christian. 
The only religious qualification required by the ancient constitution of the Order 
•is, a firm belief in the everliving God, the great Architect of Heaven and Earth. 
Upon this corner stone the Masonic edifice is built. If then, the Masonic Insti- 
tution is one , it must have descended by regular succession from the same origi- 
nal stock, and be governed by the same fundamental laws. 

Should any number of persons, in modern times, form themselves into a so- 
ciety, and take up the practices, the laws, and the name of Freemasons, without 
being able to shew their Masonic lineage ; they could not be recognized as 
members of the Masonic family : — so, also, if a part of the true Fraternity, re- 
taining the name and the rites of the Order, under the idea of improving the In- 
stitution, openly change the fundamental principle , they form a new Institution, 
and thereby renounce their identity with the original and parent stock. 

Thus we have with all candor, briefly laid before you our objection to the 
restriction laid upon professors of the Jewish faith. But there is another which 
we must also state with equal sincerity. 

We cannot consent that any members of the Craft, bearing regular certificates 
from the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, should be excluded from the 
associations of their Brethren of their own grade, simply on the ground of a dif- 
ference of religious faith, within the limits of the old Constitution of Masonry. 

>.On these points we are well assured the whole Fraternity in North America, will 
be found to have but one opinion. 



BY THE GRAND LODGES AT BERLIN. 


23 


We therefore, respected and worthy Brethren, most affectionately, but at the 
same time most earnestly, request, that you will fully and deliberately consider 
these subjects, and favor us with the decision which may be made thereon. In 
the mean time we will hope and pray that in all our acts, both ye and we may be 
guided by true Wisdom, that we may hereafter strengthen and sustain each other 
in every effort to make perfect that Unity, which is the Beauty and the Glory of 
our venerable Institution. 

In the name of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York. 

Morgan Lewis, Grand Master. 

Alex. H. Robertson, D. G. M. 

James Herring, Grand Secretary. 

The excellent report of the committee on foreign correspondence of the Grand 
Lodge of New York contains an extract from the report of the National Grand 
Master of Switzerland, for the year 1842, which has a bearing on this subject, 
and is too important to be omitted. The Grand Master in speaking of the Grand 
Lodge of England, quotes a report from the Grand Lodge of Hamburg, as fol- 
lows : 

44 If the Grand Lodge of England attracts the special attention of the Masonic 
world, it is very natural, as we look upon her as the mother Lodge of Ma- 
sonry, and more particularly as she has extended her relations and counts affi- 
liated Lodges in the most distant parts of the Globe. 

“ This Grand Lodge has revised and published in 1841, her general statutes ; 
she has increased her establishments of benevolence by founding a school for 
both sexes, and opened under the direction of the illustrious Brother, the Duke 
of Sussex, an asylum for poor, aged, and infirm Free Masons. 

“ In the session of the 2d March, 1842, His R. H. Augustus Frederick, Duke 
of Sussex, was unanimously re-elected to the duties of Grand Master. The 
same year the Grand Master, aided by his Grand Dignitaries, did, according to 
Ancient Masonic custom, lay at Sunderland, the foundation of a building intend- 
ed for scientific purposes, under the name of 4 Aiheneum 

“ Apropos to the admission into our alliance of men professing the religion 
of Moses, this Grand Master, has expressed himself in the following terms. 
4 Among Freemasons all difference of opinion in political matters, or religious 
belief, appears to me a matter of no importance, of whatever side, party, climate, 
or affinity they may be. All Masons should extend to each other the hand of 
Fraternity. These Masonic principles are those of all my life, and I can truly 
say, that I have grown old in the exercise of the Royal Art of Freemasonry. 
They are my glory. They have procured me true relief in my troubles, a con- 
solation in my afflictions, and when I turn my thoughts upon them, I feel grow- 
ing young again by their sweet influence.’ 

“ In a fraternal audience lately given by H. R. H. to a Brother at Berlin, and 
in the course of a long conversation, he expressed himselfrirf the following terms. 
‘I recollect still with pleasure, the time (1800) when I was Junior and Senior 
Warden and afterwards Master of the Lodge , The triumph of Truth? (probably at 
Berlin.) ‘Yes, my friend,* added he, ‘Masonry is a universal good, which em- 
braces and unites together men of every belief. Although this principle is not 
universally recognized, the time will come, and that soon, when it will be. We 
are marching towards this noble end, and our united efforts should be employed 
to arrive at it as speedily as possible. I am altogether in favor of the emancipa- 
tion of the Israelites — arid it is to be regretted that a number of Lodges in Ger- 
many, are closed against them. Masonry should never close her portals to any 
enlightened man, let his religion be what it may, if he has been thought worthy 
of being admitted into the alliance. Although some contend that Masonry is a 
Christian institution, and that some of her details do not accord with other creeds, 
yet religion teaches us to love our neighbor, and that men are equal in the eyes 



24 


franklin’s opinion of masonry. 


of the Almighty. The Creator embraces all his creatures with the same 
love. Let the form in which others serve and adore God be what it may ; let 
tnem swear on the Alkoran, or on the Bible, the thought is always fixed on 
God ; — and it is a weakness on our part to believe ourselves better than others. 
My zeal towards Masonry will never slacken. I belong to the Fraternity 
to the last breath of *my life ; and I will dedicate to her, with pleasure, all my 
faculties.’ 

“This excellent Mason is now no more. On the 21st of April last he was 
called to that Celestial Lodge where he will receive the recompense of his Ma- 
sonic virtues, and of his numberless services. We also, dear Brethren, deeply de- 
plore this painfiil loss ; for it was from his hands that we received the Constitu- 
tional patent oi the English provincial Grand Mastership for Switzerland ; it was 
to his encouragement that we owe our Constitution as an Independent Grand 
Lodge ; it was him in whom we were always sure to find under all circumstances 
a powerful and devoted protector. May you, dear Brethren, as well as ourselves, 
guard in your hearts, the memory of the illustrious defunct, and his Masonic prin- 
ciples such as we have communicated them to you, as a species of testament from 
him.” 

The following notice of a transaction on this subject, which took place in the 
“ Lodge de St George au Pin Verdoyant,” at Hamburg, is from tho same re- 
port: 

“ On balloting for an Israelite Brother in this Lodge, the ballot box shewed in 
a vote of 86, twenty negative ballots. From this there resulted a difficulty which 
was got over in a mariner answering to the spirit of Masonic toleration ; and 
which did honor to the Lodge. In short, after having maturely examined the 
motives which had actuated the rejection, and which consisted only in the differ- 
ence of religious belief, she declared them inadmissible, and rested on the fol- 
lowing reasons. ‘ For a long time past, the Grand Orients of England, France, 
Holland, and North America, have admitted Israelites into the bosom of their 
Lodges. To refuse a Mason, merely because he is not a Christian would be con- 
trary to the ancient statutes of the Fraternity. According to the most ancient 
documents of Freemasonry, regarding the initiation of a profane, or the aggrega- 
tion of a Brother, they simply require, that he should be no Atheist, and that he 
should profess the religion upon which all men agree f in other words, that he 
should be a good and faithful citizen, and a man of honor and probity.” 


FRANKLIN’S OPINION OF MASONRY. 

The following is an extract of a letter from Benjamin Franklin, to bis Father, dated 

Philadelphia, April 13, 1738. 

“ As to the Freemasons, I know of no way of giving my mother a better 
account of them than she seems to have at present, since it is not allowed that 
women should be admitted into that secret society. She has I roust confess, on 
that account, some reason to be displeased with it ; but for any thing else, I must 
entreat her to suspend her judgment — till she is better informed, unless she will 
believe me when I assure her, that they are in general a very harmless sort of 
people, and have no principles or practices that are inconsistent with religion 
and good manners.” 



ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF MASONRY IN ENGLAND. 25 


ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF MASONRY IN 

ENGLAND. 

The Installation of Sir Charles Lemon, Bart, as Provincial Grand Master 
for Cornwall, England, took place in April last There was a large assemblage 
of the Brethren from different parts of the Province. At the Banquet, in reply 
to a complimentary toast, Br. Lemon returned thanks in substance as follows : 

He began by saying, that he felt he might perhaps be chargeable with some 
degree of blame for not having met the Brethren earlier, to celebrate the cere- 
mony in which they had that day been engaged. But, as they were aware, very 
shortly after the seat of the Grand Master of this Province was vacant, the seat 
of the Grand Master of England also became vacant, so that there had been con- 
siderable delay in filling up the Patent of his appointment From that time, 
there had been some hesitation about the appointment of the Duke of Sussex’s 
successor ; since which, his own engagements of a public nature in another place, 
had made it impossible for him to meet them earlier. At the same time, they 
would give him leave to wish them joy — not of the appointment of their P. Grand 
Master — but of the re-edification of the P. G. Lodge of this Province. — (Hear.) 
The structure now stood complete, as part of that edifice, the antiquity of which 
no man could well deny ; though he did not mean to rest its claim to their appro- 
bation on its antiquity only. Their excellent Chaplain had that morning pointed 
out its high moral attributes — piety, love, charity — virtues most acceptable to 
God, and most conducive to the happiness of man. But there was another con- 
sideration which did not come within the scope of the reverend gentleman’s ob- 
servations. The fact to which he alluded was, that so far as his knowledge of 
history went, the Brotherhood to which they belonged took its rise in this coun- 
try at that interesting period of English history which laid the foundation of Eng- 
lish liberty. — (Hear.) He spoke of the guilds, established at a time when, as 
Sharon Turner informed them, the tradesmen of all kinds were a servile class, 
more adscripti gleba, conveyed and passed with the lands in which they resided. 
Carpenters, architects, and smiths, were then men in the retinue of the great no- 
bles, or attached to the monasteries. [Sir Charles quoted from Sharon Turner a 
law of Edgar’s, obliging the clergy to learn some handicraft; and next referred to 
the gradual formation of a class of independent artisans.] To have been then a 
l^eeinason was a real distinction ; and they (the present brethren of Freemasons’ 
Lodges) were the representatives of those men who, by their association, bore up 
against the feudal tyranny of their age. Subsequently, the talents of the Brother- 
hood obtained for them respect, and honor, and power, in times when power was 
almost exclusively obtained by superstition or by military rapine. Then it was 
that the good were associated with the Brotherhood, to enable them to carry out 
their pious designs ; while evil men sought relief from their superstitious fears, 
engendered by the violence of their conduct, by favoring the art to which the 
Brotherhood devoted themselves— sacred architecture. And it was quite impos- 
sible to look at the magnificent structures which marked that period of our archi- 
tecture — Salisbury Cathedral, for instance, built as was known by a company of 
Freemasons — without wondering at the gigantic talents possessed by the Broth- 
erhood which they now represented. Who could see that beautiful spire, point- 
ing to the sky, and directing man’s attention heavenward, as undoubtedly the em- 
blem was intended to do, — and see it, too, resting on piers almost too slight to 
support an ordinary roof, — who could look on this and not admire the scientific 
skill and hardihood of those who planned and erected it ? Freemasonry, then, in 
the earliest period of its history in this country, having represented the freedom 
of their ancestors, in the subsequent period to which he had just now referred, 
represented their science . And he felt justified in saying, that in the earlier pe- 
riod, it represented only the freedom of their ancestors, because they had scarcely 

4 



26 


AN ERRING BROTHER. 


any remains of Saxon architecture, most of that which went by that name being, 
in fact, Norman. Both those periods, however, had passed away. Freemasons 
were no longer the representatives of the existing science of the country. He 
believed any one intending to build a Church would hardly think of sending for 
the Earl of Zetland— -(laughter)— and incompetent as he himself felt to preside 
over that august society in the province of Cornwall, he should feel infinitely 
more so, if it was part of his duty to construct the public buildings of the coun- 
try. Well, then, those eras to which he had referred having passed away, what 
remained? Why, those moral qualities which his reverend friend had pointed 
out. They were, to a certain: degree, representatives of these s and it would be 
a dereliction of the character of Freemasonry, grossly to sin against any of those 
high moral principles, to which his reverend friend has pointed attention. They 
were connected with a glorious; past ; they were associated with great deeds 
gone by. With reference to its antiquity, they could but wonder at the unsha- 
ken stability which , had distinguished their Order from its origin down to the 
present time. A traveller in the East, happening to be in Egypt at the time of a 
great storm, was struck by the contrast between the scattered sands of the desert 
and the stability of the pyramids, which for ages had reared their mysterious 
forms amid the changing scenes around them. This, to him, seemed very much 
like the position Freemasonry maintained in this and other countries. Its origin 
unknown ; — amid the changeful circumstances of human life, keeping its ground — 
its purposes but dimly guessed at ; but possessing the charm of a reverential 
antiquity that connected it, he had almost said, with the origin of the human 
race.— (Hear, hear.) Sir Charles concluded by again expressing his thanks, and 
sat down amid the cordial cheers of the Brethren. 


AN ERRING BROTHER. 

Speak not in anger, if from sin 
You would an erring Brother win ; 

It you a sinner would reclaim, 

A wild and reckless spirit tame— 

Use gentle means — a pleasant word— 

And kind emotions will be stirred. 

A Brother, when he goes astray, 

Is more determined on the way 
When he beholds an angry face, 

And never will his steps retrace ; 

But when he sees a tearful eye, 

Turns back with deep humility. 

Speak then in kindness ; love alone 
Must to an erring friend be shown ; 

The warm, kind heart— the feeling soul 
The waves of anger will control, 

And lead to duty and to truth 
The hoary sinner— or wayward youth. 



GRAND LODGE OF IRELAND. CORRESPONDENCE* 


27 


NEW REGULATIONS BY THE GRAND LODGE 

OF IRELAND. 

The following resolutions were passed by the Grand Lodge of Ireland, on the 
19th February last : 

“ Resolved , That from and after the festival of St John, in December, 1844, no 
Brother shall be considered eligible for, or admissible to the office of Junior or 
Senior Deacon, in any Lodge in Ireland, until he shall have, by a strict examina- 
tion passed in presence of his Lodge, proved himself able to administer the mys- 
teries of Initiation to a candidate for the first or Entered Apprentice Degree ; or 
for the office of Junior or Senior Warden until he shall, by alike examination, 
have proved that he is able, in like manner, to advance a Brother to the Second 
or Fellow-Craft Degree ; or for the office of a Master of a Lodge, until by a like 
examination in open Lodge, he shall have proved himself qualified, in like man- 
ner, to initiate, advance, and raise a Brother to the S. D. of a Master Mason. 

And, that in each and every case a certificate of such examination and qualifi- 
cation as aforesaid, of the Brother elected to any of the before mentioned offices 
(to be signed by the Master and Secretary, and sealed with the seal of his Lodge,) 
shall be returned to the office of the Deputy Grand Secretary, at the same time 
with the names of the Brethren proposed for approval for offices in such Lodge, 
for the then ensuing six or twelve months, as the case may be ; or in any case, 
at least one calendar month before the induction or installation to any such office 
take place, such induction or installation not to be proceeded with on any account, 
if objected to by the Grand Lodge, or by any Brother or Brethren directed to act 
for it in this way, until such objection be satisfactorily answered. 

This resolution not to affect any Brother holding any of the aforesaid offices 
previous to St John’s day, the 27th of December, 1843. 

Also resolved, That this Grand Lodge strictly prohibits, as unlawful, all assem- 
blies of Freemasons in Ireland, under any title whatsoever, purporting to be 
Masonic, not held by virtue of a Warrantor Constitution from this Grand Lodge, 
or from the other Masonic bodies recognised by and acting in unison with the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland. By order, John Fowler, Dep . G. Sec. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Extract of a letter from a correspondent, dated Vicksburg, Sept 27, 1844. 

“Our Order continues to flourish, although during the summer, owing to exces- 
sive heat, we have been unable to meet often. On the 28th ult Tappan Lodge, 
at Brownsville, Mi., celebrated the anniversary of the Lodge, — which I believe is 
unususal,— -it being the termination of the first year. It commenced with seven, 
and now numbers about forty , of the best materials. Br. B. S. Tappan was se- 
lected as their Orator for the occasion, but owing to ill health was unable to at- 
tend, His place was supplied by the Rev. A. B. Lawrence. By those who were 
present, I understand that it was one of the finest Masonic celebrations, that has 
occurred in this State. The procession was formed by about seventy Masons, 
and about one hundred ladies, relatives of the members of the Order, each wear- 
ing a scarf, ofthe color of the degree to which their relatives belonged. After 
the oration, they dined together, and closed the ceremonies by a ball in the even- 
ing. I mention this, as it is a rare occurrence in the South. We may be satis- 
fied, that when we see our female friends take such an interest in the Order, it 
must flourish.” 



28 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

IRELAND. 

North Munster, April 9. Prince Masons Chapter, No. 4, met for the in- 
stallation of officers, and to initiate a member into the sacred mysteries ; after 
which they joined the Encampment of Hon. Knight Templars, No. 13, conferring 
on two members the degrees of Knight of the Sword, East and West, Hon. 
Knight Templar, and Masonic Knight of Malta, when the united Conclave ad- 
journed for refreshment, to enjoy the pleasures of a society cemented by the ties 
of virtue and love, as those high grades must ever be ; and it was resolved that a 
similar Festival be celebrated every Easter in future. 

Ennis, May 31 . — Grand Masonic Ball . — This splendid festival “came off” 
this evening, at the Ennis Masonic Hall, iu a style of magnificence rarely equal- 
led, and we might safely add, never surpassed in this locality. 

The promenade-room was tastefully wreathed with flowers, having also four 
pillars, covered with rosettes ; on the south and west were brilliant stars, with 
swords, pistols, &c., hanging upon the walls, as it were, to guard the sacred em- 
blems. Here w as stationed the admirable band of the gallant 82d depot, whose 
musical powers were unremittingly exercised during the night. The Lodge- 
room was appropriated as the dancing apartment, being decorated by the shield 
of each member, having at one end an elegant and accurate likeness of the Pro- 
vincial Grand Master of North Munster placed over the orchestra, which was oc- 
cupied by a quadrille band, under the superintendence of Mr. John Curtin. At 
the opposite end was the chair occupied by the Master. 

About nine o’clock the members of the Lodge in their gorgeous costume, were 
in attendance to receive the guests in the Hall, who were severally conducted to 
the Master’s chair and presented. After partaking of tea, coffee, &c., in the 
refreshment-room, quadrilles and waltzing followed alternately. Here a scene 
presented itself that baffles description. The rich dresses of the Brethren in 
varied costume, bearing the emblems of their offices. The varied dresses of the 
“ laity,” the scarlet of the military rustling with golden ornaments, the profusion 
of wax-candles that poured a flood of light illuminating all, and bright as any 
thin £ we could contemplate, save the brilliant orbs that beamed from beauty’s 
peerless brow. 

About half-past one o’clock the Officers of the Lodge ushered their guests into 
the supper room. Supper being concluded, the Master, after an appropriate pre- 
face, proposed the health of her Majesty, which was received with unbounded 
applause, and drank standing, with all the honors. The national anthem was 
then sung, by Brother Henry O’Donnell, the entire company joining in chorus. 

Then followed in succession — “ Prince Albert and the Royal Family,” after 
which the “Grand Masters of England, Ireland, and Scotland.” “The Provin- 
cial Grand Master.” “ The Ladies” — which were severally received with enthu- 
siasm and applause. 

The Master next said he would propose the health of the Lieutenant of the 
County, who honored them with his presence. As a country gentleman and a 
resident landlord he stood almost unrivalled. His grandfather was a Mason, and 
his father twice filled the chair which he (the Master) had now the honor to occu- 
py.— (Applause, and hip, hip, hurra, with three times three.) 

The Hon. Baronet returned thanks. 

Sir Lucius O’Brien then proposed the Master’s health, and prosperity to Now 
60, which was received with Masonic honors, and duly acknowledged. 

Dancing was then resumed. 

That the attention of the Stewards throughout was laborious and indef&tiga- 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


29 


ble, apparently possessing the ambiguity ascribed to birds, and attending to the 
comforts of all but themselves. 

The confyany did not separate until Dian had faded in her wane, and Phoebus 
half-way proceeded towards his meridian career, when the company, still loth to 
depart, wished 

“ To all and each a fair good night, 

And rosy dreams and slumbers light. ” 


UNITED STATES 

KENTUCKY. 

The annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, was held, as 
stated in our last, at Lexington, on the 26th August. The representatives from a 
large number of Lodges were present. The Grand Master stated that since the 
last annual communication he had granted Dispensations for nine new Lodges. 
We notice among the first day’s proceedings, that a collection in aid of the “Ma- 
sonic College of Missouri,” was taken up. The amount collected is not stated. 
We trust it was large, for the object is one of the noblest on which a liberal Ma- 
sonic munificence can be bestowed. On the second day of the session, a public 
procession was formed, in accordance with previous usage, and moved to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, where an Oration was delivered by Rev. Br. M. M. 
Henkle, Grand Orator. The following amendment to the Constitution was adopt- 
ed:— 

“ Each subordinate Lodge shall elect its officers on each St. John’s day, except 
when the same happens on Sunday, or when a resolution is unanimously adopted 
to die contrary, in such subordinate Lodge, at the regular meeting next preceding 
the St John’s day ; in either of which cases, it shall elect its officers on the day 
preceding, or the day succeeding such Sunday or St John’s day ; and every offi- 
cer may be re-elected as often as the Lodge may think proper.” 

The irregularities noticed in the following extracts from the report of the com- 
mittee on Lodges under Dispensation, are of too common occurrence in other 
States than Kentucky. They should not be permitted to pass unnoticed any- 
where : — 

“Your committee have also examined the work of Marion Lodge, U. D., and 
find it generally correct There is, however, one gross violation of Masonic rule ; 
one Brother was initiated, passed, and raised, and demitted at the same communi- 
cation of the Lodge ; and frequently members were passed and raised the same 
meeting. The first is inexcusable, and the last practice is deemed improper. 
Your committee are disposed, as far as possible, to excuse this Lodge, as the 
meeting at which the improper work was commenced, was under the conduct of 
the proxies of the Grand Master, who constituted the Lodge. 

“ Your committee have also examined the work of Estill Lodge, U. D., and find 
it generally correct, but liable to the same objection as to passing and raising the 
same meeting, and the same apology exists.” 

The committee on returns notice this irregularity as follows : — 

“ It is deemed by your committee to be highly reprehensible in any subordinate 
Lodge, to confer the three first degrees in Masonry, or even two of them, upon 
any individual at one and the same meeting. Petitions for the several degrees, 
should always lie over from one regular monthly meeting to another, and this 
•hould never be departed from. 



30 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


“They also deem it of the utmost importance to the well-being of the Frater- 
nity, that the practice of receiving and acting upon petitions for membership on 
the same night, should be discontinued and discountenanced by all the Lodges 
subordinate to this Grand Lodge.” 

The following amendment to the Constitution was offered, which by regulation 
lays over until the next annual meeting : — 

“ No petition for initiation or membership in a subordinate Lodge, shall be pre- 
sented at any other than a stated meeting, nor shall a ballot be taken thereon, or 
for advancement to the degree of Fellow-Craft. or Master Mason, until at least 
one lunar month shall have intervened from the presentation of said petition, or of 
conferring the preceding degree — the candidate for advancement having been 
examined and balloted for in open Lodge, at a stated meeting : Provided , That 
in case of emergency, the Grand Master shall have the right of dispensing with 
this regulation.” 

The following resolution was adopted. We understand that the Mirror is to 
be enlarged and improved. We wish the enterprising publisher, and our intelli- 
gent Brother who manages it, the realization of all the encouragement they anti- 
cipate : 

“ Resolved , That the Masonic Mirror, now published in Maysville, by Br. Bazil 
D. Crookshanks, be, and now is, constituted the organ of the Grand Lodge of 
Kentucky, and be recommended to the patronage of the Fraternity generally.” 

The committee on the subject of a “ Masonic Orphan’s Asylum,” submitted an 
interesting and able report, which we regret not being able to find room for in the 
present number of the Magazine. The report and following resolutions were a- 
dopted : — 

“ Resolved , That this Grand Lodge will now appoint a committee of Education, 
to consist of seven Master Masons, who shall have power to receive from the 
Trustees of Funk Seminary, in Oldham county, the grounds, buildings, property, 
choses in action, and funds of that institution; and said committee shall be a 
Board of Trustees of said Seminary. 

“ Resolved , That said committee of Education be authorized to employ the ne- 
cessary Superintendent and Teachers, to carry on successfully said . institution : 
Provided , no debt be created, for which this Grand Lodge shall be bound, exceed- 
ing the amount due from the Lottery or the Manager, and they may draw for the 
same on the Grand Secretary. 

“ Resolved, That said committee be authorized to make such by-laws for their 
government, and the government of said Seminary, as they may deem necessary 
and proper, which may be abolished or altered at any time by this Grand Lodge. 

“ Resolved , That at each future Grand Annual Communication, five Master Ma- 
sons shall be elected by this Grand Lodge, who shall act as a Board of Trustees 
of said Seminary, to continue in office until their successors shall be duly elected 
or appointed, as the Grand Lodge may order. 

“ Resolved , That said Board of Trustees may make such orders for the educa- 
tion of the Orphans of Master Masons, at said institution, which they may deem 
proper, but in no event to incur a greater expense than the sum named in the sec- 
ond resolution. They are further directed to make every exertion to procure 
cpntributions and donations from Lodges and Masons, individually, to advance 
the cause of education, in providing for the prosperity of said Seminary, and re- 
port to the next Grand Communication. 

“ Resolved , That the Secretary collect from Mr. Gregory, the Manager of the 
Grand Masonic Hall Lottery, whatever he may owe now or hereafter. 

“ Thereupon, Brothers Henry Wingate, M. M. Henkle, John Payne, Philip 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


31 


Swigert, W. G. Willett, Willis Stewart and J. S. Crutchfield, were appointed said 
committee.” 

“Brother Payne offered the following resolution, which was read and adopted, 
viz : 

“ Resolved, That each Mason in the State of Kentucky, be requested to pay 
over to the officers of some Lodge in his county, the sum of one dollar, or more, 
for the purpose of aiding the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in carrying out the plan 
of charity education proposed by them ; and that the officers of each Lodge, under 
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, be a committee, collectively and individually 
to attend to this contribution, and that they report to the next Grand Lodge, the 
name of every Mason in his jurisdiction, designating who are members of a 
Lodge, and who are not, and also the names of the contributors. 

“Brother I. Cunningham offered the following resolution, which was read and 
adopted, viz : 

“ Resolved, That this Grand Lodge request each and every subordinate Lodge 
under its jurisdiction, to appoint a committee, whose duty it shall be, to find out 
all the orphan children of deceased Masons, within the limits of its jurisdiction, 
and those thajj are in indigent circumstances, and send said children to the school 
in the neighborhood where they live, and pay for the same out of the funds of the 
Lodge, and by subscriptions from members and transient members ; and if there 
cannot be means enough raised by such sources, then this Grand Lodge may ap- 
propriate such sums as it may deem proper, for such purposes, by petition being 
made for the same.” 

We notice that four hundred and seven initiations are returned for the past 
year. One Lodge returns fifty ! 


MISSISSIPPI. 

The Grand Lodge of Mississippi, at its last annual communication, passed the 
following resolutions in relation to the important and interesting subject of pro- 
viding for the education of the indigent orphans of deceased Brethren : 

Resolved, That, the Grand Lodge earnestly recommend to the subordinate 
Lodges under its jurisdiction, the necessity of educating all indigent children of 
Masons within their respective vicinities, and report the number so educated by 
them, their names and ages to the next Grand Annual Communication thereafter. 

Resolved, That, if any subordinate Lodge shall report that they are unable to 
educate all the indigent children of Freemasons, within their vicinities, the G. 
Lodge may then appropriate a sum not exceeding $100, for each year, for the 
relief of such Lodge. 

Resolved, That this Grand Lodge require the several subordinate Lodges un- 
der the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, to make out, record, and transmit to the 
Grand Secretary lists, setting forth, as correctly as can be ascertained, the names 
of all Masons residing in the vicinity of each subordinate Lodge aforesaid, and 
that the Grand Lodge require from the Brethren so living, without contributing 
to the Fraternity aforesaid, an annual sum of money equal in value to the annual 
dues per capita of the subordinate Lodge in whose jurisdiction they reside, and 
in failure of said payment being so made, or a suitable excuse rendered there- 
for, that then the Grand Lodge take such measures as shall seem most expedient 
to enforce the payment aforesaid. 

Resolved, That the funds arising from the tax, provided for by the last resolu- 
tion, be, and the same are hereby appropriated to the education, maintenance and 
support of the indigent children of our Masonic Brethren. 



MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


- 32 


MASONIC, CHIT CHAT. 


f^S-We have sent the 2d volume of the 
Magazine to our correspondent at Vicks- 
burg, by mail, instead of sending it via New 
Orleans. He will in this way get it much 
earlier, and at less expense. We will give 
him our views on the case stated by him in 
our next. His letter came to hand at too 
late a day for the present number. No an- 
swer to his request in our behalf has yet been 
received. He will oblige us by renewing it. 

Ot^-We forwarded a week or two since, a 
note to our correspondent at Kingston, Cana- 
da, giving a negative answer to bis inquiry 
relative to the authority of a Master of a 
Lodge. We presume it has been received. 
We should have directed his attention to the 
Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, art. Private Lodges, sec. 6— and also 
art. Masters and Wardens, sec. 6. If our 
note be not full enough, or not satisfactory, 
we will discuss the matter, if desired. We 
shall, however, probably soon have occa- 
sion to refer to it, incidentally, in the discus- 
sion of a more general question. 

Masonic Melodies.— We understand that 
Br. Power is about to issue a second edition 
of his popular Melodies, the first edition 
having been nearly all taken up. They have 
been very generally introduced into our Lodg- 
es, and with most excellent effect. They add 
greatly to the interest of the ceremonies, and 
we should be pleased to see them in general 
use. The price, &c. may be learned from 
the publisher’s advertisement on the covers of 
this Magazine. 

fCjfSTERNE, author of the “ Sentimental 
Journey,” was buried in Masonic form in St. 
George’s burying ground, in the Bays water 
road, Ireland. A gravestone was erected by 
his Brethren over his remains, but the in- 
scription is said to be nearly obliterated. We 
trust the Brethren in Ireland will look to it. 


fjj- Brethren wishing the last volume of 
the Magazine bound, are requested to leave 
them at the Bookstore of Otis, Broaders & 
Co., No. 220 Washington street, addressed 
to Mr. C. P. Emmons, Bookbinder. They 
will be bound and returned to the same place 
without unnecessary delay, at 62£ cents per 
copy. 

f^Some of our Agents are greatly defi- 
cient in the settlement of their accounts. 


[£FWe have published a larger edition than 
usual of the present number ot the Magazine, 
that we may be able to supply new subscri- 
bers with the volume complete. It is desir- 
able, however, that Brethren intending to add 
their names to our list, should do so at as 
early a day as may be convenient. 

OC^Our private paquet from Europe by the 
steamer of the 20th ult. is more than usually 
interesting. The winter season has opened 
with excellent promise of being an uncom- 
monly active one in Masonic affairs. The 
particulars will be given as we can find room 
lor them. 

OC^Our correspondent at Kingston, Cana- 
da, is informed, that the Mark degree is never 
conferred in this country in a Blue Lodge. 
There were formerly Mark Lodges, but they 
have been done away with. The degree is 
now conferred in the Chapters only. 


fljrln giving the names of the officers of 
the Gen. Grand Chapter, in our last, we ac- 
cidentally omitted that of Rev. Robert* 
Punchon, of Ohio, who was elected G. G. 
Chaplain. 

nrWe see it stated in the Providence, R. 
I. papers, that St. John’s Lodge of that city, 
has voted one thousand dollars towards the 
erection of an Asylum for the Insane in that 
Slate. , 


£j*We have a few copies of the 2d and 3d 
vols. of the Magazine, which will be dispos- 
ed of at the subscription price. 

A TABLE, 

Showing the Stated Meetings of the Ma- 
sonic Institutions, held at the Masonic 
Temple, in Boston, for every month in the 
year : — 



1st 

2d 

3d 

4th 

Monday, . . . 

* 

** 


♦ 

Tuesday, . . 

- 

II 

t 

IT 

Wednesday, 

t 

§ 

X 


Thursday, . . 

* 

* 



Friday, .... 




* 


l * Lodge. 

I fChapter. 

? i Encampment. 

\ |j Grand Chapter, March and Sept. 

) $G. Lodge. Lee., March, June, Sep* 

) TTCouncil Royal and Select Masters. 
I ♦’►Grand Lodge of Perfection. 



i • 

r 


THE 


FREEMASON S’ 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

Vol. IV.l BOSTON, DECEMBER 1, 1844. [No. 2. 

EXPULSION OF A MASTER OF A LODGE AND 
ACTING GRAND MASTER OFA STATE, BY A SUB- 
ORDINATE LODGE. 

Ottb opinion is asked on the following statement of facts : — 
u The Grand Lodge of this State (we omit the name,) is in a singular con- 
dition. It has been deprived of its Grand Master by death, and its Senior 
Grand Warden has been expelled from the benefits of Masonry by a subordinate 
Lodge, of which he was Master. Did not the subordinate Lodge transcend its 
powers, its Master being amenable only to the Grand Lodge ? If his conduct 
was such as required immediate action, ought not the Grand Lodge to have been 
specially called for his trial ? And further, ought not the presiding officer of the 
Grand Lodge to have ordered a called session, when he was advised of the char- 
ges against the Senior Grand Warden ? But then the difficulty occurs, that by the 
death of the Grand Master, the Senior Grand Warden was himself the presiding 
head. And here the question arises, does he not continue so, until some action 
has been had by the Grand Lodge 7* 

The case stated is certainly a novel, and, in many respects, an extraor- 
dinary one. There is not, to our knowledge, a precedent for it in the 
history of Masonic jurisprudence. Neither our memory nor the books 
furnish us with a case where the presiding officer of a Grand Lodge has 
rendered himself amenable to Masonic discipline for moral dereliction or 
a violation of his duties and obligations as a Mason. The purity of our 
Grand Lodges has been singularly preserved in this respect ; the Grand 
Masters having, as a general rule, been wisely selected from among Breth- 
ren whose age and standing in society are a guaranty for the integrity of 
their characters. There may be individual instances where a Brother has 
fallen from the line of rectitude, after having passed the chair of a Grand 
Lodge; but we believe there is not on record any evidence that a Grand 
Lodge has ever before had occasion to arraign its presiding officer on 
charges affecting his moral or Masonic character. Indeed, so improba- 
ble has the occurrence of such an event ever been considered, that the 
6 





34 


EXPULSION or A MASTER OF A LODGE 


old Constitutions and regulations of the Fraternity, furnish no rules for its 
adjudication. So abhorrent does it seem to have been to the fathers of 
our Institution and the framers of its laws, that they have not anticipated 
the possibility of its occurrence. The only regulation in the books, bear- 
ing even in a remote degree on the subject, is the following from the 
Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England : 44 If the Grand Master 
should abuse his power, and render himself unworthy of the obedience of 
the Lodges, he shall be subjected to some new regulation , to be dictated 
by the occasion ; because, hitherto, the ancient Fraternity have had no 
reason to provide for an event which they have presumed would never 
happen.’ 1 * 

We know nothing of the merits of the case submitted, further than 
what appears from the statement given by our correspondent. There 
may be circumstances connected with it, which, if known, might mate- 
rially change its character. We take it as it is presented to us. And, at 
the outset, we are struck with the very remarkable fact, that the Grand 
Lodge in question, does not by its regulations authorize the election or 
appointment of a Deputy Grand Master, — an officer as specially provided 
for by the old Constitutions and the general usages of the Fraternity, as the 
election of Grand Master, or Grand Wardens. Had this requisition been 
complied with, there would be much less difficulty in the management of 
the case under consideration, ^nd the Grand Lodge would have been 
relieved from the unfortunate necessity of acting on charges affecting the 
character of its presiding officer. 

The first inquiry is, whether the Lodge exceeded its powers in expel- 
ling its Master? The National Masonic Convention, held at Baltimore in 
May, 1843, decided, on what they conceived to be correct Masonic prin- 
ciples, that a 44 subordinate Lodge has not the right to try its Master, but 
that he is amenable to the Grand Lodge alone.” We have not learned 
that the correctness of this decision has ever been questioned by any of 
the Grand Lodges in this country. It is not, however, to be inferred that 
the delinquent Master is so entirely independent of his Lodge, that he 
cannot be called to an account for his delinquency. The regulation of the 
Grand Lodge of this Commonwealth provides, that 4< any five members 
of the Lodge, or the District Deputy Grand Master, may impeach him 
before the Grand Master, who shall order an investigation of the charges ; 
and if, in his opinion, they are well founded, and of a character to justify 
the proceeding, he may suspend the delinquent and summon him to appear 
at the ensuing meeting of the Grand Lodge.” An equivalent power is 

♦Eng. Const, p. 32, ed. 1841. The same article is also contained in Derroot’s edition of 
the old Constitutions. 



AND ACTING GRAND MASTER OP A STATE. 


35 


yested in Provincial Grand Masters by the Constitutions of the Grand 
Lodge of England* If, then, it be conceded that a subordinate Lodge 
may not try its Master, it follows that the Lodge in question transcended 
its powers, and that its proceedings in the premises are void and of no 
effect. 

The Brethren immediately interested in this question, may, with some 
degree of plausibility, regard this decision as divesting the Lodge of its 
supremacy, and clothing its Master with power above that of his constit- 
uents, from whom he primarily derives all his authority. But it is not 
so. The Lodge possesses the power to elect its Master, in the same 
manner that the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, or the people of 
Mississippi, possess the power to appoint or elect the Judges of their 
Courts. The Judges may be removed for adequate cause, not by the 
creating power, but on impeachment before another tribunal, and by due 
course of law. So with the Master of a Lodge. The constituent power 
may impeach him, but the action of another power is necessary to his 
removal from office. If it were not so, he could at any moment be dis- 
honored and displaced by a majority of the members preferring charges 
against him, although the Grand Lodge might, on a dispassionate and 
careful examination of the testimony, set aside the charges as frivolous 
and invalid. The Master should be, as he is, in some measure indepen- 
dent of his immediate constituents. This may frequently be found ne- 
cessary to a strict, faithful and impartial discharge of his official duties. 
If he abuse his authority, the remedy is in the Grand Lodge. And in 
not applying to this source, lies the error committed by the Brethren in 
the case under consideration. Instead of preferring charges to them- 
selves against their Master, they should have laid them before the Grand 
Lodge. This is on the presumption that the charges are for official male- 
practice. If, on the contrary , they are for moral dereliction, then the Lodge 
ought, in our judgment, to have received and transmitted them to the Grand 
Secretary for the action of. the Grand Lodge at its ensuing communication. 
They could not be laid before the Grand Master, because, through a dis- 
pensation of Providence, the Brother implicated is himself Grand Master, 
de facto. They could not be tried by the Lodge, not only because the 
delinquent is Master, but because, by the authority which the Constitu- 
tions of Masonry vest in him, as Grand Master , he may, for what he 
shall conceive to be justifiable cause, suspend the operations of the Lodge 
itself. He is, then, above and beyond the reach of the Lodge, except so 
far as it may arraign him before the Grand Lodge for arbitrary exer- 
cise of power, or for immoral and unmasonic conduct. 

Before leaving this branch of the inquiry, we will notice another fea- 
ture in the case, which, if not positively irregular, is calculated, as in the 



36 


EXPULSION or A MASTER OF A LODGE 


present instance, to lead to embarrassing and injurious consequences. 
We refer to the election of Masters and Wardens of subordinate Lodges 
from among Brethren who hold corresponding offices in the Grand Lodge* 
The two positions seem to us to be incompatible. The Master of a 
Lodge is in many respects directly responsible to the Grand Master, and 
the duties of the one are not unfrequently brought in conflict with the 
duties of the other. The two offices cannot, therefore, be united in one 
person, without endangering the common interests. And this objection 
holds, though with less force, in the election of Wardens ; for the War- 
den of a Lodge, being also Grand Warden, may, by a concurrence of 
circumstances, be simultaneously advanced to the Master of a Lodge and 
Grand Master of the State. The Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 
Massachusetts contain a prohibition to this effect ; and we believe this to 
be in accordance with the general practice in this country. Were it not 
that the delinquent Brother in question, is the highest surviving officer in 
the Grand Lodge, he coulJ, by the authority of the Grand Master, or the 
Brother acting in that capacity, be suspended from his office as Master of 
the Lodge. Had he been merely a private member of the Lodge, though 
holding his present relation as Grand Master, it would have been compe- 
tent and proper for the Lodge to have investigated the charges, and if 
sustained by the evidence, to have presented them to the Grand Lodge, 
and caused him to be arraigned for trial, according to a “ new regula- 
tion, to be dictated by the occasion.” 

The second and third inquiries are — whether, if the conduct of the 
Senior Grand Warden was such as to require immediate action, a special 
meeting of the Grand Lodge ought not to have been called for his trial ? 
and whether this ought not to have been done by the presiding officer of 
the Grand Lodge, when informed of the charges against him ? These 
questions we must take to rest upon the presumption that the Grand Mas- 
ter is living, or that he who officiates for him, is not the party implicated ; 
for we know of no rule in law or morals, which requires a criminal to 
seek his own conviction. If a special meeting of the Grand Lodge is 
called for by any emergency, the only competent authority to convene it 
is, unquestionably, the Grand Master, or the officer holding rank as such ; 
and he alone is to judge of the force of the emergency, and of the neces- 
sity of the measure proposed. The regulation is, that the Grand Mas- 
ter, or, in his absence, the Deputy Grand Master, or, in his absence, the 
Grand Wardens may summon and hold Grand Lodges of emergency, 
whenever the good of the Craft, shall, in their opinion , require it.” The 
refusal, therefore, to summon a special meeting does not involve a dere- 
liction of duty, nor can the presiding officer be held amenable to censure 
for so doing. It is a matter entirely within his own prerogative, and he 



AND ACTfNft GfcAND MASTER CP A SYaTE* 37 

may act in the premises according to the dictates of his own judgment 
and sense of duty. Whether the acting Grand Master, in the case we 
are considering, ought or otherwise to have called a special meeting of 
his Grand Lodge, is a question in respect to which there may be a wide 
but honest difference of opinion. He was certainly under no legal obli- 
gation to do so. 

The next and last point of the inquiry is, whether the Senior Grand 
Warden, or acting Grand Master, is deposed from his station in the Grand 
Lodge, in consequence of his expulsion by the subordinate Lodge ? 

In our opinion he is not. The Lodge clearly transcended its powers in 
assuming to try its Master ; and the result of an illegal exercise of author- 
ity cannot be binding. But there are other considerations. Borne of 
them have been stated. 

Since the organization of the present form of Masonic government, 
Grand Lodges have generally retained at least the power and the right to 
confirm expulsions and restorations. We are aware that many of the 
Grand Lodges in this country have vested this authority in their subordi- 
nate Lodges. Others, and we think with greater propriety, have reserved 
it to themselves. It is the great conservative power of the Institution, 
and ought not to be hastily exercised. The Constitutions of the Grand 
Lodge of England, claim it as an 14 inherent power.*’ 44 In the Grand 
Lodge alone” say they, 44 resides the power of erasing Lodges and ex- 
pelling Brethren from the Craft, a power which it ought not to delegate 
to any subordinate authority in England. ,T# Again. — “ No Lodge shall 
be erased, nor any Brother expelled, until the Master or officers of the 
Lodge, or the offending Brother, shall have been summoned to show 
cause, in Grand Lodge, why such sentence should not be recorded and 
enforced.”t The regulation of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, on 
this subject, is, that 44 a sentence of expulsion shall not take effect, until 
confirmed by the Grand Lodge ; but shall operate as a suspension of the 
delinquent in the mean time.’ r J This we hold to be correct Masonic law. 
It follows then, if these premises be admitted, that a Brother cannot be 
effectually expelled by a private Lodge, until the action of the Lodge is 
confirmed by the Grand Lodge. If the Grand Lodge refuse to confirm, 
the Brother is restored to all his rights as a Mason. Expulsion can only 
follow the conviction of an offence. Restoration follows the decision 
that the offence was never committed, or is expiated. Expulsion and 
restoration are correlative terms, and the power to restore is as ample as 
that to expel. If, therefore, we were to admit the legality of the proceed- 


*English Constitutions, p. 23. tlbid. p. 23-4, ^Constitutions, art. 4, p. 36. 




38 


EXPULSION OF A MASTER OF ▲ LODGE. 


ings of the Lodge in expelling the Brother in question, still the act would 
be incomplete, until confirmed by the Grand Lodge. But we do not ad- 
mit it ; nor should we admit it, though that Brother had been merely a 
private member of the Lodge. We cannot admit that the action of a 
private Lodge can of itself degrade an officer of the Grand Lodge from 
his power or place, until that action has been legally confirmed, or at 
least until proceedings in relation to it have been commenced in Grand 
Lodge. Such proceedings would of course depose the officer from his 
station during their pendency. We come then to the conclusion : — 

1st That the proceedings of the subordinate Lodge in expelling its 
Master, were illegal, and therefore void. 

2d. That the Senior Grand Warden retains his power as acting Grand 
Master of the State. 

, 3d. That the Lodges and Brethren are bound to respect his authority 
as Grand Master, until he shall have been legally deposed by the action 
of the Grand Lodge. 

We trust that we shall not be considered impertinent or officious, in 
suggesting, that the proper course now to be pursued, is for the Lodge, 
which has already had the subject under their consideration, to file char- 
ges in the office of the Grand Secretary, against the offending Brother, — 
serving him also with an attested copy of the same, and notice of their 
intention to proceed against him. At the ensuing meeting of the Grand 
Lodge, we think the charges may be produced immediately after the read- 
ing of the record. A Past Grand Master should then be requested to take 
the chair, and if the Brother be present and ready for trial, the case may 
proceed. If there be not a Past Grand Master present, the Junior Grand 
Warden will preside. If the result be adverse to the accused, the Junior 
Grand Warden may of right claim to preside during the remainder of the 
session, or until a new Grand Master shall be. elected and installed. He 
may, however, waive his right in favor of a Past Grand Master. If the 
accused be acquitted, he will of course resume his station. If present and 
not ready for trial, a reasonable time should be allowed* him to prepare 
himself. The pendency of the case, however, in our judgment, deposes 
him from his station ; for it is not to be supposed that the charges are 
brought against him from u nworthy motives. If they are, the Brethren 
preferring them are liable to expulsion. If the accused disregard the notice 
of the Lodge, and fail to appear, a summons, with a copy of the charges 
attached, should issue from the Grand Lodge, requiring his attendance at 
such time and place as may be determined on. If he still persist in his 
refusal to appear, the trial may proceed, ex parte. 





FOREIGN MATTERS. 


30 


FOREIGN MATTERS. 

Our intelligence from Europe indicates a high degree of Masonic 
prosperity. The Earl of Zetland, the new Grand Master of England, is 
a great favorite with the Brethren, and seems to have given new life 
to the Craft under his jurisdiction. 

We learn with regret that the controversy between the Grand Chapter 
and Council of Rites, which has for sometime disturbed the harmony of 
the Fraternity in Ireland, remains unsettled. We fear the worthy Grand 
Master, the Duke of Leinster, is surrounded by advisers not fully under 
the influence of true Masonic charity. Nothing is required but a spirit of 
compromise to settle the difficulty. * 

A pamphlet has just appeared in Dublin, entitled “ Freemasonry con- 
trasted with Intolerance.” The author is Br. Milo Burke O’Ryan, Mas- 
ter of Lodge 206, on the register of Ireland. Its production has been 
elicited by the unjustifiable attack made last year on the Order by the 
Edict of Caruana, and its object is to prove “ that recent denunciations 
of Freemasonry by churchmen (Roman) are wholly unsupported by the 
councils of the Roman Catholic Church, or by any real ecclesiastical 
authority whatever.” The author is a member and strict and zealous 
adherent of the Roman Church. 

It is said the Prince de Joinville, who was in this country a few years 
since, has yielded to the solicitations of the Duke Decazes, and will accept 
the office of Grand Master of the Grand Orient, and of the Supreme Coun- 
cil, at Paris, which, however, are not to be united. It may be proper to 
add, that these are the two Grand Lodges of France, working in different 
rites. Several efforts have been made to bring about a perfect union 
between them, but without effect. The idea of placing one Brother at 
the head of two Grand Lodges, working in different and conflicting rites, 
is something new in Masonry. We have an offset for it, however, in the 
Grand Lodge of Louisiana, which authorizes the working in three rites, 
and for this purpose grants three Charters to such of its subordinate 
Lodges as desire them ! 

The late Grand Master of England, (the Duke of Sussex,) took a deci- 
ded stand in relation to the Grand Orient. He kindly received its dele- 
gate, sent expressly to negotiate for a unity of purpose and correspon- 
dence with the Grand Lodge of England, but gave for answer, that that 
Grand Lodge would never enter into correspondence with any Grand 
Lodge that entertained Degrees, or granted them, beyond those of Mas- 
ter. In our judgment he was right. Grand Lodges have nothing to do 
with other Degrees. Let them stand on their own basis. 

Great complaint is made at Tulon, France, that the Lodges there are 



40 


FOREIGN MATTERS. 


daily inundated with applications from poor Brothers from Africa. The 
Lodges in the French possessions in Africa are said to be almost num- 
berless. 

A powerfully written article lately appeared in the Paris 44 Globe,” on 
the non-admission of Jews to the Lodges in Prussia. A circular letter 
has also been addressed to the Jewish Freemasons in Prussia, on the 
same subject, by Br. Adolphe Trevel. It was originally written in the 
German language, but has been translated and published in France. In 
answer to a respectful memorial addressed to him in favor of the admis- 
sion of Jews, by twentythree Brethren, His Royal Highness the Prince 
Royal, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Prussia, returned for answer, 
that he did not feel himself at liberty to interfere in the matter ; that hav- 
ing been elected according to the statutes of his Grand Lodge, he was 
bound to preserve them from innovation ; and as those statutes precluded 
the initiation of any but Christians, he could not comply with the request 
to admit Jews, however reasonable such request might appear to him to 
be. Some assurances, however, were given in the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, at its meeting in September last, while discussing the subject of a 
complimentary address to the Prince, then in England, — that the inter- 
dict would probably be removed, through his influence. 

Among the Visitors present at the recent meeting of the Grand Lodge 
of England, was the Hon. J. Leander Starr, Prov. Grand Master for Nova 
Scotia. Br. Starr has since returned to Halifax. 

The Fraternity have recently sustained some heavy losses in the death 
of Brethren moving in the higher ranks of life. Among them is Joseph 
Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, and at one time King of Naples, and 
afterwards King of Spain. He died at Florence, on the 28th of August, 
after a long illness. The Earl of ^Mountnorris, Past Master of Argyle 
Lodge, Glasgow, Scotland, died in September, at Kidderminster. He had 
just connected himself with the Royal Standard Lodge at that place. 
Br. Alexander Deuchar, Esq, died at Edinburg, on the 12th August, 
aged 70 years. He was one of the most distinguished Masons in Scot- 
land, and was for many years Grand Master of the Knights Templars. 
He was an active Brother to the day of his death. 

The great 44 Masonic Charities,” under the direction of the Grand 
Lodge of England, are reported as being in a prosperous condition. 

The. London Review, for September, in noticing the contents of this 
Magazine for July, compliments the report of the Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of this State, (on the authority of Grand Lodges,) as being 
“ without a parallel.” The report was able and the compliment is de- 
served. 



HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


41 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES, AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

or 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER II. 

PLACES OF CELEBRATION IN HINDOOSTAN. 

India is a very ancient nation ; derived, if its own annals are deserving of 
credit, from the seven Rishis, or penitents, whose exemplary virtues elevated 
them to a residence in the stars. These seven holy persons, according to the 
Abbe Dubois, # were the seven sons of Japhet,f who formed colonies in the neigh- 
borhood of Mount Caucasus, and from thence their posterity spread over the 
vast continent of ancient India.J; And Mr. Maurice is of opinion that they pro- 
ceeded thence to the remotest regions of the west These primitive inhabitants 
practised the patriarchal religion, and consequently worshipped the true God, 
until they were conquered and subjected to the yoke by the idolatrous Cuthites 
under Rama the victorious son of Cush, and then the diluvian Mysteries were 
introduced, with all the horrible rites and disgusting superstitions which bad 
polluted the religion of the descendants of Ham. The system of divine worship, 
after this innovation, soon became divided into two discordant Sects ; the one 
mild and benevolent, addressed to Vishnu ; the other, which proclaimed the supe- 
riority of Siva, was a system of terror and penance, barbarity and blood. The 
professors of these sectarial divisions bore an irreconcilable hatred to each other, 
and were equally distinguished by feelings of interminable hostility ; if an indi- 
vidual of each adverse party accidentally met, they considered themselves pollu- 
ted, till by some purifying rite of devotion, they had obliterated the stain. 

The chief deity of this vast empire was the tri-une Brahma — Vishnu — Siva,§ 


♦Description of India, pt. i. c. 6. 

tThe Indian Records present us with this information in language very similar to our 
own sacred writings. “ It is related in the Pad ma Pooraun that Satyavrata, whose miracu* 
lous preservation from a general deluge is told at large in the Matsya, had three sons, the 
eldest of whom was named Jyapeti, or Lord of the Earth j the others were Charroa and 
Sharma; which last words are m the vulgar dialects usually pronounced Cham and Sham, as 
we frequently hear Kishn for Chrishna. The royal patriarch, for such is the character in 
the Pooraun, was particularly fond of Jyapeti, to whom he gave all the regions to the north 
of Himalaya, or the Snowy Mountains, which extend from sea to sea, and of which Cauca- 
sus is a part; to Sharma he allotted the countries to the south of those mountains; hut he 
cursed Charma, because when the old monarch was accidentally inebriated with strong 
liquor made of fermented rice, Charma laughed j and it was in consequence of his father’s 
execration that he became a slave to the slaves of his brothers.” (Maur. Hist. Hind. vol. 
ii. p. 45. 

*It is highly probable however, notwithstanding the authority in the text, that the seven 
Rishis were the seven persons who were preserved with Noah in the Ark. 

SThis trial was variously represented by emblems iu this quarter of the globe. The 
mystical zennar was a cord of three threads ; the emblem borne iu the hands of some of 
6 




42 


HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


who was said to dwell on the holy mountain Meru, whose three peaks were com- 
posed of gold, silver, and iron ; the central peak was appropriated to Siva, and 
the two others to Brahma and Vishnu. # But the Indians “ saw God in every 
object under the sun,” and had consecrated and paid divine honors to such a 
multitude of different substances, that their Pantheon is said to have contained 
three hundred and thirty millions of deities.f 

The mysteries of India bore a direct reference to the happiness of man in 
paradise, the subsequent deviations from righteousness, and the destruction ac- 
complished by the general deluge. They were celebrated in subterranean cav- 
erns and grottos! formed in the solid rock by human art and industry ; or in the 
secret recesses of gloomy pyramids and dark pagodas and the adoration of the 
Solar Fire ; and the reputed perfection which its worship conveys to the initia- 
ted, appear to have been the object and end of this perverted institution. These 
caverns were frequently excavated in the bosom of a grove of trees, which was 
thus converted into a permaneut residence of the deity ; and became a source 
of high and superstitious terror to all the world besides. A brief description of 
the caverns of Elephanta and Salsette, both situated near Bombay, will afford a 
competent specimen of the inner apartments exhibited in the places of secret 
celebration which abound in the vast continent of ancient India. These stupen- 
dous edifices, carved out of the solid rock, and charged with statues of every 
description and degree of magnitude are of doubtful origin. Their antiquity 
is enfolded in the veil of obscurity ; and the name of the monarch, whose bold 
and aspiring mind could project, and whose power could execute such imperisha- 
ble monuments of human ingenuity and labor, is lost and forgotten in the lethean 
stream of time. 

The cavern of Elephanta, the most ancient temple in the world, framed by the 
hand of man, is one hundred and thirtyfive feet square, and eighteen feet high. 
It is supported by four massive pillars, and its walls are covered on all sides with 


these deities was a trident , similar to that of the Grecian Neptune ; the mode of Worship 
was ternary , and consisted of bowing the body three times; the principal deity in the cavern 
of Elephanta was depicted with three heads ; the summit of the massive pyramidal pagoda 
of Tanjoru, is surmounted with three peaks, 

♦Fab. Pag. Idol. vol. iii. p. 205. This custom of accounting the three peaked mountain 
holy was not confined to the idolatrous nations, so called, but was venerated by the Jews. 
Thus Olivet, near the city of Jerusalem, had three peaks which were accounted the resi- 
dence of the Deity Chemosh— Milcom— Ashtoreth. (2 Kings xxiii. 13.) See also Zecha- 
riah (xiv. 4.) where, by a sublime figure, the feet of the Almighty are placed on the two 
outer peaks of this mountain, during the threatened destruction of Jerusalem: while the 
mountain itself is made to split asunder, by a tremendous concussion, at the centra peak 
from east to west, leaving a great valley between the divided parts. 

tStatuea of the principal Indian gods ma> be seen in the Museum of the Asiatic Society, 
London. 

tThey may probably be ascribed to the first Cuthite conquerors of India, whose enterpri- 
sing genius would be applied, in times of peace, to such stupendous works as might practi- 
cally exhibit a striking indication of their superiority over the vanquished people. 



HISTORY OJ INITIATION. 


48 


statues and carved emblematical decorations. Maurice* says, that u some of the 
figures have on their heads a kind of helmet of a pyramidal form ; others wear 
crowns, rich in devicesand splendidly decorated with jewels ; while others display 
only large bushy ringlets of curled or flowing hair. Many of them have four 
hands, many have six, and in those hands they grasp sceptres and shields, the 
symbols of justice and ensigns of religion, the weapons of war and the trophies 
of peace.” The adytum, placed at the western extremity of this extensive grotto, 
was accessible by four entrances, each guarded by two gigantic statues, naked, 
and decorated with jewels and other ornaments. In this sacellum, accessible only 
to the initiated, the deity was represented by that obscene emblem, which was 
used in a greater or less degree by all idolatrous nations to represent his genera- 
tive power. On each side were ranges of cells and passages, constructed for the 
express purpose of initiation ; and a sacred orifice as the medium of regenera- 
tion. 

The caverns of Salsette, excavated in a rock whose external form is pyramidal, 
and situated in the bosom of an extensive and fearful wood, infested by enormous 
serpents and ravenous beasts, very greatly exceed in magnitude, those of Ele- 
phants; being in number three hundred, all adorned with an abundance of carved 
and emblematical characters. The largest cavern is eightyfour feet long, fortysix 
broad, and forty high; full of cavities on all sides, placed at convenient distances 
for the arrangement of the dreadful apparatus of initiation, which was so con- 
structed as to overwhelm the unconscious aspirant with horror and superstitious 
dread. The different ranges of apartments were connected by open galleries ; 
and the most secret caverns which contained the ineffable symbols, were accessi- 
ble only by private entrances, curiously contrived to give greater effect to certain 
points in the ceremonial of initiation ; and a cubical cista for the periodical sepul- 
ture of the aspirant, was placed in the inmost recesses of the structure. In every 
cavern was a carved bason to contain the consecrated water of ablution, on the 
surface of which floated the flowers of the lotos, this element being considered 
the external medium by which purity was conveyed. And amongst an innumer- 
able multitude of images and symbolical figures with which the walls were cov- 
ered, the Linga or Phallus was every where conspicuous ; often alone, and some- 
times in situations too disgusting to be mentioned ; and typified equally by the 
petal and calyx of the lotos, the point within & circle, and the intersection of two 
equilateral triangles. 


♦All the temples mod pagodas of Hindostan were ornamented in the same style. The 
temple of J&gan-nath “ is a stupendous fabric, and truly commensurate with the extensive 
sway of Moloch, horrid king. As other temples are usually adorned with figures, emble- 
matical of their religion, so Jagan-nath has representations, numerous and various , of that 
▼ice which constitutes the essence of his worship. The walls and gates are covered with 
indecent emblems, in massive and durable sculpture. (Buchan. Res. in Asia. p. 133.) 




44 


PENALTY OF EXPULSION. 


REMARKS ONTHE P E N A L T Y O F E X P U L S 10 N . 

BY ALBERT G. MACKEY, M. D. 

Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge and of the G. R. A. C. of South Carolina. 

u Qua sanari poterunt , quacunque ratione sanabo ; qua resecanda erurit , non patiar ad 

pemiciem civ i tat is manure.” — Cic. in Catalin. 

Expulsion is the highest Masonic penalty that can be imposed by a Lodge 
upon any of its delinquent or offending members, and its peculiar nature is wor^ 
thy of the attentive consideration of every Mason. I propose, therefore, in this 
paper to treat, 1. Of its effect as a punishment. II. Of the proper tribunal to 
impose it III. Of the persons who may be subject to it, and lV. Of the offen- 
ces for which it may be inflicted. 

I. Expulsion from a Lodge deprives the party expelled of all the rights and 
privileges that he ever enjoyed, not only as a member of the particular Lodge 
from which he has been rejected, but also of those which were inherent in him 
as a member of the Fraternity at large. He is at once as completely divested of 
his Masonic character as though he had never been afllnitted, so far as regards 
his rights, while his duties and obligations remain as firm as ever — it being im- 
possible for any human power to cancel them. He can no longer demand the 
aid of his Brethren when in distress, nor demand from them the performance of 
any duty to which he was formerly entitled, nor visit any Lodge, nor unite in any 
of the public or private ceremonies of the Order. He is considered as being 
without the pale, and it would be criminal in any Brother, aware of his expulsion, 
to hold communication with him on Muonic subjects. 

II. The only proper tribunal to impose this severe punishment is a Grand 
Lodge. A subordinate Lodge tries its delinquent member, and, if guilty, de- 
clares him expelled. But the sentence is of no force until the Grand Lodge, 
under whose jurisdiction it is working, has confirmed it And it is optional with 
the Grand Lodge to do so, or, as is frequently done, to reverse the decision, and 
reinstate the Brother. Some of the Lodges in this country claim the right to 
expel independently of the action of the Grand Lodge, but the claim is not valid. 
The very fact that an expulsion is a penalty affecting the general relations of the 
punished party with the whole Fraternity, proves that its exercise never could, 
with propriety, be entrusted to a body so circumscribed in its authority as a 
subordinate Lodge. Besides, the general practice of the Fraternity is against it 
The majority of Grand Lodges in this country have expressly reserved the con- 
firming power. The English Constitutions vest the power to expel exclusively 
in the Grand Lodge. The subordinate Lodge first suspends, and then the Grand 
Lodge, on a review of the case, if it thinks proper, decrees expulsion. 

III. All Masons, whether members of Lodges or not, are subject to this pun- 
ishment when found to merit it. Resignation or withdrawal from the Institution 
does not cancel a Mason’s obligations, nor exempt him from that wholesome con- 
trol which the Order exercises over the moral conduct of its members. In this 
respect the maxim is, once a Mason and always a Mason. The principle that a 
Mason, not a member of any particular Lodge, but who has been guilty of im- 
moral or unmasonic conduct, can be tried by any Lodge within whose jurisdic- 
tion* he may be residing, is incontrovertible. The remarks of Br. Moore on this 
subject are too valuable to be omitted : “ Every member of the Fraternity is 
accountable for his conduct as a Mason to any regularly constituted Lodge ; but 
if he be a member of a particular Lodge, he is more immediately accountable to 
that Lodge. A Mason acquires some special privileges’ by becoming a member 
of a Lodge, and he has to perform special services which he might not otherwise 
be subjected to. But he enters into no new obligations to the Fraternity gene- 


*The old Constitutions extend this jurisdiction to fifty miles. The Regulations of the 
Baltimore Convention, to what is within a man’s reasonable ability. 


PENALTY OP EXPULSION. 


45 


rally, and his accountability is not increased any further than regards the faithful 
performance of those special duties. Hence the only difference between those 
Brethren who are members of Lodges and those who are not, is, that the mem- 
bers are bound to obey the By-Laws of their own particular Lodges in addition 
to their general duty to the Fraternity. Again — every Mason is bound to obey 
the summons of a Lodge of Master Masons whether he be a member or other- 
wise. This obligation on the part of an individual, clearly implies a power in 
the Lodge to investigate and control his conduct in all things which concern the 
interest of the Institution. This power cannot be confined to those Brethren 
who are members of Lodges, for the obligation is general.” — (Moore’s Mag, v. i. 

p.aa; 

IV. Immoral conduct, such as would subject a candidate for admission to 
rejection, should be the only offence visited with expulsion. As the punishment 
is general, affecting the relations of the one expelled with the whole Fraternity, 
it should not be lightly imposed, nor inflicted for the violation of any Masonic 
duty not general in its character. The commission of a gross act, is a violation 
of the contract entered inh t ^jtween each Mason and the Order. If sanctioned 
by silence, or encouraged &j^%ubity, it would bring discredit on the Institu- 
tion, and tend to impair its usefulness. A Mason, who is a bad man, is to the 
Order what a mortified limb is to the body, and should be treated with the same 
mode of cure. He should be cut off, lest his example spread, and disease be prop- 
agated through the entire constitution. But it is too much the custom of Lodges 
in this country to extend this remedy to cases neither deserving nor requiring its 
application. I allude here particularly to expulsion for non-payment of Lodge 
dues. Upon the principle just laid down, this is neither just nor consistent The 
payment of arrears is a contract in which the only parties are a particular Lodge 
and its member, of which contract the body at large knows nothing. It is not a 
general Masonic duty, and is not called for by any Masonic regulation. The sys- 
tem of arrears was unknown in former years, and has only been established of 
late for the sake of convenience. Even now there are some Lodges in which it 
does not prevail,* and no Grand Lodge has ever yet attempted to control or reg. 
ulate it ; thus tacitly admitting that it forms no part of the general regulations of 
the Order. Hence the non-payment of arrears is only a violation of a special 
and voluntary obligation to a particular Lodge, and not of any general duty to 
the Fraternity at large. The punishment, therefore, inflicted, should be one 
affecting the relations of the delinquent with the particular Lodge whose By- 
Laws he has infringed, and not a general one affecting his relations with the 
whole Craft But expulsion has this latter effect^ and is therefore inconsistent 
and unjust And as it is a punishment too often inflicted upon poverty, it is un- 
kind and uncharitable. A Lodge might, in this case, forfeit or suspend the 
membership of the defaulter in his own Lodge, but such suspension should not 
affect his right of visiting other Lodges, nor any of the other privileges inherent 
in him as a Mason. This is the practice, we are glad to say, pursued by the 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, one of the most enlightened Masonic bodies in 
the Union. It is also the regulation of the Grand Lodge of England, from which 
most of our Grand Lodges derive, directly or indirectly, their existence. It is 
consonant with the ancient usages of the Fraternity ; and, finally, it would pro- 
duce all the good effects required by punishment, namely : reform and the pre- 
vention of crime, and ought to be adopted by every Grand Lodge as a part of its 
Constitution. 

One other question arises. Does an expulsion, from what is called the higher 
degrees of Masonry, such as a Chapter, or an Encampment, affect the relations 
of the expelled party to Blue Masonry ? We answer, unhesitatingly, that it does 


*1 would cite as an instance coming under my immediate and personal knowledge, tbe 
case of Union Kilwinning Lods*e in Charleston, S. C., where every member pays a certain 
sum on his admission, and is f« rever afterwards exempted from contributions oi any kind. 
This is one of the oldest Lodges in the S'ete. 




46 


LAYING THE FOUNDATION STONE OF THE 


not. In this opinion we are supported by the best authority, though the action of 
some Grand Lodges — that of New York for example — is adverse to it But the 
principle upon which our doctrine is founded is plain. A Chapter of Royal Arch 
Masons cannot be recognized by a Lodge of Master Masons as a Masonic body. 
“ They hear them so to 5c, hut they do not know them so to be” by any of the modes 
of recognition known to Masonry. The acts, therefore, of a Chapter cannot be 
recognized by a Master Masons’ Lodge any more than the acts of a literary or 
charitable society wholly unconnected with the Order. Again — By the present 
- organization of Freemasonry, Grand Lodges are the supreme Masonic tribunals. 
If, therefore, expulsion from a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons involved expulsion 
from a Blue Lodge, the right of the Grand Lodge to hear and determine appeals 
and to regulate the internal concerns of the Institution, would be interfered with 
by another body beyond its control. But the converse of this proposition does 
not hold good. Expulsion from a Blue Lodge involves expulsion from the higher 
degrees. Because as the bodies working in these degrees are composed entirely 
of Blue Masons, the members could not lawfully sit and hold communion with 
one who was an expelled Mason. It is like thp 1»» in physics. If the fountain 
is sullied the streams which issue from it muen aflthke of its impurity, but a par* 
ticular stream may be affected without impairing the purity of the fountain. An- 
cient Craft Masonry is the fountain, and these higher degrees issue like branches 
from its mother source . — Masonic Signal. 


CEREMONY OF LAYING THE FOUNDATION STONE OF THE 

JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY HOSPITAL, AT BOMBAY. 

Oiv the 3d January, the north east corner stone of the “ Jamsetjee Jeejeeb- 
hoy Hospital,” was laid, with great pomp and Masonic formality, at Byculle, by 
the R. W. the Provincial Grand Master of Western India, Dr. James Burnes, 
K. H., assisted by the Hon. G. W. Anderson, member of Council ; P. W. LeGeyt, 
Esq., Chief Magistrate ; L. R. Reid and J. P. Willoughby, Esquires, Secretaries 
to the Government ; Lieutenant Colonel Neil Campbell, and W. Crawford, Esq^, 
Major General Valiant, K. H., and the various other dignitaries of the Masonic 
Craft at Bombay, — in the presence of Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, the Honorable 
the Governor Sir Thomas M’Mahon, all the principal members of our Society, 
and an immense assemblage of every class and denomination. The ladies were 
accommodated with seats under canopies tastefully decorated with banners and 
leaves, under the direction of Captain Goodfellow of the Engineers. The insig- 
nia and clothing of the Brethren excited much admiration ; above 40 members of 
the Provincial Grand Lodge being dressed alike in green aprons and scarfs with 
gold embroidery. The banners, batons, staves, &c. were also in admirable taste, 
and three large gilt pillars of the Corinthian, Ionic, and Doric orders, which were 
placed beside the Grand Master and his Wardens, gave a very striking effect to 
the ceremony, which, on this the first occasion of a Masonic display in our city, 
passed off with great eclat Sir George Arthur paid the worthy Pareee Knight 
the very handsome and becoming compliment of coming into the Fort for the 
purpose of accompanying him to the ceremony, and they reached the ground 
soon after 4 o’clock. 

The Provincial Grand Lodge was opened at the residence of N. Spencer, Esq., 
near the Suddur Adawlut, at 4, P. M., and the Brethren being formed in proces- 
sion, moved to the site of the foundation stone. 

On the Procession reaching the ground, it halted and faced inwards, forming a 
broad line through which the Prov. Grand Master, and the Prov. and Deputy 
Prov. Grand Masters, passed to the East of the Foundation stone : — Brs. Reid, 
and J. Willoughby, taking their position on the west, and Brs. N. Campbell and 
W. Crawford on the south, and Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and his son Cursetje* 



JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY HOSPITAL. 


47 


Jamsetjee, Esq., on the north of the stone. Music wa9 then played, and the Archi- 
tect of the building presented the Plan to the Prov. Grand Master. The Regis- 
trar and Treasurer also presented the Inscribed Plate and the Coins. 

The Plate, Plan and Coins were then submitted to the Hon. the Governor and 
Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, and the Prov. Grand Master having expressed his 
gratification at His Excellency’s presence, the Inscription on the Plate was read 
aloud by the Deputy Prov. Grand Master. 

In the reign of 
Her Most Gracious Majesty 
VICTORIA, 

And under the Government of 
Edvard, Lord Ellen borough, 

Governor General of India; 

Georoe, Marquis or Tweedale, K. T., 

Being Governor of Madras, 
and 

The Honorable Sir Geoboe Arthur, Bart., K. C. H., 

Governor of Bombay, 

The Foundation Stone of 

THE JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY HOSPITAL 
Was laid with Masonic honors, 

In the presence of 

Sir JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, 

The Founder, 
and of 

His Excellency the Governor, 

JAMES BONNES, K. H., 

• Provincial Grand Master of Western India, 

Assisted by 

The Hon. George W. Anderson, Pro. P. P. G. M. 

P. W. LeGeyt, Esq. D. P. G. M. 

Lestock R. Reid. Esq., P. G. S. W. 

Lieutenant Colonel Neil Campbell, P. G. J. W. 

Captain W. Goodfellow, the Architect, 

And a numerous convocation of the Craft, 

On Tuesday the Third day of January, 
in the year of the Christian era, 1843,* 
and of Masonry 5843. 


THIS EDIFICE 

Was erected as a testimony of devoted loyalty to 
THE YOUNG QUEEN OF THE BRITISH ISLES, 
and of unmingled respect for the just and paternal 
British Government in India; 

Also, in affectionate and patriotic solicitude for the welfare of the poor classes 
of all races among his countrymen, the 
British subjects of Bombay, 

Sia JAMSETJEE JeIjEEBHOY, Knight, 

The first native of India, honored with British Knighthood, 

Who thus hoped to perform a pleasing duty 
Towards his Government, his Country, and his People : 
and, 

In solemn remembrance of blessings bestowed, 
to present this, 

His Offering of Religious Gratitude, 
to 


ALMIGHTY GOD, 

The Father in Heaven of the Christian— the Hindoo— the Mahommedan -and the Parsee, 
With humble, earnest prayer, 
for 

His contioued care and blessing upon his Children— his Family— his Tribe— 

And his Country. 


The Prov. Grand Master, the Prov. and Dep. Prov. Grand Masters, and the 
Grand Wardens, then descended into the trench, and the stone having been rais- 



48 


LAYING THE FOUNDATION STONE OF THE 


ed by the united aid of the Brethren, the Deputy Prov. Grand Master deposited 
the Coins and the Inscribed Plate in their respective places, and spread the ce 
ment with a trowel. After which the Stone was lowered into its destined bed, 
conducted by the Deputy Prov. Grand Master and the Architect — solemn music 
playing. 

The Prov. Grand Master then addressed the Prov. Grand Officers : — “ Right 
Worshipful Brethren, we shall now apply the various implements of our royal 
Craft, borne by you, to this stone, that it may be laid in its bed according to the 
rules of Architecture, and in conformity with our ancient rites and usages.” R. 
W. Br. Junior G. Warden — u What is the emblem of your office ?” — to which the 
reply was, “The Plumb, R. W. Sir, which I now present for your use.” The 
Level and Square having in like manner been presented by R. W. Brs. Reid and 
LeGeyt, — the stone was proved by these implements by the P. G. Master, who 
pronounced it to be “ Well-formed, true, and trusty.” The Mallet was 
then handed by Brother Goodfellow to the P. G. Master, who delivered it to the 
R. W. Br. Anderson, who struck the stone with it thrice, and the Prov. G. Master 
having then also struck the stone three times, repeated the prayer — “ May the 
Great Architect of the Universe grant a blessing on this Stone, which we have 
now laid, and enable us by his Providence to finish this, and every other virtuous 
undertaking. Amen, so mote it be.” The Grand Officers and Brethren gave the 
usual response and Masonic honors. The Prov. Grand Master then delivered the 
implements to the Architect, and addressed him as follows : — “ Br. William Good- 
fellow, the skill and fidelity displayed by you at the commencement of this un- 
dertaking have secured the entire approbation of your Brethren;, and they sin- 
cerely pray that the Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Hospital may be a lasting monument 
of your wisdom and taste, and of the noble spirit and splendid liberality of its 
founder.” The Cornucopia and cups of Wine and Oil, were then presented by 
the respective bearers, through the P. G. Wardens and D. P. G. Master, to the 
P. G. Master, who, having poured them on the stone, said : — “ May the all-boun- 
teous Author of Nature bless the inhabitants of this place with all the necessa- 
ries, conveniences, and comforts of life ; assist in the erection and completion of 
this building; protect the workmen against every accident, and long preserve 
this structure from decay. Amen ! so mote it be.” The Brethren again gave 
the usual response, and the Masonic honors. 

Dr. Burnes then addressed Sir Jamsetjee in the following terms: — 

Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy — 

Many and memorable have been the occasions on which the deeds of charita- 
ble and philanthropic men have been consecrated by the ancient rites and cere- 
monies of our Masonic Craft, but never have those ceremonies been employed to 
aid a purpose more congenial to the feelings of the upright Mason, or the true 
hearted lover of his species, than the present The splendid structure which you 
here propose to dedicate to the relief of your fellow-creatures, as well as the 
many other transcendent acts of benevolence that have characterized your ca- 
reer, are, like our Masonic Institution itself, kindred and goodly fruits of the most 
generous emotion that can swell the bosom of man towards man, — the desire to 
succor his Brother in distress, — and to give free scope to that ever-hallowed 
charity, — 

“ Which droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven, 

And blesses him that gives, and Him that takes.” 

It is with cordial sympathy, therefore, as well as with sincere pride and gratifica- 
tion, that the Masonic Fraternity of Bombay have responded to your summons, 
and borne their emblems to this spot to day. And, when the record of these pro- 
ceedings shall be read within the houses of our Order, dispersed throughout the 
civilized world, our Brethren also, of every tongue and nation, will rejoice that 
we have been aiding you in this good work, and will participate with us in ex- 
ultation, that by far the foremost man for deeds of true wisdom in this portion of 
the globe, has also, in giving effect to munificent designs of love and charity, 



JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY HOSPITAL. 49 

lieeh die 1 first of his tribe and country to solicit the countenance of our Brother- 
hood. 

It has been usual to explain these ceremonies ; and in this, the first instance of 
their being practised at Bombay, it is essential that I should at least guard against 
their being misinterpreted. There is one portion of them which will awaken a 
sympathy in the bosom of every reflecting individual, even of this vast assemblage, 
— composed, though it be, of men of all varieties of sects, customs, and habits 
of thought, since no condition of society exists, in which, at the season of doubt 
and anxietv, but especially at the commencement of a momentous undertaking,— 
the plan of which he may conceive, but the execution of which depends on a far 
mightier than he, — man will not feel his absolute dependence on the Omnipotent 
Creator, and, by a natural instinct, turn to His throne for support. But tne im- 
pulse which prompts this appeal acquires intensity, when the frail and transitory 
being contemplates the erection of an enduring and stupendous structure which 
may rear its stately head for centuries after he is mouldering in the dust, — and 
hence, from the remotest ages, and in almost all countries, the foundation stone 
of important edifices has been deposited, with an impressive solemnity, indicative 
of the founder’s humble trust, and fervent prayer, that the Great Architect of the 
Universe may prosper his work, and ever shower down his bounty and blessings 
upon it As visible types of those blessings, it has also been usual, in accord- 
ance with a practice which needs no elucidation amongst a people long accus- 
tomed to shadow forth solemn truths by symbols and allegory, — to pour forth, with 
a spirit of hope and thankfulness, the abundant fruits of the earth on the first cor- 
ner stone, — in the com of nourishment, the wine of refreshment, and the oil of 
joy. Such, then, is the simple origin of one portion of these ceremonies, which 
so far will be recognized as analogous to those performed by one of our most 
distinguished Parsee families in laying the foundation keels of some of those su- 
perb vessels which, of late years, have brought Great Britain and India into clo- 
ser and dearer connexion. 

The other part of the ceremony I have more difficulty in explaining, not that it 
is less clear to myself, but that there are certain land-marks which I must not 
transgress, and within the strict limits of which, explanation may be embarras- 
sing. But I do not despair to render it also intelligible, and your character and 
conduct, my worthy friend, afford me scope of doing so. 'f’ou have seen me 
then, apply certain implements of operative architecture to this stone, in accord- 
ance with the ancient and immemorial usage of our Order, at the foundation of 
all stately and superb edifices. But, you are too enlightened a man to suppose 
that the essence of Freemasonry lies in a mere formality like this, or that those 
about me and myself have linked ourselves together in an indissoluble tie, only 
to practice ceremonial or display. No! As the corn, the wine, and the oil were 
symbols of God’s bounty and providence, calling forth reverence and gratitude to 
the Creator, so also, even this stone, and those implements, are emblems, convey- 
ing to the enlightened Mason pure and precious precepts of his duty to his neigh- 
bor. They are, in truth, tokens of a great and practical system of universal 
good will and benevolence, — which, establishing moral worth as the standard, 
welcomes to its bosom the good of every color, clime, or creed, that acknow- 
ledges God, — which binds you, whose name and deeds fill men’s mouths, as those 
of the u benevolent Parsee of Bombay,” and, longo intervallo, myself, the child of 
Northern Europe, and all who are willing to work with us to M mitigate the sum 
of human woe,” into one vast chain of fraternity and love, — which enforces the 
most devout reverence to the Supreme Architect, and the strictest conscientous 
duty to our earthly rulers ; but, at the same time, peremptorily excludes all dis- 
cussions on points of faith, state politics, or other questions likely to excite the 
angry passions of man against man, — and which, in short, is founded on the glo- 
rious principle, that 

“ God hath made mankind one mighty Brotherhood, 

Himself the Master, and the world their Lodge.” 
rt 



50 


JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOT HOSPITAL. 


Many of those eminent individuals, whose names are dearest to India, have been 
professors and promoters of this vast system. In the Right Worshipful Brother 
by my side,* you will recognise one, from whom even you have obtained encour- 
agement ; ana who has, with zeal and fervency, devoted his gifts as a man, and 
his power as a governor, to the dissemination of charity and enlightenment 
amongst your countrymen. The late Marquis of Hastings, certainly inferior to 
none of the illustrious men that Europe has lent to Asia, was a stately pillar of 
our Craft ; and there is a valued and elevated Brother present,! who could tes- 
tify how deeply its principles influenced the conduct of that distinguished soldier 
and statesman. The present ruler of India shewed his respect for it, demanding 
so late as 1836, that a legislative enactment should be so expressed as not to 
reflect upon its members. We have lately seen the government of a sister Pre- 
sidency transferred from one noble Brother to another, and if we cannot include 
amongst us, the distinguished officer who presides at Bombay, we have the satis- 
faction of seeing his son amongst our office-bearers. 

Through the mercy of Providence, from ^fte earliest period, the system I have 
described has been in operation, assuaging the horrers of strife, and encouraging 
the spread of civilization ; and while your remote forefathers were bowing with 
adoration to the glorious orb of dav, the visible source of light, heat, and produc- 
tiveness, — our ancient Brethren, if they were not identical with them, were also, 
by the symbols of the sun, the moon, and the starry firmament, inculcating the 
mighty truths of God’s power, omnipresence, and divinity, and of man’s respon- 
sibility, hope, and final destiny, thereby evincing their sympathy and connection 
-with those, 

“ Who mom and eve, 

Hail their Creator’s dwelling-place, 

Among the lights of Heaven.” 

I have said that your life and character afford scope for illustrating our system; 
and I now turn to my Masonic Brethren, and present you to them, as a Brother 
who has practically attained the summit of the Masonic structure, which is 
Charity. Never forgetting that you commenced, and must end, upon the lev- 
el, — following the plumb-line of rectitude, — acting on the square with your fel- 
low-men, — circumscribing your own wants within compass, but extending your 
' benevolence to a circle, which, if it depended upon you, would evidently embrace 
all mankind — we need not wonder that you have attained the highest elevation 
of moral worth, — that the love of your family, the respect of your fellow-citizens, 
the applause of men, and rewards from your Sovereign, have flowed in upon you ; 
and that, above all, you enjoy the serenity of mind, arising from the inexpressible 
delight of having succoured the distressed, 

“ Which nothing earthly gives, or can destroy.** 

And although, my friend, it has not fallen to us, who are, after all, but u nature’s 
journeymen,” to initiate you into our mysteries, we cannot doubt, after the splen- 
, did deeds of love which you have achieved, that you are a wise master builder, — 

| a living stone, squared, polished, fashioned, and proved by the hand of the Great 

| Master himself, — that your patent is from the Grand Chancery above, — and that 

; you need neither sign nor token, warrant nor diploma, password nor grip, to in- 

| sure you a welcome to the heart every honest Mason. 

May you, Sir Jamsetjee, like the foundation we have laid, long be stable and 
| secure, — may you, for years, be spared as the corner stone of charity, the prop 

| and support of the widow and the fatherless, — may your good deeds form a con- 

\ stant source of enjoyment to yourself while you remain amongst men; and when 

| the time does come that overtakes us all, and the solemn Tyler, Death, must raise 

the curtain of a new existence, — may it be to usher you in, as an accepted and 


- *The Honorable Mr. Anderson. 


tSir T. M'Mahon. 


▲ MASONIC HTMN. 


51 


exalted companion, to the Supreme Chapter on high, there to take your place 
under the a]l>seeing eye of Him, who seeth not as man seeth, but who will un- 
doubtedly pay the workman his wages according to his work. 

Sir Jamsetjee replied as follows : — Right Worshipful Sir, I feel beyond mea- 
sure gratified that you and your Masonic Brethren have attended on this occasion 
to do so much honor to the Foundation of the Hospital which it is here proposed 
to erect I was most desirous to obtain the countenance of your Fraternity, be- 
cause, to say nothing of the regard and esteem I entertain for yourself, and many 
of my valued friends whom I see supporting you, — I have heard of its great anti- 
quity, its universal benevolence, its toleration ; and I know also that its objects 
are those of pure charity to all mankind. I have no language to express myself 
in return for the observations you have made of myself, but I trust I shall ever 
retain the good will and favorable opinion of my friends. I have also cordially 
to thank Sir Geo. Arthur, Sir Thomas M’Mahon, and the many Ladies and Gen- 
tlemen whom I see here, for their attendance, which 1 cannot but feel, evinces 
on their part & deep interest in this new Institution, which is most gratifying to 
me. 

Three cheers having been given in honor of Sir Jamsetjee, the procession 
returned in the same order in which it had arrived. Before the Lodge was clo- 
sed, it was unanimously resolved that Dr. Burnes be requested to permit the 
publication of his speech, that it might be circulated wherever members of the 
Craft were to be found. 

Nothing could have gone off better or with more eclat : — the whole arrange- 
ments were perfect, and the spectacle very imposing. 

The laying of the foundation stone of the Grant College having been defer- 
red in consequence of some delay in the preparation of the plans, this ceremony 
will, we believe, take place a few months hence, accompanied by the same Ma- 
sonic honors as the present 


A MASONIC HYMN. 

Peace, peace on earth, good will to men, 
Echo India’s wilds again, 

As saving love descends ; 

And still through paths beset with fear, 
Burst the glad strain on mortal ear, 

Which calls you Brethren, friends. 

And sure if Mercy ’s doubly blest, 

Imparting transport to the breast 
That gives and that receives, 

Then swell each heart with joy sincere, 

And humble gratitude be here, 

For kindness which relieves. 

Lord ! o’er the waste of waters wide, 

Still let thy ark of *’ercy ride, 

Prompt to the Orphan’s prayer : 

Ope wide its sheltering gates, and win, 

By gentle love, from shame and sin, 

Those who seek refuge here. 



52 


MASONRY IN SWITZERLAND. 


VIEWS OF MASONRY IN SWITZERLAND. 

The interesting report of the committee on foreign correspondence of the 
Grand Lodge of New York, submitted to that body in Juue last, contains brief 
notices of sundry interesting documents from the Grand Lodge of Switzerland, 
the character of which will appear from the following extracts : — 

In the circular of the National Grand Master, he thus speaks : 

“ Masonry relies in the quality and not in the quantity of the Brotherhood, and 
its firmest support is to be found in the happy choice of its initiates, and not in 
the frequency of its initiations.” In another place he says, “ the evil lays in the 
unfortunate facility of initiations. If faithful to the principles of Freemasonry, 
we would exact from candidates a certain degree of Education, easiness of cir- 
cumstances, honor, morals, &c. there would be no Mason, unworthy of benevo* 
lence, as no one would make of this title an object of speculation.” And in 
another place ; “Avoid above all, the fatal error which makes the strength of a 
Lodge consist in the number of its members. Every virtuous man is our Brother, 
but unfortunately every Brother is not a true Mason. Should there be found 
among you seven Brothers animated by the same zeal for the perfection of hu- 
manity, and who should actively work, be assured that such alliance would not 
the less be cherished by the entire Fraternity, as just and perfect, and you would 
the more surely find- in it, the happiness of an intimate union.” 

The following is an extract from the report of the Grand Council of Adminis- 
tration, dated 10th June, 5837. 

“To act in accordance with the meaning of the institution, it is indispensibly 
requisite that you should be Masons , cmd nothing but Masons. You should en- 
deavor to get rid of all prejudices and of all preferences of person, place and cir- 
cumstance. It is precisely one of the bad features of the character of our times, 
that we do not appreciate the intrinsic value of a man, but by his political color- 
ing, a reproach deserved by all parties without distinction. Jf the Lodges and 
their members engage in these fatal views, they transform themselves into par- 
ties ; they become clubs, arenas of bitter and irritating discussions, and ruin 
themselves and our association ; as in political and religious matters, men do not 
listen to reason. Thus the principal Masonic statutes which forbid us to speak 
of these matters, either in the Lodge or in committee, are as ancient as they are 
wise ; we, therefore, forcibly insist that they be strictly observed, because as it is 
said with so much justice in one of the articles of general duties, it is by these 
means only that Freemasonry becomes a point of union for all men, draws to- 
gether and binds with a faithful friendship, persons who without them would 
continually remain apart” 

At the session of the National Grand Lodge of the 24th June, 5842, Br. Mie- 
ville, Venerable of the Lodge of Lausanne, on the occasion of the Installation of 
officers, addressed the assembly — from which we make a few extracts. “We are 
all employed in the raising of a temple to Solomon! Every day we bear to it a 
stone ; but our efforts not being sufficiently united, and from their deplorable 
isolations were hurtful in their effects. Let us congratulate ourselves R. W. 
Brethren, that we now belong to a National Institution, which by Masonic ties 
will bind still more closely our social ones, and which offers to us in all the mem- 
bers or the alliance, friends and Brothers, all of us zealous to discharge the dou 
ble debt imposed upon us by the touching voice of our country, the sacred appeal 
of Masonry. 

“ A good Mason is always a good citizen, a just magistrate, a good son and a 
faithful husband.” # # # * “ We establish well organized societies. Nay 

more, societies which bear an ardent love for their country, a respect for religion, 
obedience to the laws which govern us, and an unextinguishable love for good 
order and virtue.” 



MASONRY IN SWITZERLAND. 


53 


“ When modern Masonry made its appearance with its systems, its innova* 
lions and abuses, it necessarily opposed the natural tendency of Masonry and in- 
troduced into it hurtful changes. 

“Far be from us, all subjection of conscience, and, all hierarchical despotism, 
they both are in contradiction to true Masonry. An association of enlightened 
men and free from prejudices, demands in this age with great outcry for a con- 
cordance of sentiments and action. But a society can never prosper if it acta 
arbitrarily or in the absence of laws. A legislative and executive force had to 
be formed as a basis of our alliance : every one should submit to it, as they have 
all freely voted for its adoption.” 

“The most ancient Masonic documents, the most remote traditions, and the 
reiterated declarations of the Grand Lodge of England, (which is acknowledged 
by all Orients as the mother Lodge of the ancient Fraternity of Free and Accept • 
ed Masons) prove that ancient and true Freemasonry consists in the three De- 
grees of St John ” 

“ All Lodges, even those of modem Masonry, agree to it, by giving to them- 
selves the name of St John, but above all by celebrating the festival of St John 
the Baptist, the patron of the Ancient Fraternity.” 

“ Nevertheless, it is requisite and prudent not to precipitate that which may be 
an affair of belief or even of opinion, and the adage of our Grand mother Lodge 
leaves us to hope that Masonry will little by little reunite that which is divided 
by opinion and prejudices.” 

The following extracts are from the report , of the Grand Master of the Na- 
tional Grand Lodge, in the year 5840. “ The prosperity of all associations, and 

more especially a Masonic one, essentially depends on the manner in which it is 
composed. Unfortunately, (and experience proves it every day) we see that in 
all countries there are Lodges which are but just established ; and frequently 
not without great effort, where we find arising among them, frightful dissentions, 
which , soon lead to suspension of Work, ana even to a dissolution of the Lodge 
itself, and if this result does not always happen, it is because sometimes there are 
found a clique of members who are bound together merely by interested motives, 
who endeavor by means of numerous initiations to fill the vacuum which a bad 
administration had produced in the funds of their Lodges. Deplorable examples 
might be. adduced in support of these, considerations.” 

“ It is something in this world not to make ourselves remarkable by our vices, 
but that we may become true Masons we should render ourselves distinguished 
.by our real virtues.” 

“ The ritual requires an interval of thirty days between the time of proposing 
a candidate and his initiation, during which time, * his name must remain affixed 
to the door of the Lodge in order that the members may have a knowledge of the 
same, and that they may oppose him if necessary, and at all events, that they 
may make inquiries on the candidate, especially if it is for initiation or aggre- 
gation. In departing from this wise prescription the Lodges deprive themselves 
of the means of information in regard to the candidates, and expose themselves to 
the danger of initiating or affiliating in a careless manner, of which they may 
afterwards have reason to repent* There is another regulation of the ritual 
which we see sometimes eluded. It is that which requires an interval of one 
year between the 1st and 2d Degrees, and the same between the 2d and 3d. It 
nas this bad effect, that notwithstanding the assertion to the contrary, it is abso- 
lutely impossible for a Brother, let his capacity or assiduity be what it may, to 
acquire in a shorter space, true knowledge of his Degree, even in regard to its 
forms and customs. To neglect this regulation, and advance at the expiration of 
a few months, nay, sometimes a few days, a newly initiated member, to the Mas- 
ter’s Degree, is an intolerable abuse, and it has likewise this fault also, that it 
strips away all the merit from that Degree, which is the most sublime one, and 
ought never to be assumed, but as a reward of zeal, aptness and perseverance.” 



54 


CHARACTER OP ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 


THE CHARACTER OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 

BY HON. VINCENT 8. BRADFORD. 

[From an Address delivered before St. Joseph Lodge, No. 46, at Sooth Bend, Indiana.] 

We are informed by the Evangelist Luke, that the Angel Gabriel predicted to 
Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist, at the annunciation of his promised 
birth, “that he should be great in the sight of the Lord, and should drink 
neither wine nor strong drink and should be filled with the Holy Ghost, even 
from his mother’s womb.” Again, the Evangelist Matthew relates that our Sa- 
viour said of his forerunner, “ among them that are born of women there hath not 
risen a greater than John the Baptist” The Biography of the Baptist, though 
brief, is full of interest He was eminently self-denying. He drank neither wine 
nor strong drink and his food was locusts and wild honey. Self-denial is a virtue 
strongly inculcated by the principles of our Order. Without it the first elements 
of Masonic character cannot be acquired. The Mason who is unacquainted with 
self-denial, will never learn to restrain his passions and appetites within the 
bounds of moderation and habitually to exercise that right reason which is so es- 
sential to enable him to perceive and observe his obligations to the great Master 
of the Universe, to the Fraternity and his fellow-men in general. But the great 
force and beauty of the character of John the Baptist, in respect to self-denial, 
was that he practised Temperance on Total Abstinence principles. This obser- 
vance of entire abstinence from intoxicating drinks must have peculiarly quali- 
fied the Baptist for the difficult and arduous life he led in the wilderness* and for 
the important work he had entrusted to him, of arousing a lethargic nation to- 
meet the greatest event in their history— the advent of the promised Messiah and 
the establishment among them of the Kingdom of Heaven. The drink of John » 
was entirely of the crystal well, and his food the simplest that the deserts of Ju- 
dea afforded, for our Saviour testified of him “that John came neither eating nor. 
drinking.” What an ever abiding charm is there in Temperance. How doth 
Temperance diffuse the glow of health through the corporeal frame, and permit 
the plastic principle of life within to invigorate, develope and impart delight to . 
existence. How proudly and lightly sits Reason upon its throne when Tempe- 
rance is the law of its reign. Who can estimate the ever increasing power of the 
human soul, when intoxicating stimulus shall cease to weaken and destroy its * 
energies from generation to generation ? Every free and accepted Mason should 
be in the first rank of the Advance Guard of the Temperance Army, in this glo- 
rious day of the Total Abstinence movement. Although the development of the> 
principle now inspires enthusiasm by its novelty, temperance ought to be to the 
true Brother of our Order “familiar as a household word,” since it has ever been 
considered among Masons a cardinal virtue in the character of one of its greatest 
patrons of excellence. Masons ought to support the Temperance cause as vete- 
rans in the service. The Lodge is and ever has been, in its professed princi- 
ples, a Temperance Society. Masons should never forget this great land-mark 
of their Order. 

John the Baptist was remarkable for his sincerity or love of truth. It was this 
which prompted his seclusion in the wilderness from the period of early youth, 
and his entire devotion, until the close of his life, to his mission, casting utterly 
behind him and forsaking all the advantages and privileges of his paternal and 
priestly rank. Nothing great has ever been or ever will be accomplished by 
human efforts, unless commenced and prosecuted in sincerity. Sincerity is in 
general the talisman of success. I define sincerity to be such a conviction of the 
truth of a fact as causes an earnest belief in it, and an intense interest in it,' so 
intense that if any thing is to be done in respect to it, the whole powers of the 
man are at once enlisted in the enterprise. It is the characteristic of the hero, 
wherever he has or may be found. Beneath the guiding, inspiring and life giv- 
ing energy of this characteristic, behold the Baptist drawing to his ministry in 
the desert, forth from out of the luxurious cities of Judea, the proud, cold and for- 
mal pharisee, the infidel philosophic and sneering sadducee, and forth from Jeru- 



CHARACTER OF 6T. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 


55 


salem and all Judea and the region round about Jordan, vast multitudes of peo- 
ple. Behold him with only the great fact of the cross erected for the redemption 
of man before his prophetic vision, in his raiment of camel’s hair and with a leath- 
ern girdle about his loins, influencing the great assembly of the loarned and un- 
learned, of the wise and the simple, of the old and the young that gathered around 
him with such eloquence and power, that “ all were baptised of him in Jordan, 
confessing their sins.” Behold him “ severe in youthful beauty,” rebuking the 
pharisees and sadducees who had come to his baptism as 44 a generation of vi- 
pers,” admonishing them “ to bring forth fruits meet for repentance, and not to 
say within themselves, that we have Abraham for our Father, but to regard the 
truth that the axe was laid unto the root of the tree, and that therefore every tree 
which did not bring forth good fruit should be hewn down and cast into the fire.” 
Behold him with the same truthful zeal urging the publicans “to exact no more 
than that which was appointed them,” and charging the soldiers “ to do violence 
to no man, neither to accuse any falsely and to be content with their wages.” 
In the same all absorbing love of the truth, behold him steadily repudiating the 
spiritual honor, amounting almost to deification, which the admiring and wonder- 
stricken multitude sought to confer on him, and diverting their attention from 
himself, to him who he assured them “ though coming after him, was preferred 
before him, whose shoe-latchet he was not worthy to unloose,” and who, as 44 the 
Lamb of God taking away the sins of the world,” was the only true object of 
their religious worship. Behold him at a later period, still the same steadfast 
and enthusiastic lover of truth, rebuking the illicit connection between Herod 
and Herodias and by his martyrdom consecrating this bright and heroic trait of 
character. 

The self-denial and love of truth of the Baptist, constitute in him as in every 
other finished model, the basis of the superstructure of virtue which all succeed- 
ing generations admire. 

From this foundation spring the four cardinal virtues, of Temperance, Forti- 
tude, Prudence and Justice, which compose the Moral Edifice; and ' the three 
Graces, of Faith, Hope and Charity, which Masons delight to contemplate. All 
these virtues and graces met in John the Baptist. His fortitude was exhibited in 
his resolute encounter of danger, difficulty, opposition, imprisonment and death. 
His prudence is observable in the great popular confidence he inspired, which 
rendered even Herod the King afraid of the humble Baptist, and in his careful 
preparation for his ministry. John disclosed not the person of Christ to the 
PriestB and Levites, whom the Jews sent from Jersusalem, but only on the next 
day after he had dismissed them with an indefinite reply to their inquiries, point- 
ed out to those who stood near him as trusted disciples, the long promised and 
expected Messiah. The patience of the Baptist is evinced in the just rebukes 
and admonitions he administered to the pharisees and sadducees, to Herod and 
Herodias and all classes who attended on his ministry, and in his frank recogni- 
tion of the superior claims of the Saviour of Mankind. To no man more deserv- 
edly than unto the Baptist can be applied the description of the Roman Poet — 

“ Justum et tenacem propositi virum.” 

It was a beautiful and happy conception embodied in that ancient fable con- 
cerning Pandora’s Box, that when every other sentiment deserts the human heart, 

“ Hope, the charmer, lingers still behind.” 

It is true that, as a natural feeling, “ Hope springs eternal in the human breast.” 
But it is only when refined into an abiding moral sentiment, prompting to moral 
action and contributing to the adorning of moral character, that hope becomes a 
grace of the spirit It is then nearly allied to faith. Its expectation being of that 
which is real and true, soon ripens into belief or faith. Hope anticipates what 
faith realizes. In the dying hour, while faith triumphs, hope cheers and com- 
forts — Hope may be termed the mainspring of the affections — It is man’s con- 
sciousness of his immortal ancestry and destiny. 



56 


CHARACTER OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 


That healthful consciousness filling the soul with inward peace, serenity and 
joy, and illuminating the inner world with brighter and purer light than that of 
the natural world, can never be destroyed until the moral image of the Creator 
has entirely departed from the creature, and the darkness of the second death has 
enshrouded the spirit John the Baptist enjoyed this hope in the liveliest exer- 
cise ; for it was his privilege to look for better things than the long line of proph- 
ets who had preceded him. It was this grace which cast a halo around the head 
and illumined the countenance of the otherwise stern and austere forerunner and 
preacher of repentance. It kept his soul fresh and vigorous amidst the desola- 
tion and sterility of the wilderness. When no man companied with and instruc- 
ted his youth, it was his companion and teacher and portrayed to him future 
scenes of heroic conflict with, and glorious triumph over, the World, the Flesh 
and the Devil. Mow hopefully did “ the child grow and wax strong in spirit and 
remain in the desert until the day of his showing unto Israel.” Amidst the buf- 
fetings of Satan, to which in his hour of temptation, like his divine master, he was 
undoubtedly exposed, hope was to the Baptist like “ an anchor of the soul, sure 
and steadfast, entering into that within the vail.” With what hopefulness did he 
raise his voice in the wilderness, crying u prepare ye the way of the Lord and 
make his paths straight. Every valley shall be filled and every mountain and 
hill shall be brought low, and the crooked shall be made straight and the rough 
shall be made smooth.” 

How greatly did his hope of salvation to Israel, through repentance and remis- 
sion of sins cheer and strengthen hirti when on his hard fare of locusts and wild 
honey, he stood day after day in the flood of Jordan, plunging thousands after 
thousands beneath the baptismal waters. How did his hope rejoice in immediate 
expectation of “ the day spring from on high, which should visit the earth, to give 
light to them that sate in darkness and in the shadow of death and to guide their 
feet in the way of peace.” How did his hope exult and u bless the Lord God of 
Israel, for being about to visit and redeem his people of Israel, to raise up an horn 
of salvation in the house of his servant David, that they should be saved from 
their enemies and from the hand of all them that hated them, to perform the 
mercy promised to the Fathers of Israel and to remember his holy covenants — 
the oath which he swore unto their Father Abraham, that he would grant unto 
them, that being delivered out of the hands of their enemies, they might serve 
him without fear, in holiness and righteousness, all the days of their life.” 

It may truly be said of the Baptist, that hope of the Messiah and of the great 
blessings which would attend his advent, was strong within him, even from his 
mother’s womb. Near the close of his life and while in the dungeon of Herod, 
this hope kept alive in his breast, a strong personal interest in the success of the 
ministry of reconciliation and moved him to send two of his disciples to ascertain 
if the worker of the wondrous miracles, the fame of which had penetrated even 
to his prison cell, was the same Divine personage who, at his baptism, the voice 
from Heaven had proclaimed to be the Son of God and the promised deliverer. 
The word of God hath with propriety averred that “the just shall live by faith*” 
Taking the definition of the same infallible exponent, that “ faith is the substance 
of things hoped for — the evidence of things not seen what else than this grace, 
the gift of infinite mercy , , could have fed the spiritual life of John the Baptist? 
While preparing in the deep seclusions and solitudes of the wilderness of Judea, 
by holy contemplation and self-denying habits of body, his youthful spirit for the 
trials and toils of his subsequent mission, the Baptist must have lived by faith. 
To the ever open eye of his faith, as the result of the ministry assigned him, 
must have continually appeared, amidst the rocks and sands of the desert, in 
which he dwelt, through the long drawn vista of future ages, the lovely and re- 
freshing vision “of the wilderness and solitary place being glad and of the desert 
rejoicing and blossoming as the rose.” 

When called to make daily sacrifices of ease and comfort, to practice the most 
rigid self-denial, to endure severe mortifications — to make the cave his bed and 
the rock his pillow — and to feed upon locusts and wild honey, how ardently must 



CHARACTER OF 6T. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 


57 


have burnt the flame of faith, in the bosom of this lone and wandering child, to 
enable him in his growth to manhood, amidst such discouragements, to preserve 
and cultivate that holy enthusiasm, which after the commencement of his public 
ministry rendered the “ reed shaken by the wind,” in the language of his divine 
master, “ a Prophet and more than a Prophet,” and made his voice potent to 
arouse a nation from the slumber of ages. Faith is indeed a mighty principle of 
life and action. By it, the Baptist fed when hungry, on that bread of life, of 
which, if a man shall partake, he shall hunger no more, and by it he drank when 
athirst of that water of life, of which, if a man shall drink, he shall thirst no 
more— By it he saw that through the great Redemption he was appointed to pro- 
claim as at hand, the sorrows and sufferings, the sin and shame of himself and of 
such of his race as accepted it, would shortly be exchanged for that heavenly 
felicity and glory which “ eye hath not seen nor ear heard and of which it hath 
not entered into the heart of man to conceive.” 

Faith, like hope, is a sentiment inherent in our nature. It belongs to the 
moral constitution of man and forms part of the moral being which God has be- 
stowed on him. It degenerates into credulity when it is ignorant and depraved, 
but it is entitled to its name when intelligently exercised in reference to those 
high subjects and objects, which properly belong to its contemplation, — such as 
the Deity, his attributes, works and law. As the skilfully constructed musical 
instrument responds to the touch of the master who formed it and gives forth the 
appropriate tones, so does faith in an holy nature yield immediate assent to divine 
truth when addressed by it. 

The agreement that exists between faith and the revelations of the Bible 
being founded in the moral construction of things, is one of the best evidences 
that can be possessed, of the truth of the Bible. It would be strange and anoma- 
lous indeed, if it were otherwise ; for then it would happen that the moral nature 
of man would be the only created thing that could not mirror the perfections of 
the Deity. 

“But though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not 
charity, I am nothing. For charity beareth all tilings, believeth all things, endur- 
eth all things.” Such was the charity of John the Baptist His character was 
its personification and verified the other saying of the Apostle, “ and now abideth 
faith, hope, charity, these three, but the greatest of these is charity.” 

It was love to God and love to man which graced the self-denial and sincerity 
of the Baptist, and which so eminently beautified his temperance, prudence and 
justice— Like his Divine Master, he sacrificed all and consecrated all to the 
glory of God and the promotion of the best interests of man. He became poor 
and destitute of the conveniences of life, that he might herald the way for the 
bestowal upon the world of that priceless treasure of heavenly wisdom “ which 
moth nor rust cannot corrupt nor thieves break through and steal.” What he 
professed and practised himself, he sought to inculcate upon others. Hear how 
the very life of his spirit animates his exhortation “ that he that hath two coats 
let him impart to him that hath none, and he that hath meat do likewise.” Char- 
ity is essential to the true dignity of human nature. Without it man does not 
answer the end of his being and cannot occupy his proper station in the scale of 
existence. 

Charity is the principle of all right individual, domestic, social and religious 
sentiment, for “ though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have 
not charity, I am become as sounding brass, ora tinkling cymbal.” 

Holy love, which is charity, is the great principle of attraction which holds 
together the moral universe ; for “ God is love.” It pervades from the centre to 
the circumference of the immeasurable creation. It is a law of happiness as ex- 
tensive as the nature of the infinite mind. With its exercise is necessarily con- 
nected all other right emotion and thought. Without it all is disorder and dis- 
cord — with it all is order and harmony. 

When exercised in reference to the Supreme Being, it brings the soul into 

8 



58 


CHARACTER OV 8T. JOHN THE BAPTIST# 


sweet accordance and agreement with the Father of the Spirit and the God of all 
grace, and excites to prayer and praise. When exercised in reference to man, it 
opens the eye to the compassionate beholding: of misery, the ear to kind atten- 
tion to the tale of distress ; the heart to sympathy with grief and the liberal hand 
to the affording of instant and bounteous relief to want and suffering. 

Charity is a principal sufficient for the immortal wants and desires of the most 
expanded moral nature. “ Charity never faileth ; but whether there be prophe- 
cies they shall fail, whether there be tongues they shall cease, whether there be 
knowledge it shall vanish away.” Charity, in all its modes of thought and feel- 
ing, is unostentatious and retiring. “ It envieth not, it vaunteth not itself, it is 
not puffed up, it doth not behave itself unseemly, it seeketh not its own, is not 
easily provoked, thinketh no evil, rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the 
truth” — it lacketh all selfish individuality. When it prayeth it enteretb into the 
closet, shutteth the door and burneth in secret its sweet incense to him who seeth 
in secret. When it “ doth alms, it letteth not the left hand know what the right 
hand does.” Yet in all this “ it is not strained — It is twice blessed. It blesseth 
him that gives and him that takes. ’Tis mightiest in the mighty.” 

Charity, though diffusive, is not improperly lavish or thoughtless. An heav- 
enly 'grace it is endued u with the wisdom which cometh from above.” 

It does not confuse right and wrong, regarding both with equal complacency. 
It is not an impulse but a sentiment. That is a false charity which violates the 
moral sense of justice and never for a single moment loses sight of the eternal 
distinction between virtue and vice. Hence the charity of the Bible reproves as 
well as commends, frowns as well as smiles, refuses as well as bestows, just as 
the great interests of righteousness or the highest good of the universe in its 
estimation requires. Charity however respects not persons : for “ if we have 
respect of persons we fulfil not the royal law, according to the scriptures, thou 
shaft love thy neighbor as thyself, but commit sin and are convinced of the law 
as transgressors.” 

But charity visits the fatherless and widows in their affliction and keeps itself 
unspotted from the world. 

Brethren — We have thus briefly and imperfectly contemplated the character 
of one whose memory our Order holds forth in perpetual honor and observance. 
We have seen in it an exemplification of every Masonic grace and virtue. It is 
a distinguished pattern of Masonry, worthy in all succeeding time, of love and 
imitation. In traversing the whole circle of Masonic thought, we find no pointy 
more interesting than the one on which we have this day been resting — thd his- 
tory of John the Baptist. In the long gallery of holy and heroic men, of martyrs, 
confessors, kings, priests, philosophers, poets, statesmen, warriors and patriots, 
who in every age have adorned our Order, no one occupies a higher pedestal 
than St. John the Baptist So long as Masonry continues, his reputation will not 
be eclipsed by human virtue, although it is the privilege, yea the duty of every 
Mason, of every man, with pious emulation, to endeavor to rival it. No point of 
moral attainment should be too high for the desire of an immortal being made 
after the image of the Great Creator and blessed with a knowledge of divine 
truth. Masons should ever keep in view the temple on high “ not made with 
hands eternal in the Heavens” and remember that there are therein thrones and 
principalities and powers, heighths and eminences of holiness for them to occupy, 
according to their faith and works. Masons should never forget that so long as 
they live in this world, like John the Baptist, they must expect to labor; and if 
they would acquire his virtue, to spend and be spent in the cause of righteous- 
ness. The call from that labor to rest will never occur here, while an error 
remains to be extirpated or a truth to be maintained and advanced. Refresh* 
ment they will sometimes need and will obtain from those ever-springing and 
pure fountains of thought and emotion which the great Master has openea even 
in the wilderness. If necessary for the chosen people of the Most High, the 
rock will be smitten and the manna will descend. 


t 



MONUMENT TO THE LATE EARL OF DURHAM 


69 


MONUMENT TO THE LATE E ARL OF DURHAM. 

The foundation stone of the magnificent Monument on Pensher Hill, in the 
county of Durham, (Eng.) to the memory of the late Earl of Durham, was laid on 
the 29th August, with Masonic honors, amidst an immense concourse of specta- 
tors. We are indebted to the Review for the following particulars: 

Pensher Hill is the western extremity of a long range of lofty mountains, run- 
ning, in a direction nearly east and west from tne sea-coast, a considerable dis- 
tance into the county of Durham, and the elevation of it is such as to command 
an extensive view of the adjacent country. At the foot of this lofty mountain 
range the river Wear pursues its meandering course to the German Ocean, which 
is also visible from Persher Hill. The locality of the monument is on the estate 
of the late earl, in a neighborhood full of romantic associations, and a more suita- 
ble spot for the erection of a monument to the late lamented earl could not have 
been selected. 

In order to render every facility to those desirous of visiting the spot on this 
interesting occasion, the Great North of England Railway Company, whose line 
passes little more than a mile from the hill, arranged that special trains, at redu- 
ced fares, should start simultaneously from Durham, Sunderland, South Shields, 
and Newcastle, and arrive shortly before the ceremony commenced. Many 
hundreds availed themselves of these arrangements, and, the day being fine, a 
more animated and picturesque scene was perhaps never witnessed in this part 
of the country. 

In a field on the south side of the hill a large pavilion was erected for the 
accommodation of the Masons, and here a Provincial Grand Lodge was opened 
by the Earl of Zetland, the Most Worshipful Grand Master. The entrance of 
the pavilion was tastefully ornamented with evergreens, amongst which the lau- 
rel, the yew, and the cypress were conspicuously visible. 

After the usual ceremonies the Masonic Brethren formed into procession, with 
a band of music in front, and proceeded by a winding path to the summit of the 
hill. 

On reaching the place where the interesting ceremony was to be performed, 
and which was protected from intrusion by a wooden barricade, guarded by a 
detachment of rural police, the Brethren divided right and left, facing inwards, 
and forming an avenue for the Most Worshipful Grand Master to pass through, 
preceded by his banner, and followed by the Ionic light, the Deputy Grand Mas- 
ter, and grand officers, who took up their respective stations on a platform, which 
had been erected for the purpose. The scene at this moment was exceedingly 
attractive. The gorgeous insignia of the Masonic Brethren brilliantly reflected 
the rays of an almost vertical sun, the various banners fluttering in the^gentle 
breeze, the gay dresses of the ladies, and the vast assemblage of spectators on 
every side, formed altogether a magnificent spectacle. All having been arrang- 
ed, the foundation stone was elevated a little by means of a winch placed for the 
purpose, and the lower half (it being divided into two) having been adjusted, the 
Grand Secretary read aloud the inscription, engraven on a brass plate, intended 
to enclose a cavity which had been formed in the stone as follows : — 

“ This Stone was laid by the Earl of Zetland, Grand Master of the Free and 
Accepted Masons of England, assisted by the Brethren of the provinces of Dur- 
ham and Northumberland, on the 28th of August, 1844, being the foundation 
stone of a monument to be erected to the memory of John George, Earl of Dur- 
ham, who, after representing the county of Durham, in Parliament for fifteen 
years, was raised to the peerage, and subsequently held the offices of Lord Privy 
Seal, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister at St. Petersburgh, and Governor- 
General of Canada. He died on the 28th of July, 1840, in the forty ninth year 



60 


MONUMENT TO THE LATE EARJ. OF DURHAM. 


of his age. This monument is erected by the private subscriptions of his fellow 
countrymen, admirers of his public principles and exemplary private virtues.” 

The Grand Treasurer then placed a phial, containing a number of coins of the 
present reign, in the cavity, and the brass plate having been placed thereon, the 
Grand Master proceeded to adjust the same, and spread the mortar with a silver 
trowel handed to him for that purpose. The trowel bore the following inscrip- 
tion: — “This trowel was used by the Right Hon. the Earl of Zetland, Grand 
Master of the United Lodge of Freemasons of England, in laying the foundation 
stone of the monument erected to the memory of the late Earl of Durham, G. C. J8., 
Provincial Grand Master of Durham and Northumberland, the 28th of August, 
1844. John and Benjamin Green, architects.” 

The Grand Master then proceeded to adjust the position and form of the stone 
by the plummet, level, and square, which were delivered to him by the Deputy 
Grand Master. Being satisfied in regard to these particulars, he gave the stone 
three knocks with the mall. The cornucopia containing the corn, and the ewers 
with the wine and oil, were then handed to the Grand Master, who strewed the 
corn, and poured the wine and oil over the stone, with the accustomed ceremo- 
nies, in performing which he said impressively : — 

“As we have now laid this stone, may the Great Governor of the universe in 
His kind providence enable us to carry on and finish what we have begun: may 
He guard this place, and this country in general, and preserve it from ruin and 
decay to the latest posterity. I strew this corn as the emblem of plenty ; I pour 
this wine as the emblem of cheerfulness ; I pour this oil as the emblem of com- 
fort and consolation ; And may the All-bounteous Author of nature bless this 
place and the kingdom at large with abundance of corn, and wine, and oil, and 
all the necessaries, comforts and conveniences of life. 

“ And may the same Almighty power preserve the inhabitants in peace and unity 
and brotherly love , towards which great objects no one during his earthly career 
exerted himself more zealously and more successfully than that nobleman whose 
memory we are assembled to commemorate .” 

The Rev. R. Green, of Newcastle, the Provincial Grand Chaplain, then 
offered up an appropriate prayer, with which the interesting proceedings were 
closed. 

The Earl of Zetland and others present examined the plans of the proposed 
erection, which were submitted to them by Mr. J. Green, after which the proces- 
sion was re-formed, and the Masonic Brethren returned to the pavilion. A great 
number of ladies and gentlemen, comprising many of the principal county fami- 
lies, were present during the ceremony, and capacious galleries were erected for 
their accommodation on each side of the place, so as to command an excellent 
view of the whole proceedings. 

The proposed monument is already in a very forward state, the works having 
been in operation some months, so that the spectators could form a pretty accu- 
rate conception of what it will be when completed. The form approximates to 
that of the Temple of Theseus* with a regular basis of solid Masonry a hundred 
feet long by fiftyfour feet in width. The foundation rests on the solid lime stone 
rock, twenty feet below the surface of the soil, and the base rises ten feet above 
the platform of the hill. At the sides of this rectangle stand eighteen lofty open 
equidistant columns, thirty feet in height and six and a half in diameter, support- 
ing at each end a magnificent pediment, and at each side a deep entablature, 
which will serve as a promenade when the building is complete. The promenade 
will be reached by spiral stairs to be formed within one of the pillars. From the 
ground to the upper point of the pediment will be about seventy feet The struc- 
ture stands nearly due east and west, and will form a prominent object to travel- 
lers on the line of the Great North of England Railway between Darlington and 
Newcastle, and will soon become a place of resort for parties of pleasure. 

The stone for this magnificent edifice was presented to the building committee 



NEW GRAND LODGE OF MICHIGAN . 


61 


by the Marquis of Londonderry, and was obtained from his lordship’s quarries at 
the village near Pensher, distant about a mile from the top of the hill. The 
lime is from the Earl of Durham’s kilns at Newbottle, about the same distance ; 
and the sand from an excellent bed at the foot of the hill. The materials are 
conveyed up the hill by a temporary winding railway, the bed of which will form 
a permanent carriage drive when the building is complete. 


THE NEW GRAND LODGE OF MICHIGAN. 

Steamer Lexington, from Detroit to Buffalo , ) 
Novimber 19, 1844. $ 

To Charles W. Moore, Esq. 

My Dear Sir and Brother — I had previously apprized you of my intention to 
make a western tour, and as I am now on my return and purpose going to Mon- 
treal before I see you, I will inform you that I have had a pleasant journey, with 
the exception of being detained three days at Buffalo, by a snow storm. I arrived 
in Detroit on Monday evening, in the midst of the bustle of a spirited election. 
The city was all in confusion, the flags of the contending parties were flying at 
every comer, bonfires were lighted in the principal streets, and the exciting 

huzza! for , whoevef was the candidate of the noisy ones, was almost 

deafening. It is a good thing that the Presidential election takes place so sel- 
dom. Much money has been bet on the result in that State and the Union. 

I performed the business which called me there, and then went into the inte- 
rior as far as Marshall, 110 miles, by rail road, saw the flourishing towns of Ann- 
Arbor, Ypsilanti and Jackson. They are thriving towns, and they, as well as 
Marshall, number about two thousand inhabitants each. Detroit is a beautiful 
city, and one very desirable for a residence. It is situated on the river, and a 
vast plain presents itself to the eye from the top of the State House, reaching for 
many miles. I visited the State House and other public buildings, and was po- 
litely escorted by our good Masonic Brother, Samuel Yorke At Lee, Esq. The 
public buildings are in good taste, but not as splendid as those of your eastern 
cities. In the Representatives Hall is an excellent full length likeness of Michi- 
gan’s favorite, Gen. Lewis Cass, and one of the first Governors of that State, 
Stevens T. Mason. The city has a population of 12000. Many buildings are in 
process of erection, and business appears lively. I should judge that the people 
are more moral and industrious than in Buffalo, and some other of the New York 
cities. And now I have good tidings to communicate respecting our ancient and 
honorable Fraternity. 

The Masonic Fraternity in the State of Michigan, has revived, and become 
organized, I trust, in a constitutional manner. Four Lodges, chartered by the 
M. W. Grand Lodge of the State of New York, have held a convention and 
formed a Grand Lodge. It was organized on Wednesday the 6th inst. The 

Grand Lodge was opened on the Master’s Degree by Br. Mullet, the Grand 

Master elect. Ex. Gov. Lewis Cass, Past Grand Master, then took the chair, 
and assisted by your humble servant, Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of 



62 


MASONRY IN ST* JOHN, N. B. 


South Carolina, he Installed the newly elected Grand Master. Br. Mullett on 
resuming the chair Installed the other elected Grand Officers present I then had 
the satisfaction of congratulating the Brethren on their reorganization, in a brief 
address, in which I assured them that the Masonic Family in the different States 
of the Union would gladly join with me, and hail their new and perfect organiza- 
tion with the best wishes for the permanency and success of the Grand Lodge, 
and the Craft in Michigan. There are Brethren, good and true, and zealous, in 
that State, and there are many gentlemen of high respectability, who entertain a 
favorable opinion of the Institution and have waited for the adjustment of the dif- 
ficulties attending the Craft of late, to become members. That desirable object 
having been attained, they will now come forward, and the progress of the Order 
will be great I assure you it gave me great pleasure to be present and take part 
with the venerable Past Grand Master on that occasion, so full of interest to the 
Brethren in Michigan and the Fraternity at large. It was the first time for 
several years that Br. Cass had been in a Lodge, yet he was perfectly at home. 

During my stay in that city, I was well accommodated at the National Ho- 
tel, the best Western Hotel I have found. I can recommend it to a ^carf?/ trav- 
elling public — it is kept by Br. Edward Lyon. 

I left there last evening, expect to be in Buffalo to-morrow morning, and pro- 
ceed to Montreal. From thence bacjr to New England. 

In good health, I am, respectfully, thy Brother, 

Albert Case. 


MASONRY IN ST. JOHN, N. B. 

Saint John, N. B., Nov. 8, 1844. 

Charles W. Moore, Esq. 

Dear Sir and Brother : — With respect to Masonry in this city, it is with plea- 
sure that I am enabled to inform you, that at no preceding period has it ever 
been in so flourishing a state — there happily prevails a cordiality and brotherly 
feeling throughout the whole fraternity. In the different Lodges a spirit of 
friendly rivalry has been created, and the Work of each is consequently con- 
ducted with correctness and precision ; the members of the Craft ever striving to 
keep in view those ancient land marks which time has only the effect of render- 
ing more valued and more venerable. By a reference to the u St. John’s Cou- 
rier” of 4th May last, which I take the liberty of enclosing, you will find copies 
of various addresses from the different Masonic bodies, to Oliver Goldsmith, Esq. 
late Adjutant Commissary General to her Majesty’s forces in this Province, and 
Worshipful Master of Albion Lodge in this city, previously to this worthy Broth- 
er’s departure to Hong Kong, where he had been appointed to a higher and more 
lucrative office. The occasion upon which these addresses were presented, was 
one of no ordinary interest. The character of Brother Goldsmith was held by the 
Craft in very high estimation. He was a warm friend to the Institution, and pos- 
sessed many virtues and excellent qualifications which enabled him to render to 
Masonry very valuable aid. 



Masonry in st. john, if. b. 


63 


By the community at large he was highly prized for his manly and honorable 
deportment He was presented with an address by those unconnected with the 
u mystic tie,” which embraced a very large proportion of all the respectable and 
leading names in this city. The silver pitcher, with which Brother Goldsmith 
was presented by the Lodge over which he so ably presided, was manufatcured 
in your city. A neat and appropriate inscription was engraved upon it, and I 
can assure you that the gift was nobly and faithfully earned.* 

The number of the Brethren Is fast increasing, and I am happy to inform you, 
that it now embraces many of our most valued and influential citizens. The 
Lodges established here are as follows, viz : 

•Albion, No. 570^ on the registry of the Grand Lodge of England — Oliver 
Goldsmith, Esquire, W. M. ; Alexander Robertson, Esquire, acting until St. 
John’s day. 

Saint John, No. 632, on registry of Grand Lodge of England — Mr. John Thomas, 
W. M. 

Hibernian, No. 103, on registry of Grand Lodge of Ireland — Mr. George F. 
Smith, W. M. 

Portland Union, No. 324, on registry of Grand Lodge of Ireland— Mr. John 
McCready, W. M. 

Mark Lodge, Carleton, holds its warrant from the Royal Chapter — Mr. E. W. 
Greenwood, R. W. M. 

Royal •Arch, Carleton, No. 47, on registry of Grand Royal Arch of Scotland — 
Robert Payne, Esquire, member of Provincial Parliament, Principal. The 
Work of the Chapter lay dormant from March, 1829, to August, 1833, and again 
from September, 1833 to June, 1842, when the difficulties under which they 
were laboring being removed — the Companions again rallied round their 
“standards,” and the present House bids fair “to be greater than the first” 

You were kind enough to publish an extract from a letter of mine in your 
Magazine of June *42, (p. 247,) in which I spoke of the great depression of the 
times in this city, by reason of the calamitous fires and the prostration of com- 
merce in the mother country. Notify I am happy to inform you that business has 
again revived here, and that the city is prospering ; and this information will be 
the more gratifying to you, when you are apprized, that as a consequence of 
good times, Masonry is more patronized, aided and encouraged, by a large and 
worthy portion of our community. 

With every wish that your endeavors may be crowned with success to yourself, 
and be the means of cementing more closely the union and good fellowship of 
the fraternity in every quarter of the globe — more particularly between the Brit- 
ish and Americans, being of one stock and one language — and all our future 
labors be accompanied by the exalted virtues of brotherly love, relief and truth, 
and conducted in order and peace, and closed in harmony, is the fervent hope of, 
Dear Sir and Brother, yours Fraternally, 

David Powell. 


*The addresses will be given in our next.— Ed. 


64 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT 


(Ef’We would again urge upon our agents 
an early settlement of their accounts. We 
hare a large amount of outstanding demands, 
of which we stand in need. The plan on 
which the Magazine is conducted is an ex- 
pensive one, and the terms are low. It can 
therefore he well sustained only by a liberal 
patronage and prompt payment. Were it 
made up of addresses and miscellaneous se- 
lections, we could belter afford to lay out of 
our dues. We trust our friends will give 
immediate attention to this matter. 

Grand Lodge or Michigan.-— By refer- 
ence to the communication of Rev. Br. Case, 
on a preceding page, it will be seen that a 
Graud Lodge for Michigan has been legally 
and regularly organized. The former body 
has been dissolved, and all difficulties grow- 
ing out of its organization, are now happily 
removed. It is with sincere pleasure that we 
record this result, and we avuil ourselves of 
the occasion to greet our Michigan Brethren 
with fraternal salutations. We are gratified 
to perceive that Gen. Cass, the former Grand 
Master, presided at the installation of the 
officers. 

J^We translate the following paragraph 
from the proceedings of “ Le Grand Orient,” 
at Paris. It may interest our South Carolina 
friends. 

The Grand Lodge of South Carolina, at 
Charleston, has asked an affiliation with the 
Grand Orient of France The request was 
on the 19th August read to the chamber 
of correspondence, and has been referred to 
the chamber of counsel and appeal charged 
with power to act on the subject. The letter 
of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina an- 
nounces the death of Br. Mitchell, first Grand 
Commander of the Rite Ecossais, (he having 
died some years since,) and the renewal of 
the activity of the Supreme Council of the 
33 degree, which has been for a long time 
dormant. 

0"The original charges, for the first 
three Degrees, forwarded by our South Caro- 
lina correspondent, came to hand too late for 
the present number. 

large amount of foreign miscella- 
neous intelligence, prepared for the present 
number, is necessarily deferred until our 

7*vt 


A Lexicon of Freemasonry. — We have 
received a copy of the Proposals for the new 
work to he publi: hed by Br. Albert- G. 
Mackey, of Charleston, S. C. under the a- 
bove title, it is intended to furnish the in- 

uirer, by an easy mode of reference, with a 

efinition of all the terms peculiar to our 
Order — an explanation of the symbols with 
which it abounds— a record of its numerous 
histories, traditions, &c. The work will he 
issued in January next, in a duodecimo vol. 
of 350 or 400 pages, at $1 50 a vol. Orders 
for the work will be received by the editor of 
the Magazine, or may be forwarded to the 
address of the author, at Charleston, S. C. 
The work will be of great value to the Ma- 
sonic student, and of interest to all. 

Dedication of a Masonic Hall —We 
have received a copy of the order of exerci- 
ses at the Dedication of 11 Masons* Hall,’' 
erected for the use of United Lodge, at 
Brunswick, Me., on the evening of the 24th 
of October last. The address on the occa- 
sion was delivered by the Grand Master of 
the State, and the ceremonies, which were 
performed by the Grand Lodge, were no 
doubt interesting. We notice tnat the prin- 
cipal Odes used were selected from Br. Pow- 
er’s Masonic Melodies ; one of which only, 
however, is credited to him, and that without 
namiig the work from which it is taken. We 
presume the omission was accidental. 

Summary of English Masonic News. 
— A Grand Provincial Masonic Festival was 
held at Gravesend on the 1st July. A public 
procession was formed, and a sermon preach- 
ed on the occasion : after which the Brethren 
dined together. A similar festival was also 
held at Birmingham, on the 29th ; and anoth- 
er at Wolverhampton, on the 26th Sept. ; and 
still another at Gateshead, on the 6th Aug. 
The 24 th June, was celebrated at Loquor, 
Worcester, and Carmarthen. A new Lodge 
is about to be established at Rugby. Earl 
Home was to open the Provincial G. Lodge 
at Leamington in Oct. A new Lodge was 
opened at St. Austell, ou the 6th July. The 
morning was ushered in by the firing of can- 
non, and the officers and members were wel- 
comed by the ringing of the Parish bells. A 
public procession was formed on the occa- 
sion. The Provincial Grand Lodge of Dor- 
setshire was held on the 28th Aug. and crea- 
ted a lively interest in the town. ” Coryton 
Encampment of the Holy Cross,” (Knights 
Templars,) held a meeting at Coryton Park, 
Devon, on the 27th June. The occasion was 
one of much interest. 

CrOur correspondent at Lynchburg, Va., 
is informed, that we have not received the 
French Magazine to which he refers. No 
order for it has been received by ns from the 
Brother named. 



' * 

* 

THE 

FREEMASONS’ 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

V6l. IV.] BOSTON, JANUARY 1, 1845. [No. & 


POWERS AND DUTIES OP A MASTER OF A 

LODGE. 

A highly respected Brother and correspondent in Canada, proposes 
the annexed inquiries. We had supposed that the matter involved in 
them was well established by the usages of the Fraternity in all parts of 
the world. It would seem, however, not to be so well understood as its 
simplicity and clearness would warrant us in believing. Influenced by 
this’ consideration, our correspondent, in a subsequent note, says: “I 
think it would be a good thing to discuss these questions in the Magazine. 
What has taken place in one instance may take place in other instances ; 
and, limited as my experience in Masonry has been, I have seen enough 
to convince me of the necessity of Masters knowing their duties, as well 
as members. Judging also from the degree of interest created and mani- 
fested on the occasion to which I allude, I consider the subject one of 
importance. The illustration of any point, calculated, when viewed 
differently by parties differently situated, to create feeling, is just the 
business of your journal, and we shall be happy to see the matter broach- 
ed, either directly, or indirectly, as you may think proper.” 

We readily comply with the request of our correspondent, and here- 
with present the inquiries : — 

44 1st. Has the Master of a Blue Lodge at work, the power of putting 
off the regular monthly communication, whenever he may think proper 
to do so ? 

44 2d. And in connection with the foregoing^ I would beg leave to 
ask, whether you ever heard of ihe monthly communication being put off 
under ordinary circumstances ?” 

The Master of a Lodge is invested with great power. A learned and 
distinguished Brother has said, that Masonic 4t government is despotic,” 
and that 41 the Master in the East is absolute in his authority over the 
Brethren of his Lodge.” This, as applied to the mechanism and imme- 
9 





66 


POWERS AND DUTIES OP 


diate government of the Lodge, may be true. But the Master is as subor- 
dinate to the established 'Constitutions and recognized usages of the 
Fraternity, and to the written regulations of his Lodge, as the humblest 
member of it. Here all stand upon an equality. Official station makes 
no exemptions. It rather imposes new obligations, and strengthens those 
already existing. The Master is not only bound, equally with every 
Brother associated with him, to observe the regulations of his Lodge, and 
of the Grand Lodge, but he is under special obligations to see that the 
Brethren under his charge observe them. “ The Master of every 
Lodge,” say the ancient Constitutions,* “when duly elected and installed, 
has it in special charge*, as appertinent to his office, duty and dignity, to 
see that all the By-Laws of his Lodge, as well as the general regulations 
of the Grand Lodge, be duly observed.” He has also M the right and 
authority of calling his Lodge, or congregating the members into a Chap- 
ter, at pleasure, upon the application of any of the Brethren, and upon 
any emergency and occurrence, which, in his judgment, may require 
their meeting. It is likewise his duty, together with that of his Wardens, 
to attend the Grand Lodge, at the quarterly communications, and such 
occasional or special grand communications as the good of the Craft may 
require.” By the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, t the Mas- 
ter, “ if he be dissatisfied with the conduct of any of his officers, (whether 
elected or appointed,) may lay the cause of complaint before the Lodge ; 
and if it shall appear to the majority of the Brethren present, that the 
complaint be well founded, he shall have power to displace such officer, 
and to nominate another.” The power of a Master of a Lodge is there- 
fore great ; but it, is not unlimited. Neither does it, in the language of 
the distinguished Brother before alluded to, in the least militate against 
the doctrine of equality, which is inculcated both by precept and exam- 
ple, in all the illustrations of Masonry. For it is an authority founded on 
Brotherly love, and, as a general rule* exercised in a spirit of kindness 
and suavity, which is the more effective, as it brings into operation, both 
with rulers and Brethren, supreme and subordinate, the amiable sympa- 
thies which spring from fraternal esteem. If the power vested in the 
Master be steadily maintained on the judicious 'principles of suaviter in 
modo , it will rarely be necessary to display the sterner features o fforti- 
ter in re ; though it may sometimes be expedient and necessary to com- 
bine the two. If the Master transcend his legitimate powers, or rule 
with a tyrannical hand, he is amenable to the Grand Lodge, and may be 
suspended from his office by the Grand Master. 


♦Chap. 2, Sec, 3 + Edition of 1841, page 79. 



▲ MASTER OF A LODGE* 


67 


Such are the general powers vested in the Master of a Lodge. There 
are others, incidental to his office, which it is unnecessary to enumerate. 

To the first of the interrogatories proposed for our consideration, we 
answer : The Master has no power to u put off the regular monthly com- 
munication” of his Lodge. The Charter of every Lodge provides for at 
least one meeting in a year. This must be held, or the Charter is for- 
feited to the Grand Lodge. The ancient Constitutions, (art. viii.) say, 
that the meetings “ ought to be held monthly.” This, however, is recom- 
v mendatory, not obligatory, and leaves the subject to the regulation of the 
Grand Lodge, or, in the case of no action by that body, to the subordinate 
Lodge itself. But when the number of meetings in a year is fixed, either 
by the Grand Lodge, or by the subordinate Lodge, the Master has no 
more control over the matter than a private member. He is bound to 
respect the regulation, and to convene his Lodge accordingly. He has 
no discretionary power in the premises . The Constitutions of the Grand 
Lodge of England, to which the Lodges in Canada are mostly amenable, 
provides, “ that the particular house or place of meeting, as well as the 
regular days of meeting of the Lodge , shall he specified in the by-laws, 
and no meeting of the Lodge shall be held elsewhere, except a removal 
be decided upon in .conformity with the laws enacted in that respect.”* 
If the times of meeting be specified in the By-Laws, the Master is bound 
to respect and carry them into effect. The fourth section of the article 
just quoted, further provides, that the By-Laws “shall be delivered 
to the Master on the day of his installation, when he shall solemnly 
pledge himself to observe and enforce them during Ms mastership .” 
So far, therefore, is the Master from possessing power to “put off 
a regular monthly communication,” that he is bound to see that it is held 
according to the provisions of the By-Laws of his Lodge. Nor does his 
duty end here ; for, if there be no article in the By-Laws fixing the meet- 
ings of his Lodge, it is his duty to see that such an article is placed 
there, agreeably to the requisitions pf the Constitutions of the Grand 
Lodge, as provided for in the 5th section of the article “ Private Lodges.” 
This is made his special duty by the 5th section of the article “ Masters 
and Wardens,” which declares that “ the Master is responsible for the due 
observance of the laws r doling to private Lodges .” The conclusion of 
the matter therefore is, that it is the duty of the Lodge to fix the times 
of its meetings by its By-Laws ; and it is the duty of the Master to see 
that this is done, and that the meetings aTe held as specified. The Lodge 
itself possesses no power to suspend, or “ put off v the meetings, when 
once fixed by the By-Laws ; for the Constitutions expressly provide, that 


♦Art. Private Lodges, Sec. B, p. 60 . 


«$ 


POWERS AND DUTIES Of 


the By-Laws, when framed, “ must be submitted to the approbation of 
the Grand Master,' or Provincial Grand Master, apd when approved, a fair 
copy must be sent to the Grand Secretary and “ when any material 
alteration shall be made, such alteration must, in like manner, be sub- 
mitted. No law or alteration will be valid until $0 submitted or approv- 
ed.”* 

In answer to the second inquiry we reply, that we have never known 
any Master of a Lodge to assume the responsibility of “ putting off” the 
regular communications of a Lodge. We have known the business of a 
regular communication to be adjourned, but the meeting must be held 
and the Lodge opened and closed. 

We cannot better conclude this article than by the following, not less 
beautiful than truthful remarks, on the duties and qualifications of a Mas- 
ter of a Lodge, from the pen of England’s brightest Mason, our estimable 
Brother, the Rev. George Oliver. 

The Worshipful Master should always bear in his memory, that to him 
the Brethren look for instruction— on him depend the welfare and suc- 
cess — the credit and popularity of the community. His situation, as the 
chief pillar of the Lodge, is most important ; and if he fail in the satisfac- 
tory discharge of its duties, he inflicts a fatal blow, not only on the Lodge, 
which will be the first victim of an ill placed confidence, but on the Order 
of Freemasonry itself, which will suffer in public estimation, should its 
principal officer prove incompetent to the high office he has undertake^ ; 
should fail through inattention, neglect, or incapacity, to improve the 
Brethren in wisdom and knowledge ; or to vindicate and defend the 
purity of the Order against the attacks and surmises of those who ridicule 
or condemn it, simply because they do not understand its object, and are 
incapable of comprehending its beauty and utility. 

There is one point in the management of a Lodge which requires not 
only great tact, but true firmness of mind in the Worshipful Master and 
his officers. I mean in those unhappy cases where disputes and divisions 
prevail amongst the Brethren. On such occasions, a regard for the purity 
of Freemasonry, and its reputation in the Lodge over which he presides, 
makes it necessary that the Worshipful Master should act promptly and 
decisively ; nor must he, under any circumstances, shrink from the per- 
formance of a positive duty ; for the surest method of obtaining at once 
the approbation of the Brethren and of his own conscience, is to discharge 
his duty punctually, faithfully, and impartially. 

Freemasonry is a system of peace, order and harmony. The elements 
of dispute and division are not found in any of its institutes. The Breth- 


♦Conafitutions of Grand Lodge of England, page 09. 



A MASTER OF A LODGE. 


69 


fen meet on the level and part on the square. The utmost extent of fra- 
ternal affection which can subsist between man and man, is supposed to 
be displayed amongst the Brethren of a Masonic Lodge. It is enjoined 
equally in the ancient Charges, the Constitutions, and the lectures ; and 
the world at large, amidst all their cavils and objections on other points, 
are inclined to give us credit for our Brotherly love. 

From these considerations, the Master will use his influence and autho- 
rity to convince .his Masonic companions of the necessity — so far as 
regards the interests of the Craft in general — so far as regards the welfare 
of the Lodges — so far as regards their own peace or the happiness of their 
Brethren— of preserving the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. In 
all cases it is more honorable to unite in the principle of conceding points 
of minor importance, than to foment disputes that may involve conse- 
quences which it is impossible to foresee, and frequently impracticable to 
Temedy. On all occasions he ought to possess sufficient knowledge of 
human nature, to prevail on the Brethren to tfe unanimous in their conclu- 
sions, however their opinions may vary in detail ; for it is the safest, 
wisest, and best policy to submit cheerfully and implicitly to the decision 
of a majority, in the assured belief that such a decision has the greatest 
chance to be correct. 

A portion of responsibility, although in an inferior degree, is incurred 
by the representatives of Strength and Beauty. If they conscientiously 
perform their allotted tasks, the Master will not only be assisted and en- 
couraged, but in a manner compelled to execute his office, at least credi- 
tably, if not beneficially. He will escape , censure, if he do not merit 
praise. Prompted by the equal measures of the one, and the integrity of 
the other, he may be induced to govern his Lodge on the principles of 
morality and justice ; even should higher incentives be absent from his 
bosom — even though a love of the science should have waxed cold, and 
he should have coveted this high office merely to enjoy its honors and 
its power. 

It is devoutly to be wished that improper motives might never induce 
a Mason to aspire to an efficient situation in the Lodge. From such an 
unnatural ambition evil is sure to proceed. If unqualified, office is rather 
a disgrace than an honor, because it is impossible, under such circum- 
stances, to conceal ignorance, or to throw a veil over imperfection. And 
an exhibition of incapacity in those who are expected to instruct the igno- 
rant, and lead ihe anxious inquirer to a knowledge of the truth, excites 
no feeling but pity and contempt. While, on the other hand, when the 
Master’s chair is filled with ability and talent, respect and approbation 
are ensured ; the words of sound doctrine fall, like the dew of heaven, 
from the lips of such an instructor* and are eagerly imbibed by the grati- 



TO 


FREEMASONRY AMONG THE 


fied hearers ; improvement in Masonic knowledge rapidly augments ; the 
pupils emulate the Master’s accomplishments, and the triumph of virtue 
and science becomes visible to the world, although mankind are ignorant 
how the noble attainment has been acquired. So truly is it said, that 
“ the light shineth in darkness, but the darkness comprehendeth it not.” 


FREEMASONRY AMONG THE AMERICAN 
ABORIGINES. 

[Written for the Freemasons’ Magazine, by G. F. Yates.] 

Many writers on the origin of the North American Indigenes, have labored to 
prove the descent of all of them from the t same stock. It is not my intention to 
euter into any discussion of a subject which has been the burthen of so many 
disquisitions for the last two centuries. It would not only be inconsistent with 
my design, but would also be entirely out of place here. I may be permitted, 
however, to state the conclusion to which my disquisitions, should I enter into 
them, would lead me ; and I confidently appeal to those who have examined the 
subject with any degree of care, whether my conclusion is not the correct one. 
I maintain, that different sections of this northern continent have been settled at 
different periods, by people from different part* of the old world, and that the 
predominating stock is Tartaric. 

It is a fact, to prove which abundant authorities could be adduced, that some 
of these aborigines had fair complexions, blue eyes, and light or reddish hair, 
thus evidencing an intermixture of Teutonic or Celtic blood. And to render this 
fact more indubitable, for as Horne Tooke says, “ languages do not lie,” a con- 
siderable portion of the language spoken by these “white Indians,” as they are 
termed, was made up of words, that can clearly be traced to a Welsh original. 
All this can be accounted for, satisfactorily, on the supposition (which is incontro- 
vertible) of the intermarriage -of Welshmen with some of the Aborigines, and 
the use and incorporation of many words of their native tongue into the language 
of the tribe with which they amalgamated. The civilized race that erected 
those works of art, the remains of which now so puzzle the antiquary, could not 
have been W elshmen. The progenitors of this race must have emigrated to 
this country many centuries before the Welsh became a nation. The alleged 
time of Madoc’s arrival here, was only 322 years before Columbus discovered 
this country. Madoc and his Cambrian followers, even if it were clearly proved 
that this country was their place of settlement, could not therefore have been 
the builders of the works referred to. 

In 1675, a small Indian tribe called the Doegs, lived on the banks of the Poto- 
mac, near Cape Hatteras. They understood persons who conversed in the Welsh 
language, and many of their words were Welsh, modified probably by the abo- 
riginal dialect of the tribe with which they had amalgamated. [See William- 
son’s North Carolina.] Griffeth, a Welshman, was taken prisoner by the Shaw- 



AMERICAN ABORIGINES. 71 

nees, and was conducted by a party of that tribe to their Tillage, near the source 
of the Missouri. These Indians too, spoke a language which appeared like a 
dialect of the Welsh, and were of a fairer complexion than the surrounding 
tribes. They wore beards, and many of them had red hair. [Barton’s Phil., Med. 
and Phys. Journal, 1805.] Charlevoix found, a white race of Indians near the 
head waters of the Missouri, but made no philological investigations respecting 
them. Catlin describes the now extinct tribe of the Mandans as a similar race 
of Aborigines, many of them having blue eyes, fair complexions and light hair. 
Sir John Caldwell says that the Pawnees are Welsh Indians ; and this is the 
same people that one of the Cherokee Sachems, who was in London in 1792, 
declared, were of Welsh origin. It would be easy to multiply authorities to the 
same purport.* 

Francis Lewis, the father of the late General Morgan Lewis, who was, up to 
the time of his decease, Grand Master of the Grand (Symbolic) Lodge of the 
State of New York, was taken captive during what was termed “the French 
war,” and, as was the custom on such occasions, he with SO other captives, was 
given to the Indians that accompanied the French party, as their share of the 
prisoners! Mr. Lewis, being a native of Wales, and well versed in the Welsh 
language, was astonished at hearing the Indian to whose particular care he had 
been assigned, called by a dame which reminded him of two Welsh words signi- 
fying “large head.” It so happened that this Indian had an uncommonly large 
head. On inquiringof an interpreter who was one of the party, the meaning of 
the name, he learnt that its literal signification was large head. This discovery 
induced him to make some further philological researches in the language spo- 
ken by these Indians, and during the short period of his captivity, he discovered 
many other words which bore so strong an analogy to Welsh words of the same 
meaning, that the conclusion that they were derived from the Welsh, was irresist- 
ible. Mr. Lewis’s associate prisoners were put to death, but Mr. Lewis’s own 
life was saved by the large headed Indian aforesaid, who had become his frieud 
and patron, and conducted him in safety to Montreal, whence on an exchange of 
prisoners he reached his home in safety .f 

The Rev. Morgan Jones, chaplain in a military expedition to Port Royal, 
South Carolina, was with others of his party, taken prisoner by the Tuscarora 
Indians in the year 1660. He was condemned to death. While preparations 
were making for his execution, he made signs, of distress, and certain exclamations 
in his native tongue, the Welsh. These were noticed and instantly responded to, 
by a pachem of the Docg tribe who was present This sachem warmly inter- 
ceded with, the Tuscaroras in behalf of Mr. Jones, and saved his life. He after- 
wards visited the Doeg tribe and preached to them in the Welsh tongue, so as to 
be understood. [See Owen’s British remains, &c ] 

Major Stoddard, in his history of Louisiana, says that travellers describe cer- 


*See discovery and settlement of Kentucky, by James Imlay, London, l7 f A3 — Archael. 
Amer. Dr. John William’s Inquiry, &c., London 1791, &c. 

tThis anecdote has been substantially given by others, and I have seen it in print. I ob- 
tained it as above related from Gov. Lewis himself, several years previous to his death. 

a r. Y. 



72 


FRREMA80NRY AMONG THE 


tain secret societies among the American Indians which are like our own Free- 
mason’s Lodges. Their regulations are similar. No member can be admitted 
without the unanimous vote of the whole society, to be determined by ballot. 
They have different Degrees, like our Fraternity, ceremonies of initiation, and 
different modes of passing from one Degree to another. 

I am not able, from the source of information now before me, to give a more 
circumstantial account than I have above, of these secret associations. The ac- 
counts we have, speak of them only in connection with the “Welsh Indians,” 
and have been furnished by writers not of the mystic Craft, who introduced the 
facts in relation to them for the single purpose of showing that the ancestry of 
these Indians must have emigrated from Wales. Of this there can be no rea- 
sonable doubt This emigration must have taken place several centuries before 
the era of Columbus, and the knowledge of Freemasonry, which these emigrants 
possessed, must have been derived from the descendants of the Druids,* of whom 
there were more in Wales than in any other country in Europe. These learned 
and pious men, were, it is well known, exterminated by the sword, A. D. 1282, in 
the reign of Edward I, to whom they had rendered themselves obnoxious, by 
their liberal sentiments, and exertions in the cause of liberty. That English 
Masonry is of Druidical origin, is susceptible of proof, and is a subject that has 
employed the talents of several distinguished writers without, as well as within 
the pale of the Masonic Fraternity. 

But these mystic associations existed not only among the Welsh Indians, so call- 
ed ; they were known also among other Indian tribes, which could not by possi- 
bility have had a Welsh origin. I allude to the tribes constituting the Iroquois 
confederacy, who were the sovereigns of the State of New York, when Hudson 
first discovered the river which bears his name. De Wkt Clinton, late Governor 
of the State of New York, relates on the authority of a respectable native minis- 
ter of the Gospel, that a Freemason’s society existed among the Iroquois. This 
minister received the signs of the mystery from a Menomenie chief. The Meno- 
menies must therefore be in possession of the mystery also. Among the Iroquois 
it was any thing but common. Only three times five could be members of it, at 
any one time, viz: six of the Seneca tribe (that being the most ancient,) five of 
the Oneida, two Cayugas, and two St Regis. This was making their associa- 
tion extremely select, and strangely contrasts with the practices of Masons of 
modem days, who regard less in their selections of numbers, and moral worth, 
than did these sons of the forest. They claim that their society hais existed from 
the foundation of the world ! The period of their meetings they keep profoundly 
secret “ They assemble once in three years as deputies, under pretence of 
other business.” 

The Menomenies and Iroquois may have learned their mysteries from the 
Welsh Indians ; or on the supposition that they did not, their knowledge of the 
mysteries might be traced to a more ancient source, even the same from which 
the Druid’s themselves derived them. For the want of authentic materials, docu- 


*The Druids in the Isle of Anglesia were destroyed with great cruelty while defending 
their country's rights, by Suetonius Paulinas, the Roman governor, A. D. 60. 


AMERICAN ABORIGINES. 


73 


inentary and even traditionary, we coold at best present only plausible conjec- 
tures ; and to show how we arrive at these conjectures, would involve a tedious- 
ness of detail more suitable for a^et volume than a short essay for a periodical. 
Masons conversant with the ancient history of our Order, will be enabled readily 
to connect the historical fragments we subjoin, and will see their bearing on 
the question under discussion. 

According to Diodorus Siculus, the Phoenicians having passed the pillars of 
Hercules (straights of Gibraltar) were impelled, by violent winds, far westward, 
and were driven on a large island in the Atlantic ocean, on which were navigable 
rivers, a fruitful soil, &c. In “ Georgi Horni de originibus Americanis. Hague, 
1652,” it is confidently asserted on the authority of Josephus, that there was a 
second immigration of the Phoenicians to this country in a 1 )jrian fleet in the 
reign of king Solomon ; that the Ophir to which place Solomon sent for gold, was 
Haiti or Hispaniola. The Bodleian MSS. asserts that the Phoenicians planted 
Masonry in Egypt, Syria, and other countries. 

I incline to the opinion that the alleged ancient settlements made on our 
coasts by the Phoenicians, or Atlantides, are alone available to prove the source 
of mystic associations among the aboriginal Mexicans and South Americans. 
The Iroquois and other cognate tribes in North America bear not the least affin- 
ity to these southern aborigines, in their traditions, manners and customs, form of 
government, and especially in their language ; which last is now admitted to be 
the best and only certain test of the origin of nations. Philological investiga- 
tions recently made have been adduced to show that the language of the Iroquois, 
ideologically and etymologically, has the same original as the ancient Greek. If 
this hypothesis is well founded, we must look elsewhere than to the Phoenicians 
for the first institution of the ancient mysteries among the Iroquois. On the 
strength of this hypothesis it is asserted, that the ancient Ionia ns and Iroquois, 
or Aganusioni, as they called themselves, proceeded from the same branch of the 
human family, shortly after the era of Babel’s tower, and that the Iroquois came 
over to this country by progressive migrations and by the way of Bhering’s 
straits. This accords precisely with their traditions, which have been authenti- 
cated in the most satisfactory manner. The researches of Champollion and 
Rossalini, have proved that Egypt is the most ancient nation on the face of the 
globe ; that its inhabitants attained a high degree of civilization, and of know*- 
ledge in the arts and sciences before any other, after the deluge. The Egyp- 
tians cultivated their mysteries, it has also been clearly proved, as far back as the 
days of Mizraim , who was esteemed as the founder of them. The Hebrews 
through Moses derived all their worldly knowledge from the Egyptians. From 
them the Greeks and other nations derived all their civilization. And is it un- 
reasonable to suppose, that the ancient Iroquois as well as the Ionians learned 
all they knew of the ancient mysteries from the descendants of Mizraim ? 

The MSS. above quoted, speaks of the " universal language of Masons,” which, 
says the learned Locke, “ is a thing rather to be wished than hoped for.” There 
are many things formerly possessed by members of the mystic Fraternity, which are 
now almost entirely lost to them, or of which they possess only the remains. It cer- 
tainly is so, in reference to this universal language. We shall conclude the 
present article with a brief notice of this language among the aborigines of 
10 



74 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


North America. The particular tribe of the aborigines who caltivate it, are 
called Camanchee. They have a language which they use only among them- 
selves, besides a language of signs , which other nations understand. A particu- 
lar account of this language of signs, can be gathered from the communications 
of Lewis and Clark, to Congress, in 1806, and Long’s expedition up the Missouri. 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER III. 

CEREMONY OF INITIATION AMONGST THE BRAHMINS. 

The periods of initiation were regulated by the increase and decrease of the 
moon ; and the mysteries were divided into Four Steps or Degrees called Char 
Asherum, which were equally the dispensers of virtue in a greater or less de- 
gree.* The candidate might perform his first probation at the early age of eight 
years. It consists of an investiture with the Zennar, or sacred cord of three 
threads, which was explained to refer to the three elements, earth, fire, and air ; 
for water, according the Brahmins, is only air in a condensed form. This inves- 
titure was attended with numerous ceremonies ; with sacrifices to the Solar fire, 
to the planets, and to the household gods ; with aqueous ablutions, and purifica- 
tions with the dung and urine of the cow ;f and ended with an extended lecture 
from his preceptor, usually too abstruse for his juvenile comprehension ; the 
principal subject of which was the unity of the godhead ; the management of the 
consecrated fire, and the holy rites of mohiing, noon, and evening. He was 
then clothed in a linen garment without seam ; a cord was put over his right ear 
as a medium of purification, and he was placed under the exclusive care of a 
Brahmin, who was thence termed his spiritual guide, to be instructed in the ne- 
cessary qualifications for the Second Degree. He was inured to hardships, and 
suffered the infliction of rigid penances} until he attained the age of twenty' 
years ; he was restricted from all indulgences whether carnal or intellectual, and 
passed the whole of his time in prayer and ablution. He was taught to preserve 


* “ Let even the wretched man,” says the Hitopadesa, “ practise virtue, whenever he 
enjoys one of the three or four religious Degrees ; let him be even-minded with all created 
things, and that disposition will be the source of virtue. (Hitop. b. iv.) 

t “ They use cowdung in purification, because it is the medium by which the barren soil 
is rendered prolific : and therefore reminds them of the famous Indian doctrine of corrup- 
tion and reproductio.n” (Maur. Ind. Ant. vol..v. p. 936 .) 

t These penances were indeed rigid, if Mr. Maurice be correct in his information, for he 
says. (Ind. Ant. vol. iv. p- 674, in note,) that the candidates were plunged in alternate baths 
of fir* and water ! 




HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


75 


the purity of his body, which was figuratively termed the city with nine gates in 
which the soul is imprisoned, by avoiding external defilements ; to eat becoming- 
ly, and was' instructed assiduously in all those minuter ceremonies which were 
adapted to eveiy act of hia future life, and by the use of which he was to be ' 
distinguished from his fellow men. Much of his time was devoted to the study 
of tho sacred books ; for a competent knowledge of the institution, ceremonies, 
and traditions of religion were an essential qualification for another Degree. 

When he had attained the specified age, if he were found, on due examination, 
perfectly master of all the mythological lore of the First Degree, he was admitted 
to enter on the probationary ceremonies for the Second, which was called Ge- 
rishth. Here his austerities wese doubled ; he was obliged to support life by 
soliciting charity ; his days were passed in prayer, ablutions and sacrifice, and 
his nights in the study of Astronomy ; arid when exhausted nature sternly de- 
manded repose, he stretched his body under the first tree, snatched a short sleep, 
and rose speedily to contemplate the monsters of the skies, § personified in his 
imagination by the appearance and situation of the Fixed Stars. M In the hot 
season he sat exposed to five fires, four blazing around him, with the Sun above ; 
in the rains he stood uncovered, without even a mantle, where the cloods poured 
the heaviest showers ; in the cold season he wore wet clothing, and went on in- 
creasing by degrees the austerity of his devotion.” His probation being at 
length completed, he was admitted by initiation to participate in the high and 
supernal privileges which the Mysteries were believed to confer. 

He was sanctified by the sign of a Cro 98 ,|j which was marked on every part of 
his body, and subjected to the probation of Pastos, which was denominated tho door 
of Patala, or hell. His purification being completed, he was led at the dead of 
night to the gloomy cave of mystery, which had h^een duly prepared for his recep- 
tion. 

The interior of this holy cavern blazed with a light equal to that of the meri- 
dian Sun, proceeding from myriads of brilliant lamps. There sat in rich and 
costly robes the three chief hierophants, East, West, and South, to represent the 
great Indian triad Brahma — Vishnu — Siva. The attendant Mystagogues, clad 
in sacred vestments, having their heads covered each with a pyramidal cap, em- 
blematical of the spiral flame, or the solar ray, were seated respectfully around. 
Thus disposed in solemn guise, the well known signal from the sacred Bell, sum- 
moned the aspirant* into the centre of this august assembly ; and the initiation 


§The singular arrangement of the Fixed Stars into Constellations by the ancient Indians, 
was of a nature calculated to encourage the indulgence of this feeling. 

||The Christian reader may start when he beholds the sacred emblem of his faith used as 
a symbol of heathen devotion ; but it is even so. The holy Cross pointed to the four quar- 
ters of the compass'; and was honored as a striking emblem of thanniverse by many aucient 
nations. It is found cograven dn their monuments ; and even the erection of many of their 
temples was conducted on the same cruciform principle. The two great pagodas of Benares 
and Mathura are erected in the form of vast crosses of which each wing is equal in extent, 
(Maur. Ind. Ant. vol. iii. p. 360, 377,) as is also the pyramidal temple of New Grange in 
Ireland. (Ledwich. Ant. Irel. p. 316,) and many others. A specimen of the Crnx Angara 
may be seen in Pococke’s elaborate description of the 'East. Plate 69. fig. Y9. 



76 


HISTORY OF INITIATION* 


commenced with an anthem to the great god of nature, whether aa the Creator, 
Preserver, or Destroyer. The sacred business was then solemnly opened with 
the following apostrophe to the Sun : “ O mighty being, greater than Brahma, we 
bow down before thee as the prime Creator ! Eternal god of gods ! The world’s 
mansion ! Thou art the incorruptible being, distinct from all things transient ! 
Thou art before all gods, the ancient Pooroosh , # and the supreme supporter of 
the universe 1 Thou art the supreme mansion ! Aud by thee, O infinite form, the 
universe was spread abroad.” 

The aspirant, already weakened by abstinence and mortification, was overawed 
by the display now exhibited before him ; but resuming his. courage during this 
apostrophe, he prepared himself for the active, business of initiation, in some 
doubt as to what results this unexpected scene would lead. His reflections were 
interrupted by a voice which called on him to make a formal declaration, that he 
will be tractable and obedient to his superiors ; that he will keep his body pure, 
have a tongue of good report, observe a passive obedience in receiving the doc- 
trines and traditions of the Order, and the firmest secrecy in maintaining inviola- 
ble its hidden and abstruse mysteries. This declaration having been assented 
to, he was sprinkled with water ; a mantra or incantation was pronounced over 
him, or more frequently whispered in his right ear ;f he was divested of his 
shoes, that the consecrated ground on which be stood might not be polluted, and 
was made to circumambulate the spacious cavern three times, in reference to the 
XHmurti, whose representatives were stationed triangularly in the east, west, 
and south points of the circumference of the mystical circle. While performing 
this ceremony he was taught to exclaim, on his arrival each time in the south, “ I 
copy the example of the Sun, and follow his benevolent course.” This being 
completed, he was again placed in the centre and solemnly enjoined to the prac- 
tice of religious austerities, as the efficient means of preparing his soul for ulti- 
mate absorption ; and was told that the merit of such works will emit a splendor 
which renders man not only superior to the gods, but makes those immortal 
beings subservient to his wishes. 

After this admonition the aspirant was placed under the care of his gooroo or 
spiritual guide, and directed to observe a profound silence during the whole of 
the succeeding ceremonies, under the denunciation of summary punishment from 
the presiding Brahma, who, he was told, possessed unlimited power, even to 
strike him dead on the spot with a malediction should he presume to violate the 
injunction now imposed upon him. Thus instructed, the subdued candidate en- 
deavored to preserve the utmost equanimity of temper during the process of ini- 
tiation ; fearing, lest by any involuntary expression which might imply cowardice 
or disapprobation, he should elicit the dreaded resentment of this potent avenger ; 
for the gooroo was usually possessed of much discrimination, and was always 
prepared to punish the indiscrete disciple who should fail in any point either of 
deference or respect; or betray any symptoms of dread or irresolution. 


♦Pooroosh literally means no more than man : but in the Goteta it is a term in theology 
used to express the vital soul, or portion of the universal spirit of Brahma, inhabiting a body. 
(Vid. Wilkins. Notes on the Geeta. p. 142 .) 
tThs mantra is merely an invocation of the deity. 




t 


HISTORY OP IIIITIlTIOJf. 77 

The bewailings of the loss of SHa then began. The aspirant was passed 
through seven ranges of dark and gloomy caverns, amidst the diin of howling, 
shrieks, and dismal lamentations, to represent the bewailings of Mahadeva, who 
is fabled to have circumambulated the world seven times, with the remains of his 
murdered consort on his shoulders. Amidst all this confusion a sudden explo- 
sion was heard which seemed to rend the mountains whose gloomy recesses they 
were now exploring, and this was instantaneously followed by a dead silence. 
Flashes of brilliant light streamed before their eyes, \vhich were succeeded by 
the blackest darkness. To his utter astonishment the candidate now beheld 
shadows and phantoms of various and compound shapes, surrounded with rays of 
light, flitting across the gloom.* Some with many hands, arms, and legs ; others 
without any of those appendages ; — here a shapeless trunk, there a human body 
with the head Of a bird, beast, or fish ; now a human trunk with bestial extremi- 
ties, succeeded by the body of an animal with the head of a man. Some with 
“ fiery eyes, yellow bodies, red faces, long ears, armed with tridents and axes in 
their right hands, and holding human sculls and vases in their left. Others hav- 
ing three eyes and strings of human sculls suspended round their necks, with 
long, straggling, frightful teeth.” Amongst these be saw one terrible figure who 
had u a gorgeous appearance, with a thousand heads, and on each of them a 
crown set with resplendent gems, one of which was larger and brighter than the 
rest; his eyes gleamed like flaming torches, but his neck, his tongues, and bis 
body were black ; the skirts of his habiliments were yellow, and a sparkling 
jewel hung in every one of his ears ; his arms were extended and adorned with 
rich bracelets, and his hands bore the holy shell, the radiated weapon, the mace 
of war, and the lotos.” This was no other than Mahadeva himself in his Charac- 
ter of the Destroyer. These appearances were explained as the first generation of 
the gods ! for the body of Sita, while carried by the sorrowing Mahadeva, burst- 
ing, the gods contained in her capacious womb were scattered over the face of 
the earth ; and the places where each of them fell were accounted sacred. 

Having reached the extremity of the seven mystic caverns, f a cheerful peal of 
bells was heard to ring # which he was instructed to believe would expell the 
evil demons from these dark caves, who might be inclined to disturb, by an unpropi- 
tious intrusion, the sacred ceremonies in which they were engaged. Before the 
candidate was enlightened and introduced into the presence of the holy Altar, he 
was told that “whatever is performed without faith, whether it be sacrifices, deeds of 
charity, or mortifications of the flesh, is not for this world or that which is above 
and was strictly admonished against the commission of five crimes, which were 
prohibited under heavy penalties in this life, and punished with eternal ven- 
geance in the next And these particulars form a part of the Oath under which 
he was solemnly bound. He swears, in addition to the usual points relating to 


*Vid. the wisdom of Solomon, (c. xviii.) in the Apocrypha of our Bible, where this part of 
the oeremony of initiation is minutely described. 

tThese seven caverns bore an allusion to the metempsychosis, as well as to the seven 
places of reward an4 punishment which different nations have received into their creeds. 
$From time immemorial, bells were employed iu religious rites all over the eastern world. 



78 


HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


secrecy, that he will not assassinate a Brahmin, or rob him of gold or other pro- 
perty, but rather relieve him ; that he will not be addicted to intemperance in 
eating or drinking ; and that he will not associate with any person who has pol- 
luted himself by the commission of these crimes ; and seals his Oath by a sacred 
ablution. 

The awful moment was now arrived when the ceremony of initiation had 
attained its highest degree of interest; the pealing Conch was blown, the fold- 
ing doors were suddenly' thrown open, and the candidate was introduced into 
Cailasa or Paradise, which was a spacious apartment blazing with a thousand 
brilliant lights; ornamented with statues and emblematical figures, scented with 
the fragrance of odorous flowers, aromatic gums and costly drugs; decorated 
profusely with gems and jewels; the unsubstantial figures of the airy inhabi- 
tants of unknown worlds carved on the roof in the act of volitation ; and the 
splendid saceilum thronged with priests and hierophants, arrayed in gorgeous 
vestments and crowned with mitres, and tiaras of burnished gold.* With eyes 
rivetted on the altar, he was taught to exppct the descent of the deity in the 
bright pyramidal fire that blazed upon it. The sudden sound. of this shell or 
trumpet, to which the hollow caverns reverberated long and continued echoes ; 
the expansion of the folding doors ; the brilliant display so unexpectedly exhi- 
bited before him ; the instantaneous prostration of the priests, and the profound 
silence which followed this ceremony, filled the inind of the aspirant with admi- 
ration, and lighted up the holy fervour of devotion in his heart ; so that, in the 
moment of enthusiasm, he could almost persuade himself that he actually beheld 
the expected descent of the great Brahma seated on the lotos, with his four 
headsf and arms, and bearing in his hands the usual emblems, of eternity and 
uncontrollable power, the Circle^ and Fire. 


* The riches of many of these temples is incredible. The pillars were covered with plates 
of gold, intermixed with precious stones. (Maur Ind. Ant. vol. iii. p. 363 ) The images 
were of gold and silver, and many -thousands were often. found in the same temple, (lb. p. 
369.) And when Mahmed broke in pieces the idol of Sunmaut, to his astonishment he 
found the hollow body. full of diamonds, rubies, and pearls, of a' water so pure, and of a mag- 
nitude so uncommon, that the beholders were filled with surprise and admiration.” (Ib. p. 
373.) The idol of Krishna in the temple at Mattra had two great rubies in the place of 
eyes ; and the flodr of the hallowed temple at Naugracut was covered with plates of gold. 
(Mandeslo. Travels, p. 21.) The principal idol in the pagoda at Benares was decorated 
with chains of precious stones, some being rubies, others pearls, and others emeralds. 
(Voyage de Tovernier, tom. iv. p. 161.) In some of the pagodas the ears of the monstrous 
idols were gilded and full of jewels, their teeth and eyes of gold.. (Purch. Pilgr. vol. 1, p. 
579.) 

+The four heads of Brahma represent equally the four elements, and the four quarters of 
the globe. 

JThe Circle or Ring was received as an expressive symbol of the Ark all over the world. 



DEATH OF JOSEPH BONAPARTE. 


79 


DEATH OF JOSEPH BONAPARTE, 

GRAND M A ST E it OF THE GRAND ORIENT. 

[Translated from L’Orient, for this Magazine.] 

French Masonry has just lost its Grand Master, the prince Joseph Bona- 
parte, formerly king of Napfles and Spain, and brother of the Emperor Napoleon. 
He died at Florence, in the land of his exile, on the 28th of July, 1844. 

Born at Ajaccio, on the 7th of January, 17(58, he was at first destined for a 
lawyer; but the rapid elevation of Napoleon, and perhaps also, a natural inclina- 
tion, determined him to abandon this career and embrace that of arms ; and he 
made with his Brother, in 1796, the campaign in Italy. Shortly after, the depart- 
ment of Corsica appointed him to represent' it in the Council of the Five Hun- 
dred. After this, he was by. turns, ambassador to Rome, and member of the 
Legislative body. In these positions he constantly exhibited maiks of an upright 
and sound mind, and a noble character. Placed, in 1806, by Napoleon, at the 
head of an army, he conquered the kingdom of Naples, and delayed not to estab- 
lish himself upon the throne of that country ; and, in the course of a reign of 
less than three years, he drove the English from the Neapolitan soil, reorgani- 
zed the government, army and navy, and undertook numerous works of public 
utility. He was called to the crown of Spain about tbe end of 1808. Almost 
immediately, civil war was kindled in his new States, and he saw himself forced 
to display a severity which was repugnant to his benevolent feelings and wound- 
ed the sentiment of profound moderation which governed him in all his actions. 
He solicited in vain from the Emperor, permission to resign a station which im- 
posed too many laborious duties on him : it was refused him, — and the misfor- 
tunes of war could alone ease him of so heavy a burden. On his return into 
France, in 1814, he was entrusted with the military command of Paris; and 
when, yielding to treason, he was obliged to abandon the city, he followed Maria 
Louisa to Chartres and Blois, and retired into Switzerland after the abdication of 
the Emperor. In one hundred days he returned to Paris. Waterloo forced him 
to quit it again. He sought an asylum beyond the Atlantic, in the United States, 
where lie acquired property, without being obliged, according to the modera- 
tion of the law, to renounce allegiance to France. He did not return to Europe 
until 1832. After a sojourn of several years in England, he obtained from the 
powers of the north permission to settle in Florence, where he terminated his 
earthly career. He had married in the times of the Directory, Mile. Clary, 
daughter of a respectacle merchant of Marseilles, and sister of the wife of Gen. 
Bernadotte, since queen of Sweden. He had by her two daughters, one of whom 
was married to the prince of Musignano, son of Lucien Bonaparte ; and the other 
to the eldest son of Louis Bonaparte, who perished in 183J, in the troubles of 
Italy. 

Joseph Bonaparte was made a member of the Masonic Fraternity, in the month 
of April, 1805. His initiation took place at the Tuilleries, by a commission, 
composed of Brothers Cainbaceres* Kellermann, Hugh Maret and several others, 
all great dignitaries of the empire and honorable officers of tbe Grand Orient. 
He was soon called to the Grand Mastership by the Emperor, who had thus 



80 


CHARGES. 


wished to honor an Institution to which he belonged himself, and which he 
esteemed for its principles and works,- and whose propagation he wished to favor 
in order to generalize the benefits of it Although the new Grand Master had 
not been installed into his office* and had never assisted at the sittings of the 
Grand Orient, from which his duties — at first as general, and afterwards as 
king — constantly absented him, he prized not the less the title conferred on him, 
and embraced not the less ardently every occasion which presented itself to give 
information respecting the situation and progress of Masonry. At every period 
of his life — in the zenith of prosperity as well as in adversity — the Masonic cha- 
racter influenced his private beneficence, and he bestowed always employment 
and favors upon members of the Fraternity in preference to others. 

For a long time the Grand Orient — of which body he had never ceased to be 
Grand Master — has been obliged to refrain from all communication with him, 
and even to leave vacant his place at the head of the roll of the great dignitaries 
of the Order: the harsh necessities of policy and fitting respect for the powers 
which have succeeded since the fall of the empire, willed that it should be so. 
But now, as the brother of Napoleon, — as the head of the imperial family has dis- 
appeared from this world ; as the manifestation of the sentiment which his person 
and bis misfortunes inspired, is no longer dangerous to the public peace, as the 
tomb has closed over his lifeless remains, the Grand Orient and French Masonry, 
owe to him, and owe to themselves, the payment of a tribute of regret to his 
memory. Already, in the different chambers of administration, the “batteries 
of sorrow” have been fired in honor of him. This is not sufficient It becomes 
necessary to celebrate his Masonic obsequies with all the solemnity which the 
high position which he has occupied in the order demands. We have a firm 
confidence that the Grand Orient will not refuse him this last sad homage* 


CHARGES IN THE THREE SYMBOLIC DEGREES. 

DELIVERED IN SOLOMON'S LODGE NO. I, ORBS L BATON, 8. C. 

BY ALBERT G. MACKEY, M. D. 

Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge and of the G. R. A. C. of South Carolina. 

1. ENTERED APPRENTICE. 

Brother ! by the ceremonies through which you have this evening passed, 
you have been admitted as the younger member of an ancient, honorable and 
extensive family. Jlncient , because it dates its origin at least from the building 
of Solomon’s temple, nearly three thousand years ago ; honorable , because the 
principles it inculcates are of the most exalted character; extensive, because its 
influence is felt in the remotest regions of the earth. Every change of circum- 
stances and position in human life involves a change of duties and obligations, 
and it is not to be supposed that your entrance into our Fraternity is unattended 
with this necessary consequence of a new connexion. Our Order is eminently 
distinguished for the exercise of charity ; that charity which is the cape stone 
of gar temple and has been declared to be the greatest of all virtues. The em- 



CHARGES. 


81 


blematic lesson which you have this evening received, will, I trust, impress its 
beauty and holiness upon your mind, and teach you to relieve with alacrity and 
pleasure the necessities of a destitute Brother. 

Obedience to the commands of your Masonic superiors is also enjoined upon 
you. Our old constitutions require, and it is therefore expected, that, where the 
interests of your family or the paramount claims of business or necessity do not 
interpose, you will attend the meeting of any Lodge of Entered Apprentices 
within the lawful distance to which you may be regularly summoned. 

But the principal duty of this Degree is secrecy. To this our Order is chiefly 
indebted for its stability and prosperity. While a thousand other institutions 
have arisen, flourished for an ephemeral period, and eventually been swept away 
by the irresistible billows of time, Masonry, like a vast rock whose foundations 
are laid in the depths of the ocean, has stood firm and uninjured, relying on the 
unshaken fidelity of its children. Be, therefore, exceedingly cautious in your 
conversations on Masonic subjects ; listen with respect to the suggestions of your 
elders in the Fraternity, and do not readily intrude your own untutored and inex- 
perienced opinions. You will find your Brethren, who are better informed than 
yourself, always as ready to impart as you are to receive instruction. Above all, 
refrain from all disputes or controversies with the profane, upon the principles 
and mysteries of our institution, lest in the moments of unguarded temper yon 
should be induced to make admissions injurious to the Order or subversive of its 
sacred privacy. 

The tools with which you have this evening been presented, sufficiently indi- 
cate that the work allotted to you is of the simplest kind. The Entered Apprenti- 
ces were not permitted to pass the portals of the temple, but were occupied in the 
quarries in fashioning the rude stones by means of the twentyfour inch guage 
and common gavel, so as to fit them for the use of the Fellow-Craftsmen. And it 
was not until by making due proficiency, and after proving themselves worthy by 
their obedience and fidelity, that they were permitted to enter the sacred pre- 
cincts, and to receive a fuller share of light and instruction. Your expected 
labor is, therefore, to purify your mind : and, by the guage and gavel of virtuous 
principles, to remove from your heart the asperities and impurities of vice ; 
fitting yourself, thereby, for a removal into that “ building not made with bands, 
eternal in the heavens f and may the Great Architect of the Universe inspire you 
with wisdom to discern, and with strength to pursue that path of beauty and holi- 
ness which leads to the celestial Lodge on high. 

2. FELLOW-CRAFT. 

Brother, — Your good conduct and proficiency as an Entered Apprentice, have 
at length enabled you to pass the porch of the temple and to enter the M.\ C.\ 
Whether your progress shall be still onward, or whether you shall remain station- 
ary in the position to which you have now arrived, depends not so much on our 
wishes as on your own conduct. Devote yourself then with regularity and atten- 
tion to the discharge of those new duties which have now devolved upon you, so 
that by your skill and merit you may entitle yourself to a further advancement in 
the great Brotherhood of Masonry, You should particularly employ yourself in 
the study of those liberal arts and sciences to which your attention has this even- 
11 



82 


CHARGES. 


mg been directed. In the temple at Jerusalem, while the Masters superintended 
the labors of. the workmen, administering justice, punishing the slothful, and 
rewarding the diligent, to the Fellow-Craftsmen was entrusted the labor of erec- 
tion. Skill and knowledge in the principles of their profession were therefore 
absolutely necessary to the successful progress of their labors. You, then, as a 
speculative Mason, should devote yourself to the acquisition of such knowledge 
as will enlighten your mind and strengthen your heart in the love and reverence 
. of your Creator and his wonderful works. Looking upon the soul as the immor- 
tal temple which you are engaged in finishing and adorning for the abode of 
virtue and the worship of Jehovah, you will no longer be contented with merely 
preparing the materials fof this glorious fabric, but, using the square of morality 
and the plumb-line of rectitude, build on the level of time such an edifice of holi- 
ness, as will remain perfect, unalterable, and unimpaired through ages of eter- 
nity. 

3. MASTER MASON. 

Brother, — Your advancement in Masonry, has now given you an opportunity 
of discovering the progressive nature of our Institution. Operative Masons are 
necessarily divided into three classes, those who are acquiring a knowledge of 
the Craft, those who are engaged in its active labors, and those whose superior 
skill have called them to preside over the conduct and work of the others. Hence 
the division into Apprentices, Craftsmen and Masters is as natural as it is judi- 
cious. Speculative Masonry, sanctifying and symbolizing every part of the ope- 
rative aft, has adapted these several grades to the great lessons of truth, the 
acquisition and preservation of which constitute the aim and object of our Order. 

The degree of Entered Apprentice is emblematic of the period of childhood, 
when the mind is not yet formed by lessons of wisdom, when the darkness of 
ignorance is not yet expelled and the full light of knowledge hath not beamed 
forth its bright rays of divine creation. 

The Fellow-Craft, emblematic of the state of manhood, is invested with know- 
ledge ; he feels that he is placed upon earth for something more than the gratifi- 
cation of mere sensual appetites ; he glories in the high destiny that awaits him, 
and perceives that wisdom and virtue are the pillars of strength and establish- 
ment that guard the portal of his mind, that glorious and eternal temple whose 
architect is Jehovah, and whose material is an emanation from his divinity. 

The Mason, thus taught to aspire to the possession of the noblest attributes of 
man, to seek the knowledge of that which is good, and to adorn his walk of life 
with the beauty of holiness, arrives at length at the Master’s Degree, which 
teaches him that lesson which mortality most requires, and instructs him, by the 
solemn incidents it recites, how to die. It admonishes us that death knocks with 
equal pace at the prince’s palace and the peasant’s hut ; that it seeks with the 
same unerring and unwearying search, the good man in his walk of holiness, and 
the bad one in the path of evil ; and, finally, it instructs us when the hour that 
terminates our earthly career shall have arrived, to die, as we have lived, faithful 
to the solemn trusts of our stewardship. But the picture of death, gloomy as are 
its shades, is, in this degree, illuminated by the light of hope. For though the 
body returns to the dust which it was, we know that the soul, like the evergreen 
acacia, which blooms in the glow of summer, nor fades amid the snows of win- 



THE MASTER’S APRON. A TALE. 


83 


ter, being an emanation of that Being who breathed into man a portion of his 
divinity with the breath of life, must return to its resting place, and find, in the 
bosom of its God, that sanctuary of eternal peace where the mourners cease ‘from 
trouble and the weary are at rest. 

Charleston , S. C., 5844. 


THE MASTER’S APRON. — A TALE. 

[Translated from L’Orient for this Magazine, by T. J. W. Kennedy.] 

The Count of Cernay and his wife emigrated from Paris in 1793. Notwith- 
standing their youth, they were more cautious than many young persons who 
quitted Prance at the same epoch. At the commencement of the troubles of 
they sent a part of their fortunes to England, so that in their exile they were 
enabled to live with as much comfort as they would have enjoyed in Paris. 
The Count of Cernay took up his residence in London, and became very intimate 
with Sir John Melville, a young man a few years older than himself, and lieuten- 
ant in the English arrhy. The friendship between them increased daily, and 
when, in 1814, Mr. de Cernay left London in order to return to France, and 
demand of Louis the XVIII. the recompense due to his exile and fidelity, the 
only sorrow he felt at his departure, was that he was to be separated from so 
intimate a friend. Nevertheless, a slight disagreement arose between the two 
friends, at the moment of departure. 

The Frenchman rejoiced at the unfortunate state of France, and the English- 
man maintained, that notwithstanding the advantages the French noblemen would 
derive from the restoration, they should nevertheless stifle their individual inter- 
ests and lament over the misfortunes which surrounded their country. The Count 
of Cernay returned to France, bringing with him a daughter fourteen vears old ; 
she appeared at the Court, and his fortune, which was already very large, was 
rapidly increased by the gifts which he received from Louis XVIII. Napoleon 
returned from Elba. The king was obliged to submit to a second exile, which, 
on account of the defeat at Waterloo, lasted but one hundred days ; and, in 1817, 
the Royalists predicted a long and happy reign for the elder branch of the Bour- 
bons. It was about this time that Sir John Melville, having attained the rank of 
Major in the English army, sent his son Edward, to Paris, and placed him under 
the care of his friend, the Count of Cernay, informing him at the same time, that 
the young man had come to Paris with the intention of marrying. Edward Mel- 
ville was in his twentieth year ; he was one of those beautiful young English- 
men, in whom we find the graces of the female figure combined with all that is 
beautiful in the male. He was the son of a man of wealth and distinction, and 
was on that account an excellent match for Miss Aldegonde de Cernay. The 
Count and Countess were aware of this circumstance, and as Sir John had inform- 
ed them that he wished to have his son married in France, they thought that 
this project, though singular as it might appear on the part of an Englishman, 
could not concern any one but their daughter. 

It was a happy event. It would strengthen the bonds of friendship existing 
between the two families, and would not be at all displeasing to Miss Aldegonde, 
for she had retained a sweet souvenir of young Edward, with whom she had 
passed the happy and joyful days of her youth. The Count and Countess called 
her into the parlor. “Aldegonile,” said the Countess to her, “I am going to an- 
nounce to you some joyful news: Little Edward is going to pay us a visit. 
“Yes, mamma,” answered Aldegone, who having been educated in England, had 
retained some of the nursery customs of the young English ladies. 

Our young heroine remained calm and did not even raise her eyes, so that the 
Countess was unable to say whether the arrival of the young Englishman wonld, 



84 


THE MASTER’S APRON. — A TALE. 


or would not, be gratifying to her daughter. “You must remember,” continued 
the mother, “that the little Edward is at present a handsome young man, and 
you cannot play with him as you were wont to do when he was a little boy. He 
is coming to Paris, Aldegonde, to get married.” 

“Ah! ah ! ! ah ! ! !” said the young girl, blushing. The Countess did hot tell 
her daughter that there was a young man coming from the other side of the 
straits to marry her ; but she asked her if her piano was in tune P — if she had 
procured of her instructor the latest musical romances ? and she informed her at 
the same time, that her wardrobe was to be renewed. This, we think, was speaking 

S lain enough, without exposing one’s self. The Count added, that as Sir John 
lelville was his intimate friend, his son would stop with them ; he wished also 
to have the pleasure of presenting him at the castle. § Aldegonde retired, fully 
persuaded, that, before long, she would be the wife of the beautiful and accom- 
plished young Edward. 

It was not long before Edward arrived in Paris, and took up his residence at 
the Count’s. He appeared tall and handsome, and although he was a true Eng- 
lishman, and his manners were somewhat harsh, he appeared in the eyes of Miss 
Aldegonde more amiable and polite than the young Frenchmen of his age, 
spoiled by the education of the empire and by a few revolutionary ideas, of which 
they had conserved the germ. The Count and Countess Cernay looked at Ed- 
ward in a different light. The young man appeared to them, to be charmed with 
the love of liberty — which was both hazardous and pernicious. When they 
proposed presenting him at the castle, he did not show all the enthusiasm they 
expected ; he also made use of some expressions which were at the same time 
disrespectful towards the august family of the Bourbons, and displeasing to the 
Countess of Cernay. On the other hand, lie did not conceal hi9 admiration for 
the captive of St. Helena ; tor the man whom they still upheld in the saloons of 
the suburbs of Saint-Germain, as the invincible of Corsica. Edward used all the 
poetical expressions of Byron, in speaking of Caesar vanquished ; but he merely 
commended the king in prose. He was, however, according to the family of 
Cernay, a perfect gentleman ; his political opinions, which , would liave been 
insupportable in a Frenchman, were nothing but a little English eccentricity ; 
and without doubt Sir John Melville, his father, had no other intention in uniting 
his son with a family so truly monarchal, than of opposing, by a good marriage, a 
bulwork to the ridiculous inclinations of bis son. Miss Aldegonde de Cernay 
would (they thought.) be the guardian angel who would reclaim Edward and 
make of him a true loyalist “ Those young folks seem to agree very well,” said 
the Count to his lady ; adding, at the same time, that he thought the dreams of 
Sir John were about to be accomplished. 

Mr. de Cernay understood all tiie reserve of Englishmen ; but, as he thought 
ho was aware of the projects of his friend, he inquired of Edward if his father 
would come to Paris to assist at a marriage, which, according to all appearances, 
would be consummated without difficulty. “Oh yes, oh yes,” answered the 
young man ; “ my father will be here in fifteen days.” 

There was at this time at Paris, in the suburbs of St. Antoine, and nearer to 
the gate which conducted to the throne than to the bastille, a small haberdash- 
er’s shop. The name of the indigent proprietor was a Mrs. Mathiew. She was 
a widow, hardly forty years of age, and passed for a handsome woman. She had 
been the wife of a soldier. Seated beside her in the work 9hop, was a young girl 
of sixteen, glittering with all the eclat of youth, and of astonishing beauty. The 
neighbors were aware that Mrs. Mathiew had refused to accept a number of 
advantageous proposals of marriage which had been made to her, and she watch- 
ed over her daughter with so much assiduity that Miss Julia, (which was the 
name of the young girl,) was unable to perform a single action, or utter a word, 
without her knowledge. The young gentlemen who were in the habit of resort- 
ing there, seeing that there was no hope of gaining the affections of the mother 
and the daughter, abandoned the shop; and the young ladies, influenced by that 
sort of petty jealousy, which beauty is very apt to cause, followed the example of 


J 



I 


THE MASTER’S APRON. — A TALE. 85 

the young men ; so that the mother and daughter were at last left by themselves. 
False reports were circulated in every direction, and the virtue of the motherland 
daughter was frequently brought into question. Some went so far as to say, 
that the mother had been the mistress of a rich and influential married gentle- 
man, who resided at the castle, and that Miss Julia wa9 the result of an adulte- 
rous union which had been broken by I he religious susceptibilities of the Duch- 
esse of Angouleme. Others thought that Mrs. Mathiew had been placed there 
by the police to inform them of the opinions and actions of those residing in the 
suburbs. During this time of restraint, in which the French were governed by 
Princes for whom they had no affection, every one seemed to the people to be 
connected with the police. On the other hand, the police being aware of the 
opinions of Mrs. Mathiew, and not putting too much confidence in her submission, 
kept a constant watch near the house. ' 

It was before this shop that Edward Melville, a few days after his arrival in 
Paris, ordered his coachman to stop. On entering, he saluted, politely, both the 
mother and the daughter, and called for a skein of pack-thread, or whip cord. 
He told them he wanted it to make a snapper for his superb gold mounted whip, 
which in reality wanted no such thing. Mrs. Mathiew could not be deceived by 
our young hero; she’supposed that he had seen her daughter Julia, at a distance, 
and he now wished to have a closer view of her ; for, allowing that the whip 
wanted a snapper, the groom, who at that moment stood holding the reins, 
would naturally have come for it, instead of his master. The mother cast a look 
of distrust at the young Englishman and rose in order to give him what lie want- 
ed. “Can you tell me, Miss,” said Edward, addressing the daughter, “if I am 
far from Vincennes ?” The young girl, struck by the genteel appearance of this 
handsome young man, who spoke French as fluently as herself, became as red as 
the rose, and was leaving her seat to point out to him the road to Vincennes, 
adding, at the same time, that the distance would appear short, with the beautiful 
carriage that stood before the house, when her mother stopped her : “Go up 
stairs, Julia,” said she, “you have some work to do there.” And with a look of 
sadness which never abandoned her, she said to Edward : “You will leave Paris 
by the gate which is but a few steps from here ; the road to Vincennes is strait 
on ; your horse can carry you there in ten minutes.” 

“What a pretty girl!” said Edward, watching Julia, who was leaving the 
room, (being so struck with admiration he made use of his natural idiom in giving 
vent to tliis exclamation:) “Ih your daughter’s name Julia?” said he to her 
mother. 

“There is the pack-thread you asked me for,” said Mrs. Mathiew, without an- 
swering Edward’s question. The young man made a bow and inquired the 
price of the purchase he had made. “ Two groats, sir,” said Mrs. Mathiew. 
And as our young Englishman appeared not to understand this small coin, she 
added : “ The half of a sou, sir, a half sou.” 

Edward payed it, and seeing that it was impossible to keep up a conversation, 
he saluted her, left the shop and entered his Buggy, saying to himself, “ The 
daughter is very handsome ! but the mother has no great love for Englishmen.” 
In leaving, he forgot two things ; the first was, to use the snapper he had just 
procured, and the second was, that he did not take the road to Vincennes. “ I 
was not mistaken,” thought Mrs. Mathiew. 

An instant after, Julia stole softly into the shop, and opening little by little the 
door of the backroom, she cried out, “Is he gone, mother?” The answer 
was, “yes my child.” “ Oh, is he not a beauty, mother !” said Julia. “Never 
mind,” said the mother, abruptly ; “ he is an Englishman !” The last word ut- 
tered by the mother, put an end to the conversation, and the young girl, per- 
plexed, went up to her mother’s room to put the things in order. There existed 
in France, at this time, a perfect hatred for the English nation, which had united 
with all Europe to contend against and to vanquish Napoleon, as the French 
seemed to hate all Europe ; but they still kept alive their hatred for Englishmen ; 
for England was in reality the cause of the defeat The unhappy event at Wa- 
terloo bad greatly increased the antipathy of the two nations. 



86 


THE MASTER’S APRON. A TALE. 


After this fatal battle, we supported with impatience our misfortune and our 
lot ; at the same time the arrogance of the English, who had acquired all the 
honor of the memorable day, increased, although it was in reality the Prussians 
who had conquered us. Mrs. Mathiew took part in the general feeling, and went 
even farther than others; her feelings were wounded at the exclamation of her 
daughter, who fouod an Englishman handsome. They said no more of Edward’s 
mysterious visit. However, eight days had hardly passed before another Eng- 
lishman entered the shop. He was an elderly gentleman, who, although of a 
grave masculine appearance, had nevertheless a remarkable expression of mild- 
ness; he came on foot, and having cast a glance at Miss Julia, he addressed 
himself to Mrs. Mathiew : 

“Is it to Mrs. Mathiew,” said he, “that I have the pleasure of speaking?” 

“ Yes, sir.” 

“The widow of the Imperial Guard, Mr. Mathiew, who died at Waterloo?” 

“ Yes, sir.” 

“I am Major Melville,” said he, saluting her: ‘ I came from London on pur- 
pose to see you and to conclude with you an affair which interests us both ?” 
“ Is that the daughter of captain Mathiew,” said he, presenting his ungloved hand 
to Miss Julia? Julia, whom the appearance of the stranger had inspired with 
confidence, and who heard her father praised, placed her delicate little hand in 
that of the Major, who added softly : — 

“ Well then, my child, you must leave mo alone with your mother; I have to 
relate to her something which concerns you, but which you cannot hear till 
after her.” 

Mrs. Mathiew showed the Major a pair of steps which led to another room ; he 
went in first ; Mrs. Mathiew soon followed, leaving Julia in the shop. The Major 
having taken a seat, he found the room decorated with neatness, which is the 
luxury of the poor. On’ the mantle piece there was neither clock nor mirror. 
He saw but one solitary portrait, whicn he immediately recognized for captain 
Mathiew, and at the bottom of it was a cross of honor, of which one of the branches 
was wanting. Mrs. Mathiew looked at the Major without speaking, expecting 
every moment that he would explain himself. The Major remained some time 
silent; at last, putting his hand on his heart, he said: 

“ Madam, God save the Emperor !” 

“ Ah ! yes,” said the poor widow with her eyes full of tears, “Yes, God will 
save him !” 

“Without doubt,” said the Major, “ for there is now no one but God that can 
save him. That is all well,” added he ; “ now we understand one another. 
Listen to me. I told you that I was Major Melville; I have a very comfortable 
house in London, a pleasant country seat in the county of Sussex, with fifty thou- 
sand pounds sterling invested in the India Company stock, and I came to Paris to 
marry you !” Mrs. Mathiew was seated along side of the Major ; in an instant she 
was at the other side of the room. This man had cried out God save the Empe- 
ror, but he was an Englishman. The widow answered not, but her beautiful 
eyes, which were still filled with tears, were turned towards the portrait of her 
husband. “ That is not all,” continued the Major calmly ; “ I have a son, a hand- 
some boy. You know him, Mrs. Mathiew; he came here to your house eight or 
ten days ago, and purchased a snapper for his whip ; I sent him to Paris to marry 
Miss Julia, your daughter, and the child of the brave captain.” 

Mrs. Mathiew, believing that she could not have been chosen as an object of 
pleasantry, thought at least that she was exposed to the persecutions of a fool. 
Notwithstanding, as the Major appeared to be in earnest, 9he said, with mildness 
and downcast eyes, that it was impossible for her to accept the double honor with 
which he wished to load her. 

“ You refuse to comply with my request !” exclaimed the Major “ you refuse ! 

I expected it Rest assured Madam, that I will not leave this bouse without 
your promise to accept my offer !” 

“ But, sir.” 



87 


THE MASTER’S APRON. — ‘A TALE. 

“ I asked you to listen to me” said the Major, grasping the widow’s hand ; 
“ listen to me. I am going to speak to you about your husband. I had the honor 
of being at Waterloo. You need not supopse that I am going to give you a full 
history of the battle. I must now however speak of the episode, — which is the 
most painful for you. The French were beaten. Those that were not dead or 
wounded took to flight, except at the extremity of the field of battle. I could 
perceive from an elevation on which I was stationed with ray regiment, about 
twenty grenadiers of the young French guards, who still maintained their ground, 
and who, in expiring, dealt death and destruction on the five hundred Prussians 
that surrounded them. I went immediately to disengage them ; for if war, Mad- 
am, has any attractions for courageous men, it is when the chances are almost 
equal, and not when the conqueror abuses his victory by slaughtering his equals, 
when they are unable to defend themselves. I came up to the Frenchmen, 
put a stop to the firing, and was about protecting the retreat of those brave men, 
when a ball, fired but a short distance from me, struck their chief, who fell into 
my arms. It had pierced his chest. That chief was the brave Capt Mathiew, — 
it was your husband. I had him brought into my tent, and delivered him into 
the hands of my friend, an experienced Surgeon ; I had for a moment the hope of 
saving him. He, however, had no hope of recovery 

“ Major,” said be ; “ Major, your name ?” 

“I told him my name. We were alone ; the surgeon left us to see the others 
that were wounded, and in leaving us, he made a sign by which I understood 
that he entertained no hope for his patient : your husband said to me : — “ I die 
unhappy, because I do not die altogether — my wife, my child.” “ Captain,” an- 
swered I, “ I will take care of them, I am rich.” He looked at me for a moment 
“You are not an Englishman ?” said he. “ I am, my friend, one of the truest sons 
of old England. Die in peace. I say to you again, 1 will take charge of your 
wife and child.” “ Well then !” said he, “you are a Mason ?” 

“And you?” He gave me the sacred sign by which the Masons of the two 
hemispheres recognise one another. I seized his hand and kissed it. Then the 
vanquished of Waterloo, the son of France, the faithful servant of the great Na- 
poleon, unbuttoned his shirt, which was covered with blood, and drew from a 
small wallet placed on his breast, an object equally covered with gore, through 
which the ballthat killed him had passed, carrying away at the same time one of 
the branches of his cross of the legion of honor, which is under the portrait, and 
which I sent to you as soon as possible.” 

The Major ceased speaking for a moment, and then placed before the widow 
an Apron, of Lamb skin, surrounded by a blue ribbond, in the middle of which 
might be seen three roses, made of ribbond of the same color. This small Apron, 
folded without doubt in four folds in the pocket of captain Mathiew at the mo- 
ment he was wounded, had four round holes, which marked the passage of the 
ball ; and although originally white, it was now spotted with blood. The Major 
continued : 

“ Brother Melville,” said the dying man, “ there it is. I place it in your hands. 
Although we are of two different Orients, and although our two countries are at 
war, we nevertheless are friends, — we are Brothers. What will you do for my 
widow ? What will you do for my daughter ?” 

“ The half of my fortune,” cried I, “ belongs to them from this moment.” 

“ No, no, that is too much.” 

“ My Brother, my entire fortune.” 

“ No, no,” 

“ Well then ! more than that ; I will do all that is humanly possible.” 

“He gave me his hand and expired.” 

During this narration, the widow was melting with tears. She wanted to grasp 
the bloody relic that was before her eyes ; and wished to press it to her lips . § 
The Major stopped her. 

“Pardon me,” said he, “it is the gage of my promise. My regiment, instead 
of coming to France, was sent to England. I could not come to see you, but 



88 


COR&K&PONPBNC&* 


I ascertained how you was and how you lived. While I was contemplating in 
what way I should fulfil the promise I had made a Brother, that died in my arms, 
I lost my wife. My various projects were laid aside, for I knew what I had to 
do. I knew that I should offer something besides charity ; I owed you an entire 
protection, — I owed your daughter all the happiness and protection that the 
youth of my son could afford. Notwithstanding, madam,” said the Major, while 
the widow held his hand, within her own, mutually clasped, “ perhaps my son 
Edward may not love your daughter, or Julia may have no affection for him: but 
they have seen one another, and the proof is enough ! — for us.” 

“ We also have seen one another,” said the widow, with a voice broken by her 
sobbing. 

“ Miss Julia, Miss Julia!” cried the good Major, in opening the door that led 
to the shop, “ come here if you please — come here, it is jour stepfather that call® 
ypu.” The young girl hesitated for a moment, but at last obeyed ; she went into 
the back room, but not alone : a handsome young man, Edward Melville, followed 
her; and they both implored the blessing of Mrs. Mathiew. That same day, 
Sir John Melville said to his friend the Count of Cernay : 

“I announced to you my friend, a marriage ; we are going to have two: I am 
to marry the widow of captain Mathiew, who died on the field of honor at Water- 
loo ; and my son is to marry their daughter; I wish to invite you and the Coun- 
tess and the lovely Aldegunde to the wedding.” But the Count was deprived of 
the pleasure : he had an engagement for that day at the castle, the Countess had 
the headache, and Miss Aldegonde was unfortunate enough to sprain her toot the 
night before in dancing at the Marsan Pavilion. The double marriage was not 
the less cheerful. The Master’s Apron, which bears the bloody marks of the 
courage of the captain, was deposited with the Royal Alpha Lodge, in London, 
of which the Major, Sir John Melville, is one of the most -distinguished members ; 
and this relic i3 looked upon by the Brothers, as the most valuable in their col- 
lection. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Courtland , North Ala., Nov. 28, 1844. 

Brother Moore: 

The first number of the fourth volume of the Freemasons* Magazine was 
received in due season. It was with pleasure I perused the Introduction ; for it 
points to something worthy of the aspirations of every Brother who has a Ma- 
sonic heart ; ajid accords with the views and actions of the officers, and many of 
the members of our Lodge. For the purpose of enjoying the intellectual and 
moral part of Masonry, we have established weekly meetings, and every Tues- 
day night our hall is lighted— the members assemble, and the Brother who had 
been previously appointed, gives a lecture upon the moral beauties of one of the 
Degrees, shews its bearings and leads the mind from the symbol to the reality . 
Before we leave the hall, a Brother is chosen to lecture at the next meeting ; and so 
on, until all become participants in this delightful exercise. Thus we learn to love 
the teachings of the first Degree, to appreciate the beauties of the second, and to 
admire the grandeur of the third. And from nature up to nature’s God we look, 
and fondly trust that when our earthly Lodge shall be dissolved, we shall be 
admitted to the Grand Lodge above, where love supreme forever reigns ! 

Excuse me for trespassing upon your patience, and accept my best wishes for 
your prosperity. J. c. b. 



MASONIC RAMBLES. 


89 


MASONIC RAMBLES, 

. THROUGH PARTS OF WESTERN NEW YORK, OHIO, MICHIGAN AND CANADA. 

By Rev. Albert Case, S. G. I. G. 33d. 

The ardent lover of Freemasonry can but be pledged at the numerous eviden- 
ces of its prosperity ; and as such evidences are found in almost every city and 
village, I have often been made glad during my journey. As I wended my way 
westward from New England, I learned that Masonry had revived from its length- 
ened slumber in Batavia, and that the Lodge in that town was at work under 
circumstances so favorable as to warrant its perpetuity. In Buffalo there are 
many good Brethren, and the day is not far distant when the sound of the gavel 
will call them to active labor. 

In Ohio, the Fraternity is all alive ; and under the superintendence of intelli- 
gent Masters, it is doing a great and good work. Stone after stone is being duly 
and truly prepared, and fitted to its place in the moral temple. A Lodge has 
recently been formed in the thriving village of Perrysburgh, on the bank of the 
beautiful Miami, and Br. Barney has been there imparting instruction to the 
Brethren — from the store-house he has acquired. Here I was much pleased to 
find a friend of my youth, James Manning Hall, Esq., Post Master, and I was 
gratified when he hailed me as a Brother Mason. He is a highly respected 
merchant, a zealous Mason, and will transact any business for the Magazine, with 
fidelity and despatch. There are others in that village who were my early and 
cherished acquaintances, and who are among my choicest friends. At Detroit, 
Michigan, the Brethren are doing well — the re-organization, or the recent forma- 
tion of a Grand Lodge under the sanction of Past Grand Master Lewis Cass, ex- 
Governor, &c., Hon. Mr. Woodbridge, late U. S. Senator, and other distin- 
guished Brothers, affords an assurance that the Order shall live and flourish there. 

At Toronto, Canada, the Lodge is composed of the most respectable gentlemen, 
and they are active Masons. I arrived there on the evening of the 11th and the 
Lodge was to meet on the l*2th, — but, being obliged to leave before night, I 
could not avail myself of the pressing invitation of the Brethren to meet with 
them in Lodge. 

I was well entertained at the “ North American,” kept by Br. Pearson. Br. 
McDonnell, your active and gentlemanly agent, showed me particular atten- 
tion. He escorted me about the city, and introduced me to many Brethren ; 
among them was our venerable and beloved Br. Alexander Burnside, M. D., who 
visited New England, and attended the celebration at Grafton, last June. ‘ 

He is a very intelligent Mason, manifesting a devotion to the Order that increa- 
ses with his. years — he is, moreover, a gentleman of fortune, and judging from his 
great love of Freemasonry, I have no doubt he will aid in erecting some monu- 
ment for the comfort and convenience of the Craft, that shall cause his name and 
virtues to be held in perpetual remembrance among Masons. 

I was, very reluctantly, under the necessity of declining his many courteous 
invitations, going by steamer that afternoon for Moutreal ; although I should have 
been happy could I have remained, and enjoyed the hospitalities of the Brethren, 
and met them in open Lodge. When I arrived on board the steamer bound for 
12 



90 


MASONIC RAMBLES. 


Kingston, I found, much to my surprise, that Brs. Burnside and McDonnell had an- 
ticipated me in my — “ walk up to the captain’s gffice and settle,” — and had actually 
and of their own free will and accord, paid $5— my full fare to Kingston. I 
could not conscientiously find in my heart, to quarrel with them for their gene- 
rosity; and while I was meditating on what course to pursue, I heard, not 
voices, but the ringing of the bell, and in a moment the “ City of Toronto” was 
off— not that the city proper moved, but the steamer by that name. 

If a similar case presents itself from beyond the great lakes, I may be prepared 
to reciprocate their kindness ; till then I am truly grateful for the attentions of 
my Brethren at Toronto. I was informed by^them that the Lodges in the upper 
districts were doing much work, and that generally it is well done. The differ- 
ent Lodges in the Province are about to petition the Grand Lodge of England 
for a Provincial Grand Lodge. When that is organized we may look for greater 
prosperity to attend the Order there. The “ Magazine” is a great favorite in 
Canada ; (and where is it not?) the Brethren subscribe more generally than in our m 
own country, and they pay well too. The Trestle- Board is in use in the Lodges 
in Upper Canada, and is highly valued — some fifty copies have been purcha* 
sed by the Brothers in Toronto. 

. At Kingston the Lodge numbers 65. I had but an hour to spend in that town, 
and did not see your agent, Br. Gunn; he had not gone off \ but I had no time to 
call at his place of business. Luckily I made the acquaintance of Br. M. Rossin, 
who gave me satisfactory intelligence of the Craft He is desirous of obtaining 
the first and second volumes of the Magazine, if they, or either of them, can be 
obtained. He stated that many were anxious to obtain those volumes, and thus 
secure to themselves a valuable Masonic Library. They indulge the hope that 
you may be sufficiently encouraged to reprint, and I trust the increasing demand 
will be sufficient to justify you in the undertaking. At Montreal, the Fraternity 
has fully revived, and the Lodges are doing well. Many gentlemen have been 
raised during the year past, to the order of Masters, and many more are inquiring 
the way. There are two Lodges in the city consisting of near two hundred 
members. I was so busily engaged while there that I could not seek out many 
of the Brethren. I became acquainted, however, with Wm. M. B. Haitley, Esq. 
and W. A. Townsend, Esq., both active and intelligent Brothers. They informed 
me that the prospect of their future success was never so good as now. I could 
not find your agent, Br. Lawry — I was informed he had gone to Quebec. I have 
agreed with Br. W. A. Townsend, (Jeweller, 441, Notre Dame Street,) to act as 
agent for the Magazine, and wish you to send him, by mail, two or three num- 
bers of the late volume, so that he can let the Brethren see the character of the 
work. I think he will obtain some subscribers, and not interfere with your for- 
mer agent — if he returns to the city. I think you may send Br. T. a Trestle- 
Board, also, that it may be laid before the Lodge. I have now arrived at home, 
after a pleasant journey ; and when I have more that will be interesting, I will for- 
ward it for the Magazine — meanwhile, allow me to say, that in so far as I have 
had opportunity to judge respecting the condition and prospects of our ancient 
and honorable Order — AU \ s weU l 
Hartford, CL, Nov. 23, 1844 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


91 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

FRANCE. 

Paris . — The Grand Orient has issued warrants For the establishment of Lodges, 
to be named “The Perfect Union,” at Rheims; for the “Foresight,” at Belle- 
ville ; for the “ Primitive Antipodiens,” at Akawa, New South Wales; and for 
the “ Saint John of Uloa,” at Vera Cruz. 

Jh rignon . — It is reported that some irregular Lodges exist here, composed of 
persons expelled from the Craft. These, together with their friends, meet at low 
public houses, and are bringing much discredit on the Order. 

Bordeaux , . — Unfortunate differences have taken place here between the Lodges, 
owing to the Lodge “La Candeur” having improperly admitted unworthy men to 
the mysteries of Freemasonry. Due notice and protests were, in regular order, 
transmitted to those Lodges, without producing the necessary caution. The 
Grand Orient being informed thereof, deputed a commission to investigate. The 
result has unhappily caused greater dissensions than originally existed. 

Marseilles . — The objects of the Lodges here seem to be, to procure money for in- 
itiations. Neither working nor lectures are given ; newly made Brethren are con- 
sequently disgusted at the very threshold of the building. Comment upon such 
doings would be useless. 

Lyons . — On the 30th of April, 1843, the Lyonese celebrated the fete of “the Or- 
der, to commemorate the Union of the following Lodges : — The Perfect Silence ; 
the Sincere Friendship; the Candeur; the Union and Confidence; the Children 
of Hiram ; Square and Compasses; and Constant Simplicity. The attendance 
of strangers was very great Brother Virier presided, and addressed the com- 
pany at considerable length. 


GERMANY. 

Brunswick . — The Lodge of “ Charles,” at the Crowned Columns, has had a 
medal struck, in honor of the W. M. Br. Jacob, of Langerfeldt, who completed, 
on the 24th of June, 1843, the twentyfifth year of his occupying the Master’s 
Chain 

The 11th and 12th of February, 1844, were appointed for celebrating the close 
of the one hundred years of the existence of the Charles Lodge, of the Crowned 
Columns, and the commencement of a new term. As this is the tenth event of 
the sort that has been celebrated in Germany, it created a great sensation ; con- 
gratulatory letters were received from all quarters, many Lodges sent theirs by 
representatives, or by members of the Lodge, accompanied with presents. A 
medal to commemorate the event was distributed. The banquet, which was 
attended by all the vocal strength of the opera, took place each day at five o’clock, 
in the gardens of the Botanical Society. 

Coburg .— In consequence of not having a suitable meeting-place, the Lodge of 
“ Truth, Friendship, and Right,”, in this city, had suspended its meetings ; but, 
on the 24th of August last, recommenced its sittings. The Master is Councillor 
Br. Bergner, the same to whom the warrant was directed in 1816. 

Goldap . — The “Royal York Lodge of Friendship,” of Berlin, has granted a 
warrant to establish a new Lodge here, on the 22nd March, 1843, to be named 
True to Union. 

Grandenz . — The Lodge of Victoria, at the Three Crowned Steeples, distribu- 
ted clothing and means for education to a number of orphans, at Christmas last. 
Many ladies were very active in the cause. 

Halle . — A large assembly, not fewer than four hundred, of the Brethren met 
here on the 14th of December, to celebrate the centenary of the Lodge called the 
Three Swords. A grand procession was formed, and a number of foreign Lodges 
were therein represented by deputations from various parts. The Grand Officers 



92 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


from Prussia, Saxony, &c. were present The Grand Lodge of Hamburgh con- 
gratulated by letter. A variety of presents, such as a silver charity box, silver 
compasses, &c., were received. Among other gifts, the first number of a Ma- 
sonic Periodical, dedicated to this Lodge, was presented ; it is called “ Masonic 
Hall for 1844” The presentations, ceremonies, and speeches lasted two days.* 

Konisberg . — The number of subscribing members having increased from year 
to year, it has been found necessary to add a hall to the meeting-house, which 
was opened 10th September, 1842, being the anniversary of the amalgamation of 
the Lodges. 

Rustock. — On the 9th of June, 1843, we were deprived by death of our much 
esteemed and highly valued Br. Von Nettlebladt, Doctor of Law, and a Grand 
Officer of Mecklenberg. His loss will be felt by the Fraternity. 

Berlin.— A periodical, supported by the clergy, has attacked Freemasonry, for 
being Anti-Christian, and every thing that is improper and dishonorable. We 
should consider it too ridiculous to notice, if our Brethren in Berlin had not taken 
the matter up seriously. It appears to us to be rather a satire upon the system, 
for no enlightened Protestant clergyman, of the present day, can be so ignorant 
of our Order as to condemn, much less abuse it, if ha knows it ; if he does not, 
the earlier he joins, the sooner he will become a better man, unless he thinks — 

“ Where ignorance is bliss, ’tis folly to be wise.” 

Greifsioald . — A new Masonic Hall has been built here, and an establishment 
commenced for widows and orphans. It is to be named after the much respected 
Master ; Br. Gustav. V. Moller having fulfilled the duties of venerable twenty- 
five years. 

Luxemburg. — The wife of a poor soldier named Millera, who had been Tyler 
of a Lodge many years, presented herself, the other day, before the Bishop of 
Chersones, to be consecrated (Millem being a rigid Catholic, and twice pre- 
viously married ;) but the enlightened bishop refused unless and until Millem se- 
ceded from the Masonic Fraternity : this Millem declined. As both parties 
remained firm, the question came before the king, but Millem’s cause was not 
bettered. The members of the Craft are extremely enraged, and vent their 
spleen in epigrams. The worst wines in Holland, since this affair, are called 
Cherson’s wine. 

WEST-INDIES. 

Jamaica. — Farewell Dinner to John Nunes , Esq., Master of the Royal Lodge , 
Kingston , Jamaica. — At a few minutes past seven o’clock, the Chairman, P. J. 
Ferron, Esq., accompanied by the guest of the evening, the Worshipful John 
Nunes, ahd the members of the committee, entered the banqueting room, and 
took their seats. Grace having been said by the Chairman, and the £ood things, 
which had been provided for the occasion, freely discussed, the Chairman gave 
the health of her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, God bless her; and after- 
wards, of Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family, 
and the Army and Navy. 

The Chairman said, he now rose to propose health and long life to our 
esteemed guest The toast was received with immense cheering. Silence hay- 
ing been restored, the Chairman proceeded — “ I ask you, my Brethren, to join 
me in wishing health and happiness to our esteemed guest, the Worshipful John 
Nunes. I assure you I feel that there is much sincerity in those heartfelt cheers 
vou have so repeatedly given him here, and that it would be presumption in me, 
by any lengthened observation, to hope I could induce you to do additional 
honor to the toast I now propose. I cannot deprive myself of the gratification of 
assuring our distinguished guest that our esteem and respect for him are not 


♦As a fall account of the proceedings has reached us. we may. at a future time, be indu- 
ced to publish it. 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


93 


confined within these walla, but that they will be carried without, and accom- 
pany us wherever we go. I am satisfied nothing I may urge can strengthen or 
increase th% feelings you entertain towards our friend and Brother ; I shall 
therefore conclude by saying, that in honoring the Worshipful John Nunes, you 
do honor to yourselves, and testify your love for Masonry, which I believe is up- 
permost in the bosoms of us all. As he is shortly to leave us (only for a while) 
and to cross the Atlantic, may the Great Architect of the Universe watch over, 
protect and preserve him and nis family. Cordially do we bid him farewell, but 
most cordially will we hail his safe return among us. I have now to propose 
health and long life to our esteemed guest, the Worshipful John Nunes.” 

The Worshipful John Nones rose and said, he felt overpowered by the kind- 
ness which had beeg shown to him. Such a testimonial of affection from the Fra- 
ternity was unprecedented. u How ardent, my Brethren, must be your love — 
how steady and deep must be your desire to see our institution prosper! What 
have I done to merit so distinguished a mark of your esteem, is a question I have 
asked myself. The answer is, nothing that I know of. Whilst among you, I 
have done nothing more than my duty. This I certainly have endeavored to 
perform to the best of my abilities. In these endeavors I have received your 
cordial co-operation. I assure you, in the sincerity of my heart, that you have 
convinced me of the existence of a degree of brotherly love which I was quite 
unprepared for. The reception I have met with this evening will never be obli- 
terated from my memory — the feeling of gratitude it has produced will only be 
extinguished with my life. (Great cheering.) I thank you sincerely for the 
compliment you have paid me, and as sincerely pray that God may bless and 
prosper you all.” Br. Nunes sat down amidst great cheering. 

The Chairman proposed the Grand Master, the Earl of Zetland. 

The Vice-President then gave the Sister Lodges. 

The Worshipful J. Trimmer returned thanks in a neat and appropriate speech. 

The Masters of the Sister Lodges, the Chairman, Vice-president, the Ladies, 
and some other toasts, were then given. Some fine songs were sung, and the 
party broke up about midnight, quite delighted. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Adelaide . — We are pleased to learn that a new Masonic Lodge has just been 
formed in the town of Adelaide, South Australia. It is founded on the principles 
of the Scottish Lodges, and application has been, or is about to be, made to the 
Grand Lodge of Scotland for a charter. Its title is the Adelaide St. John’s 
Lodge. The meetings are held at present in the large room at the Old Port 
Lincoln Hotel. We are informed that the applications for Initiation are very 
numerous. The number of admissions in one week was twelve, and the week 
after an equal number were added to the Brotherhood. A friendly or benefit 
society is als6 to be formed in conjunction with the Lodge. We wish it every 
success, as the objects the members have in view are of a most praiseworthy 
character. The following are the present office-bearers and founders of the 
Lodge : J. F. Bennett, Master Mason of the Stirling Ancient Lodge, No. 13 ; 
Andrew Birrell, Royal Arch, of the Canongate and Leith Lodge, No. 6 ; David 
Spence, Past Master of the Melrose Ancient Lodge; R. A. M’Euen, Master 
Mason of the Greenock St. John’s Lodge, No. 176 ; Robert Hamilton, Master 
Mason of the St. John’s Lodge, Paris. 

Feb. 6. — The ceremony of laying the foundation of the new Scotch Church m 
Grenfell Street, took place amid the rejoicings of, the general community. The 
duties devolved on the members of the Masonic Order, who acquitted themselves 
with great credit Br. the Rev. R. Haining, minister of the Scotch Church, of- 
fered up prayer ; after which, an address on the principles of the Order was de- 
livered. The Brethren afterwards dined at Paine’s Hotel. 



94 


OBITUARY. 


#6ttuacs. 

The Masonic Fraternity in this city, have recently lost one of their most 
estimable Brethren, and the Institution one of its oldest, most steadfast and faith- 
ful friends, in the death of Brother Jacob Amee. He was a member of several 
of the Masonic bodies in this city, and was universally esteemed for his private 
virtues. At the meeting of the Boston Encampment, on the 19th ultimo, his 
decease was announced by the presiding officer of that body, Dr. Winslow 
Lewis, in suitable and appropriate terms. He spoke of his unceasing devotion 
and inflexible adherence to that Institution, during the long period of twentysix 
years, nineteen of which he had served as its Treasurer. We have been kindly 
permitted to make the following extract from the closing remarks of Dr. Lewis’ 
address : 

“ As a father, a citizen, a friend, a Brother , he was all, which those important 
and interesting relations convey in their highest import. ‘ No man dieth to 
himself,’ for his influence still remains with the living, and his example is left 
behind for the imitation of the survivors. His character is not interred with his 
bones, but is embalmed in a grateful remembrance. It still exists an abiding 
monument. His worth is a constant monitor, inciting to duty and to encourage- 
ment. Let that which was good in him who has passed away remain with us, 
quickening us to the performance of every duty. Let his faults, of which nothing 
human is devoid, be buried in oblivion, nor draw his frailties from their dread 
abode. Sir Jacob Amee has gone. We have resigned him to his last resting 
place, with the happy assurance, that in our Institution he enjoyed unmitigated 
social happiness. Many, very many happy hours of his life were passed among 
his earliest and his last friends, the Masons. Brothers cheered his course 
through the active period of existence. A Brother, for him administered all the 
succor and mitigation which feeble art could afford, in his declining and 
painful passage to the tomb. A Brother officiated at the last solemn rites, and 
the last funeral services of religion. Brothers gathered around his cold remains 
and in silence accompanied him on his last journey. Brothers slowly and sadly 
saw him laid in the house appointed for all the sons of men, and there Broth- 
ers left him, we trust, in the bosom of his Father and his God.” 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted, and, with a copy of the 
remarks of Dr. Lewis, directed to be furnished to the widow of the deceased : 

Resolved , That the dispensation by which death has removed from among us 
forever, our late beloved associate and friend, Sir Jacob Amee, has deprived the 
Boston Encampment of one of the most sincere and inflexible members of the 
Order. That in every relation which he has sustained towards the Masonic In- 
stitution, he has evinced all the virtues enjoined by the Brotherhood. His light 
has shone among us without dimness or wavering, and though death has extin- 
guished it, it still shall serve to lead us onward in the straight path of duty, and 
though the grave holds his mortal remains, his memory shall survive in our 
hearts. 



REGISTER OF OFFICERS. 


95 


REGISTER OF OFFICERS. 


G. GEAND ENCAMPMENT OF U. S. A. 

Sir Archibald Bull, Troy, N. Y., G. G. Mas. 
** Jos. K. Stapleton, Baltimore, D. G G M. 
“ Wm. H. Ellis, N. Haven, Ct. G. G. Gen. 
“ W. B. Hubbard, Columbus, O., G G. C.G. 
** A. Case, Charleston, S. C., G. G. Prelate. 
“ R. Smith, Portsmouth, N. !(., G. G. S.W. 
“ E. S. Barnum, Utica, N. Y., G. G. J. W. 
w E. A. Raymond, Boston, G. G. Trees. 

“ Chs. Gilman, Baltimore, Md.,G. G Rec. 
“ C. W. Moore, Boston, Ms., G. G. Sw. B. 
“ J; G. Candee, N. York city, G. G. St. B. 
“ S. W. Robinson, Boston, G. G. Warder. 


GENEEAL GRAND CHAPTER TJ. S. A. 

M. E. Paul Dean, Boston, Ms., G. G. H. P. 
a J- K. Stapleton, Baltimore, D.G.G H.P. 
“ I. W. Crawford, Union, Ct., G. G. K. 
“ E. S. Barnum, Utica, N. Y., G. G. S. 
11 E. A. Raymond, Boston, G. G. Treas. 
“ Chas. Gilman, Baltimore, Md., G. G. S. 
“ Rev. Rbt. Punsheon, Ohio, G. G. Chap 
" N. B. Haswell, Burlington, Vt.,G.G.M. 


G. ENCAMPMENT OP MASS. AND R. I. 

Sir John Flint, Grand Master. 

“ John B. Hammatt, D. G. Master. 

“ Ruel Baker, G. Generalissimo. 

11 James Salisbury, G. Captain General. 

11 John R Bradford, G. Senior Warden. 
il Simon W Robinson, G.Jun. Warden. 

“ Samuel Wales, G. Treasurer. 

“ Gilbert Nurse, G. Recorder. 

“ Hugh H. Tuttle, G. Sword Bearer. 

“ George L. Oakes, G Standard Bearer. 

“ William Eaton, G. Warder. 


GRAND LODGE OF ALABAMA, 

M. W. James Penn, G, Master. 

R. W. Felix G. Norman, D. G. M. 

“ G. W. Creagh, S. G. W. 

** Wm. Hendrick, J. G W. 

“ William Garrett, G. Treas. 

“ A. P. Pfister, G. Sec. 

W. Rev. Thomas Chilton, G. Chap. 

“ Rev. E V. Levert, G. Lecturer. 
u N. L. Whitfield, S. G. Deacon. 

“ S. F. Hale, J. G. Deacon. 

Brother Joseph W. Pierce, G. Tyler. 


PELICIANA LODGE, ST. FRANCISVILLE, 

LOUISIANA. 

Eugene Remondet, Master. 

Wm. B. Clagston, S. W. 

James M. Baker, J. W. 

Ant. Lanna, Treas. 

William Ball, Sec. 

William McMiniman, S. D. 

H. Hunsicker, J. D. 

William C. McDougall, Chaplain. 

James A. Kelley, Master of Ceremonies, 
George Long, Tyler. 


GRAND LODGE OF CONNECTICUT. 

M. W. Henry Peck, G. Master. 

R. W. Horace Goodwin, 2 d, D. G. M. 

“ Avery C. Bahcock, S. G. W. 

11 Mitchell S. Mitchell, J. G. W. 

“ Benjamin Beecher, G. Treas. 
c< Eliphalet G. Storer, G. Sec. ' 

W. Benoni A. Shepherd, S. G. D. 

“ William E. Sanford, J G D. 

“ George Shumway, G. Marshal. 

” Frederick Croswell, G Sentinel. 

“ Rev. John Moore, G. Chaplain. 

“ Cyrus Goodeil, ) n q, , . 

“ Henry Moore, 5 &,ewards ' 

Brother Elizur Skinner, G. Tyler. 


GRAND CHAPTER OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

M. E. Thomas Tolman, G. H.P. 

E. Elias Haskell, D. G. H. P. 

“ Charles W. Moore, G. K. 

“ Ruel Baker, G. S. 

“ John Hews, G. Treas. 

** Thomas Waterman, G. Sec. 

“ Hugh H. Tuttle, G. Marshal. 
u Sebastian Streeter, ) 

“ E. M. P. Wells, [ G. Chaplains. 

" Benj. Huntoon, S 
u S. W. Robinson, 

“ C. W. Moore, 

u Gilbert Nurse, ) n « A 
« Winslow Lewis, Jr. $ G * Steward »- 
Comp. Josiah Baldwin, G. Tyler. 


* G. Lecturers. 


BOSTON ENCAMPMENT, BOSTON, MS. 
Sir Winslow Lewis, Jr. M. E. G. Coin. 

“ John R. Bradford, Gen. 

“ George L. Oakes, Capt. Gen. 

“ E. ML P. Wells, Prelate. 

“ Hugh H. Tuttle, S. Warden. 

“ William O. Parker, J. Warden. 
u Ruel Baker, Treasurer. 

M Calvin Whiting, Recorder. 

M John H. Lord, Sword Bearer. 

“ Charles Williams, Standard Bearer. 

" Samuel Pierce, Warder. 

“ Peter C. Jones, 3d Guard. 

“ Freeman C. Raymond, 2 d Guard. 
u Hamilton Willis, 1 st Guard. 

** William C. Martin, Sentinel. 

st. Andrew’s r. a. chapter* boston. 

Samuel Millard, High Priest. 

George L. Oakes, King. 

Peter C. Jones, Scribe. 

John J. Loring, Treasurer. 

Thomas Waterman, Secretary. 

John H. Lord, R. A. C. 

Hamilton Willis, C. H. 

William O. Parker, P. S. 

Jonathan Emerson,^ 

Albert Griswold, > M. of Veils. 

William B. Haws, y 

Rev. Sebastian Streeter, Chaplain, 

Stewards. 

Tyler. 


John F Edwards, 
Loyal Lovejoy, ) 
William C. Martin, 



96 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT, 


MASONIC C 

OCf-The Grand Lodge of this State held 
its Annual meeting, in this city, on the 1 1 th 
inst. The business was chiefly of a local 
character. A Charter was granted to Morn- 
ing-Star Lodge, at Worcester, and the Char- 
ter of Corner-Stone Lodge, at Duxbury, was 
restored. Aurora Lodge was removed from 
Leominster to Fitchburg. The meeting was 
well attended. 

The Grand Lodge met again on the 27lh, 
for the purpose of exemplifying the work 
and lectures in the three degrees, pursuant 
to the requisitions of its Constitutions; and 
in the evening, for the Installation of its 
Officers, and the observance of the anniver- 
sary of St. John the Evangelist. 

Grand Chapter or Tennessee. — We 
have received a copy of the proceedings of 
the Grand Chapter of Tennessee, had at its 
annual communication in October. We no- 
tice nothing in the proceedings of particular 
interest, except it be the manifestation which 
'they afford of the increasing prosperity of 
this branch of the Institution in that State. 
The 6th article of the By-Laws of the Grand 
Chapter does not, however, conform to the 
regulations of the General Grand Chapter. 
It is as follows : — 

Art. 6. The fee for a warrant to hold a 
Lodge of Mark Master Masons, shall be 
twentyfive dollars, which shall be paid on the 
issuing of the warrant. 

The provision of the General Grand Chap- 
ter on this subject is as follows : — 

Art. 2, Sec. 5. No warrant shall be grant- 
ed tor instituting Lodges of M. E., Past, or 
Mark Masters, independent of a Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons. 

We do not know the precise relation which 
the Grand Chapter of Tennessee holds to the 
General Grand Chapter; but if it recognize 
the authority of the latter, the two articles 
are irreconcileable. 

fflrOur kind Brother at Kingston is mis- 
taken as to our having been in that city last 
month. Brother Case was there. We shall 
not visit Kingston without accepting bis po- 
lite invitation His request as to the Books, 
for himself and Brother H., shall be attend- 
ed to. 

0Cl*We have sent (by express) to our agent 
at Toronto, the volumes requested. Are nap- 
py in being able to accommodate him. 


HIT CHAT. 

J^rOur correspondent at Kingston, N. C- 
is informed that we have'not the first vol. on 
hand— can send him the second, if desired. 
We have not seen one of the Mirrors refer- 
red to by him for some years, and do not 
know where to get a copy, or we would pro- 
cure it for him. 

Q~r*If our Agents and Brethren would ex- 
ert themselves a little, and procure for us an 
additional thousand subscribers, and thereby 
enable us to add another sheet to the present 
size; of the Magazine, without increasing the 
subscription price, we should not be under 
the necessity of so often apologising for the 
omission of articles forwarded for publication. 
Until this is done, we must beg the indul- 
gence of correspondents. 

f^We are informed that the Grand Lodg- 
es of Missouri and North Carolina, at their 
late meetings, adopted the Trestle Board, ms 
the Text Book for the Lodges under their 
jurisdictions. 

r^-The anniversary of St.John the Evan- 
gelist was celebrated at Toronto, Canada, on 
the 27th. A grand Masonic Ball was given 
in the evening, at the North American Hotel. 
We shall be obliged to our correspondent for 
an account of the proceedings. 

Foreign Agents for this Magazine. — 
London— Br. R. Spenceh, 314 High Hol- 
horn, for England, Ireland and Scotland. 
Paria.—Bt. L. Lefevre, Rue Grange-Ba- 
te I iere, 9, for France. Leipsic. — Br. J. J. 
We bee, for Germany. 

Jj- Our Agent at Clarksville is informed 
that his order has been attended to, and tbs 
Books have been shipped as directed. 

ILJ’The request of our Agent at Lowndes- 
boro’, Ala , has been complied with and tbs 
volumes sent as directed. 

&Br. Joseph Packard is an authorized 
Agent for the Magazine, at Demopolis, Ala., 
Br. F. S. Palmer having removed to Lown- 
deshoro’, at which place be will hereafter act 
as agent. 

OChWe acknowledge the receipt of a copy 
of the proceedings of the Grand Encamp- 
ment of Ohio. It came too late for notice m 
the present number. 

3^ Our Agent at Benton, Miss., in making 
his collections, will please include the 4tfi 
volume, now doe. 

§3r0ur correspondent at Eld wards’ Depot, 
Miss, shall be attended to in our next. 






98 


PROCEEDINGS IN CASES OF EXPULSION. 


cusation should be brought forward at a regular meeting, the accused be fuHy 
notified, and the matter closed at the next regular meeting? . 

2d. Can a Lodge of Master Masons arraign and try any member, no 
matter how great the offence, at a called meeting, the whole matter being com- 
menced and ended at the same meeting ? Or is it not necessary to file the 
accusation at a regular meeting, notify the accused, and try the case at an ap- 
pointed time— the next meeting — the accused being notified fully as to the 
accusation, his accuser, &c. ? 

It appears to me that an expulsion not done in proper form nullifies itself, and 
that the erring Brother is not in point of fact expelled. It is high time that we 
should know our duty, and knowing, to perform it to our ability ; but far too 
many, acting by impulse, hasten through, without reflecting that a Brother needs 
our eharity more under those circumstances. He has erred, he has sinned, — it is 
then that we should wait with patience, and give him every opportunity to pre- 
sent his case, and to bring forward mitigating circumstances. 

3d. I have learnt from a Brother, that a certain person had been initiated in 
a Lodge, and had committed a high misdemeanor, by which he had disfranchised 
himself from the good wishes of those who knew it He afterwards, having 
moved to the vicinity of a neighboring Lodge, sought advancement This 
Brother, on hearing of it, immediately wrote to the W. Master of the Lodge, 
informing him of the facts. Notwithstanding this, the man was duly passed and 
raised. 7 

I learn furthermore, that the W. M. says, he did not know the informant to be 
a Brother. I would therefore request your views, and ask if it is not a duty of 
every or any Master, under like circumstances, to hear any complaint that may 
be made, from whomsoever it comes, and to examine its merits. Further, does a 
Lodge do its duty, to pass or raise, or admit as a member, any one without having 
full information 8 s to the standing of the applicant from the Lodge from whence 
he hails ? 

We are, I fear, too eager to increase our numbers without a due regard to an 
increase of our usefulness, and I ever look at the proceedings of a Lodge with 
fear and trembling, when it is rapidly increasing in numbers. It may sound 
large to add thirty, or forty, or fifty to the list of members, but I would far rather 
be numbered with the seven who began, if their works prove their faith, than to 
be with the multitude who love the display of tinsel, and blue and red ribbons. 

I am opposed to all public exhibitibns, and unless convinced to the contrary, 
will all my days object to Masonic balls, dinners, &o. They are to please the 
multitude or the fancy of those who would never ^be content unless they could 
shine out 

I intended, when seating myself, to have dashed off somewhat on the conduct 
due from one Brother to another, but I will defer it, to some time when the fit of 
scribbling is on me. 

4th. Where can I find a description of the dress (regalia,) of the different 
degrees in processions, &c., — say in Master Masons’ Lodge, Chapter, Council or 
Encampment ? Is it correct for a member of Chapter, or Council, or Encamp- 
ment to appear in their regalia at the funeral obsequies of a M. M. ? I suppose it 



PROCEEDINGS IN CASES OF EXPULSION. 


99 


is perfectly so, for one to appear in the regalia which he has a right to— if the 
deceased Brother be of a same or a higher degree. 

With respect and esteem, I am your Brother, m. w. p. 

1st. The powers of Chapters working under Dispensation, are not 
well defined in the Constitutions. Such Chapters emanate from the au- 
thority and are the creatures of the Grand or Deputy Grand High Priest 
of the State, acting in his official capacity. They are constituted for 
a limited period ; at the expiration of which, their existence terminates, 
unless continued by the act of the Grand Chapter. The Companions to 
whom a Dispensation is granted, are authorized to organize as a Chapter, to 
receive and exalt or reject candidates for the Degrees, and to adopt such 
measures and establish such regulations as may be necessary for their 
own government. So far, their powers are distinct and well settled. 
They have also sometimes assumed the power to discharge or exclude 
from their meetings a refractory or unworthy member. But perhaps the 
more correct course of proceeding, in such cases, would be to petition the 
Grand Officer granting the Dispensation, to remove the delinquent, for 
the reasons and on the facts set forth in the petition. Of this proceeding 
the accused should be timely and fully notified, that he may make his 
defence, or present a counter statement, if he wish to do so. Further 
than this, we think a Chapter, working under Dispensation, may not pro- 
ceed. It does not, in our opinion, possess any power to try and expel a 
Companion from the Fraternity. It is itself an informal body, existing 
on probation, by favor of a Grand Officer, and may be struck out of 
existence at the close of the year, and' even before a case of expulsion, 
should an appeal be entered, could be adjudged by the Grand Chapter. 
The power to expel is the highest judicial authority which can be vested 
in a regularly chartered and organized Chapter or Lodge. And it can- 
not, we think, be rightfully exercised by either, while in a chrysalis state 
of existence. 

A Chapter cannot try and expel its presiding officer. This question 
was brought before the General Grand Chapter of the United States, at 
its late triennial meeting in Connecticut, in the proceedings of a Chapter 
in the State of Mississippi, which had expelled its H. P. The report of 
the Committee to whom the matter was referred, was against that pro- 
ceeding . The report was unanimously adopted, and the question thereby 
definitively settled. 

The remainder of the first inquiry is involved in the second. We 
therefore pass it over. 

2d. We are clearly of opinion that the charges against a delinquent 
Brother should always be preferred at a regular meeting of the Lodge, or 



100 


PROCEEDINGS IN CASES OP EXPULSION. 


Chapter. They may be investigated, and final action had on them, at a 
special or called meeting, if sufficient time be allowed the accused to pre- 
pare for his defence. The regulations on this subject, embodied in the 
Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, are in accordance 
with our own views and with what we believe to be correct Masonic 
usage. We therefore give them as our answer to the inquiry of our cor- 
respondent, with the remark, that in States having a greater extent of 
territory, and where mail conveyances are not so certain and regular as 
in this x it may be found necessary and proper that the time of notice 
should be extended beyond twenty days. The object is to give the accu- 
sed ample notice and full time to make his defence. When this is done, 
the Lodge has discharged its duty, — not before. The regulations referred 
to are as follows — 

Rule 1. The accusations shall be made in writing, under the signature of & 
Master Mason, and given in charge to the Secretary of the Lodge, who, under 
the direction of the Master, shall serve, or cause the accused to be served, with 
an attested copy of the charges, fourteen days at least previously to the time 
appointed for their examination. Provided , the residence of the accused shall be 
known, and shall be within the distance of fifty miles of the place where the 
Lodge having the matter in hand, is located. If the residence of the accused be 
at a greater distance than fifty miles, but within the State, then, and in that case, 
a summons to appear and show cause, forwarded to him by mail, or other convey- 
ance, twenty days at least before the time of trial, shall be considered sufficient 
service. If his residence be out of the State, and unknown, the Lodge may 
proceed to examine the charges, exgarte ; but if known, a summons shall be sent 
him by mail, or otherwise, sixty days, at least, before the time appointed for the 
examination. 

Rule 2. The examination of the charges shall be had in a Lodge specially 
notified and convened for the purpose, at which no visitors shall be admitted, 
except as council or witnesses. 

Rule 3. The accused may select any Brother for his counsel, and the wit- 
nesses shall testify, if Masons, on their honor, as such. Hearsay evidence shall 
be excluded. 

Rule 4. The question — “ Is the accused guilty or not guilty ?” shall be dis- 
tinctly put to each member of the Lodge, by name, commencing with the young- 
est The answer shall be given standing, and in a distinct and audible man- 
ner. The Secretary shall record the answer as given. 

Rule 5. If the verdict be suspension or expulsion, an attested copy of the 
proceedings shall be sent up at the ensuing meeting of this Grand Lodge, for 
examination and final action. 

3d. The proceedings in this case were clearly wrong. On receiving 
the information, it was the duty of the Master to have suspended the pro- 
ceedings in the Lodge, until the necessary inquiries and investigations 



PROCEEDINGS IN CASES OF EXPULSION. 


101 


had been made. It matters not from what source the accusations came. 
The question for the Master and the Lodge to settle was, whether they 
were true or false, and whether they were of a nature such as to disqual- 
ify the candidate for further advancement. We apprehend there is too 
much reason for the fears of our correspondent, that many of our Lodges 
are too 4< eager to increase their numbers,” and that sufficient regard is 
not had to the moral fitness of candidates. The strength of our Institu- 
tion lies not in the number, but in the character of its members ; and this 
truth cannot be too strongly impressed upon the minds of the active offi- 
cers of Lodges. We have not the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of 
Mississippi before us, and are not able to say whether the proceeding 
under consideration was authorized or prohibited by that instrument. 
We presume, however, that there is no Constitutional provision on the 
subject, and that the Master conformed to the usages of the Lodges in 
his State. In this State we have the following regulation, predicated on 
ancient Masonic practice both here and in Europe, and if generally adopted 
would effectually prevent the occurrence of cases like the one in question : 

Sec. 6. No Entered Apprentice or Fellow-Craft, initiated or passed in any 
Lodge within the United States, shall be passed or raised in any Lodge under 
this jurisdiction, without the consent of the Master and Wardens of the Lodge in 
which he was first admitted, or a dispensation from the Grand Master.* 

4th. The clothing of the officers of a Lodge, is a blue sash, blue velvet 
collar, trimmed with silver lace, a silver jewel, white or figured apron, 
trimmed with blue ribbon, and white gloves. The private members wear 
the same dress, omitting the jewel, and, on ordinary occasions, the gloves, 
with a plain white apron. The Chapter dress for the officers is too ela- 
borate for description. The private members wear a red velvet sash, and 
white or figured apron, trimmed with red ribbon, having a triangle in the 
centre. The Council dress for private members is similar, except that 
the trowel is sometimes substituted for the triangle on the apron. The 
dress of a Red-Cross Knight is a green sash with a red-cross on the 
breast, *and white apron, with a red-cross in the centre. That of a Knight 
Templar is a black velvet sash and apron (triangular,) with the emblems 
as described in the Templar’s Chart. Our correspondent’s views as to 
the correctness of the dress proper to be worn at the funeral obsequies of 
a Master Mason, correspond with our own. As a matter of good taste, 
however, We prefer white aprons and gloves only, except that the offici- 
ating officers might wear their jewels.t 


♦Constitutions Grand Lodge Mess., Part 4, Art. 3. 

tWe have given the dresses worn in this city. They probably differ in some respects 
from those worn in other States. 



102 GRAND ENCAMPMENTS OF OHIO AND NEW TORE. 

GRAND ENCAMPMENTS OF OHIO AND NEW 

YORK. 

We have received a copy of the proceedings of the Grand Encamp 
mept of Ohio, at its late meeting, and also of its new Constitution. From 
the former, we learn that there are Eve Encampments in the State,, 
viz : Mount Vernon, at Columbus ; Lancaster, at Lancaster ; Cincin- 
nati, at Cincinnati ; Massillon, at Massillon ; and Clinton, at Mount Ver- 
non; and we infer that they are all in a prosperous condition. From 
the Constitution we extract the following section, for reasons which will 
appear in the sequel. We have italicised a part of the closing sentence 
of the second paragraph : 

Sec. 13. This Grand Encampment acknowledges no degrees of Masonry or 
Orders of Knighthood to be regular, except those conferred by and under the 
authority of the following constituted authorities in the United States of Amer- 
ica, and those of corresponding rank in foreign countries, to wit : 

The Grand Consistory, the General Grand Encampment and the General 
Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States, Grand Councils of Royal and 
Select Masters, and the Grand Lodges of the several States. And any Knight 
holding to, or having received any irregular degrees under the assumed name of 
Masonry or Knighthood, shall be required to withdraw therefrom, under pain of 
being expelled from all participation in any of the privileges contained in the 
provisions of this Constitution, and no Council or Encampment shall be permitted 
to receive any candidate or visitor* into their respective bodies , who, in any manner 
or in anywise , is concerned in or with such clandestine degrees . 

The only degrees authorized by the Constitution of the General Grand 
Encampment, are the following, viz : Knight of the Red Cross, Knight 
Templar, and Knight of Malta. The degrees authorized by Grand 
Chapters and Grand Lodges are too generally known to render it neces- 
sary for us to enumerate them. 

The 2d Sec. of the 2d Art>of the Constitution of the Grand Encamp- 
ment of New York, contains the following : — “ The order of succession 
in conferring the Orders of Knighthood shall be as follows, viz i Knight 
of the Red Cross, Knight Templar, Knight of Malta, Knights of the 
Christian Mark , and of the Holy Sepulchre Now, the conferring of 
the degrees last named, is not authorized by the Gen. Grand Encamp- 
ment, the Gen. Grand Chapter, the State Grand Lodges, nor, as we be- 
lieve, by any Grand Consistory in the world. They are, then, in the 
language of the Constitution of the Grand Encampment of Ohio, 4 ‘ irreg- 
ular degrees under the assumed name of Knighthood,” and as they are 
countenanced, authorized and conferred by the Encampments in New 
York, the Encampments in Ohio would not by their Grand Constitution, 
be “ permitted to receive any visitor,” coming from that State. The 



HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


103 


Grand Master of the Gen. Grand Encampment, is, we believe. Grand 
Master of the Grand Encampment of the State of New York, and would 
not, of course, be permitted to visit any Encampment in the State of 
Ohio ! But, what is still more remarkable in this matter is, that the sec- 
tion we have given from the Constitution of the Grand Encampment of 
Ohio, is extracted verbatim from the Constitution of the Grand Encamp- 
ment of New York ! And how the Companions in that State, can, under 
this Constitutional restriction, visit their own Encampments, is a pro- 
blem we leave to their solution ! 

It is worthy of remark, that the Grand Encampment of New York a 
few years since refused to adopt the elegant Templars’ Diploma, published 
by the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, after it 
had received the approbation of the Gen. Grand Encampment,—- because 
it did not contain the two irregular degrees in question ! 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

OOMPRI8INO A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

WUMfeBRIV. 

INVESTITURE, AND PHILOSOPHY OF INDIAN MYSTERIES. 

By the fatigue attending those protracted ceremonies the aspirant became 
exhausted, and therefore to renovate his spirits, he was made to drink a fermen- 
ted liquor. And now being fully regenerate', a new name was given him, ex- 
pressive of his recently attained purity, and he was introduced to the Chief Brah- 
min, in the midst of the august assembly, who received him as a Brother and 
associate, invested him with a white robe and tiara, seated him in an elevated 
situation, and solemnly delivered the Tokens and Lectures of the Order. His 
forehead was marked with & cross,* which was explained as symbolical of the 
four points of the compass. An inverted level was inscribed on his breast, to 
express his recently acquired dignity, by which he was advanced to an equality 
with the superior order of the priests. He was invested with the sacred Sash or 
Belt,f the consecrated Chaplet, the Kowsteke-Men, or Kowstoobh, and the talis- 


*The seetarial mark on the forehead is called Tiluka , (Valmic. Ramayuna. p. 2.) Mr. 
Maurice (lad. Ant. toI. t. p. 849,) says he has no doubt but this mark was the hermetic 
cross. 

tMr. Maurice is very particular in his description of this sacred Cord. It can be woven 
by no profane hand ; the Brahmin alone can twine the hallowed threads that compose it, 
and it is done by him with the utmost solemnity, and with the addition of many mystic 




104 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


manic label for the left arm. The aalagrara, or magical black stone, was deliv- 
ered to him as an amulet which would insure to him the protection of Vishnu, 
whose multiform shapes he was emblematically said to have assumed ; and the 
serpent stone, an amulet similar to the anguinum of the Druids, was presented 
as an antidote against the bite of serpents, or other venomous reptiles. 

He was then instructed in the secret art of composing amulets for his own 
penonal protection, and incantations to procure the torture or destruction of his 
enemies, and being now fully invested* the candidate was entrusted with the 
sublime Name,* which was known only to the initiated ; and which signified the 
Solar Fire, or more properly the Sun itself, the sacred emblem of the supreme 
deity ; and united in its comprehensive meaning the great Trimurti, or combined 
principle on which the existence of all things is founded ; this word was OM ; 
or, as it was expressed in a triliteral form in the mysteries, AUM,f to represent 
the creative, preserving and destroying power of the deity personified in Brah- 
ma — Vishnu — Siva, the symbol of which was an equilateral triangle. This inef- 
fable word formed the subject of incessant and pleasing contemplation, which 
could be indulged only in silence and seclusion ; for the pronunciation of this 
awful name A. U. M., JO was said to make earth tremble, and even the angels 
of heaven to quake for fear. When it was thus perfectly communicated, the 
aspirant was directed to meditate upon it with the following associations, which 
are the mysterious names of the seven worlds, or manifestations of the power of 
Om, the solar fire. “ ||OM ! Earth, Sky, Heaven, Middle region, Place of births, 
Mansion of the blessed, Abode of truth.” 


rites. Three threads, each measuring ninetysix hands, are first twisted together 5 then they 
are folded into three and twisted again, making it consist of nine, i. e. three times three 
threads 5 this is folded again into three t bnt without any more twisting, and each end is 
then fastened with a knot. Such is the zennar , which being put on the left shoulder, passes 
to the right side, and hangs down as low as the fingers can reach. (Ind. Ant. vol. iv. p. 
740.) 

*The Mahometans, in common with the Jews and Idolaters, attach to the knowledge of 
this sacred Name the most wonderful powers. “They pretend that God is the Lock of the 
Ism Allah, or Science of the name of God, and Mohammed the King ; that consequently 
none but Mohammedans can attain it; that it discovers what passes m distant countries ; 
that it familiarizes the possessors with the genii, who are at the command of the initiated, 
and who instruct them ; that it places the winds and the seasons at their disposal 1 that it 
heals the bite of serpents, the lame, the maimed, and the blind.” (Niebuhr, cited by Sou- 
they, Thalaba, vol. 1 , p. 198.) 

tin the Oracles ascribed to Zoroaster is a passage which pronounces the sacred Name s 
used in the Mysteries to be ineffable, and not to be changed, because revealed by God him- 
self* 

tWilkins, notes on Bhagvat Geeta, p. 142. This mystic emblem of the deity, OM, is for- 
bidden to be pronounced but in silence. It is a syllable formed of the letters ft, ’J 66, 

which in composition coalesce, and make 5 , and the nasal consonant m. The 
first letter stands for the Creator, the second for the Preserver, and the third for the Destroyer* 

§Mr. Faber says that this cipher graphically exhibits the divine triad Balrama, Snbha- 
ra, and Jagan-nath. 

||Om is termed by Dora Shekoh, the Seal by which secrets or mysteries are revealed, 
)Vid. Wait. Orient. Ant. p. 86 .) 




HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


105 


The Arch Brahmin, making a sign to the initiated to be silent and attentive, 
now entered on the explanation of the various emblems which were arranged 
around him; with the arcana of the hidden science enfolded under the holy 
gloom of their mysterious veil ; the names and attributes of the several deities 
whose representations were sculptured on the cavern walls ; and an elucidation 
of the mythological figures which every where abounded. 

The science of Astronomy occupied a proportionate share of attention during 
this display ; but its more abstruse problems were hid from common investigation 
by the enigmatical obscurity with which they were studiously invested. Thus 
a horned elephant’s head symbolized the Sun, and a rabbit the Moon ; but the 
8un and Moon were termed intheir sacred dialect, the two eyes of God ; there- 
fore the foregoing emblems were mystically the two eyes of God. Geometry was 
very early practised in India, as is evident from the true proportions of those stu- 
pendous caverns which have been already described. The Brahmins were con- 
sequently acquainted with the science of Arithmetic ; they understood Music, 
and Mr. Maurice thinks they were the inventors of Algebra. Their sylvan resi- 
dence imparted a taste for the study of Botany, which exemplified itself in the 
practice of Medicine and Surgery; nor were they ignorant of Chemistry, Mine- 
ralogy, Metallurgy ; and excelled in many other abstruse arts, as well as those 
domestic manufactures which are attendant on civilization, and contribute their 
aid to the refinements of social life. 

An extensive system of Symbolical Instruction was used in the Mysteries, and 
the veil by which they were covered was too dense for the uninitiated to pene* 
trate. Eternity was symbolized equally by a Serpent 'and a Wheel ; Fire, by a 
Trident; Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty, by a Cicle of horned Heads ; Benevo- 
lence, by the Cow ; Friendship, by the Buccinum, or Conch ; Wisdom by the 
Chakram;* the Lotosf was an emblem of the soul’s freedom when liberated 
from its earthly tabernacle, the body ; for it takes root in the mud deposited at 
the bottom of a river; vegetates by degrees from the germ to a perfect plant ; 
and afterwards rising proudly above the waves, it floats in air as if independent 
of any extraneous aid. ' The Bull was an emblem of Religion, his four legs 
being representations of Purity, Compassion, Penance, and Truth ; and the Trip- 
pie headband with which he was usually bound, denoted that he was to be wor- 
shipped morning, noon, and night. A Spear was a symbol of Omnipotence, as 
Rays of Glory were of blessings emanating from the gods. , A Serpent bearing 

♦The Chakram is a round or circular machine, of which many devotees of Vishnu bear 
the emblem, imprinted on their shoulders with a hot iron. It is still used in some places as 
■ weapon of war, and is nothing more than a large circular plate of iroo, the outer edge of 
which is made very sharp. Through the centre a shaft passes, by means of which a rota- 
tory motion is given to the plate, which whirls with great rapidity, and cuts whatever 
it approaches. (Dubois on the Inst, of Ind. p. 3. c. it.) 

tThis plant had the good fortune to be held sacred in most countries. In Egypt it was 
called the Lily of the Nils ; and Mr. Savary, (in vol. 1, p. 8,) says it still maintains its pris- 
tine veneration in that country. It was the great vegetable amulet which distinguished the 
eastern nations. There gods were always represented as seated on the lotos ; it was the 
sublime throne of oriental mythology, and referred indubitably to the Ark of Noah. 

14 




106 


HISTORY OF INITIATION, 


a globe in its folds, represented the union of Wisdom and Eternity ; and pointed 
to the great father and mother of the renovated world ; the Egg and Lunette 
symholized the generative principle, in the persons of the same progenitors ; for 
the moon and egg were equally symbols of the Ark from which they issued when 
they became the parent of a new race. The triangle within a circle referred to 
the Trimurti ; and the Trident had a similar allusion. It was the Ark of Noah, 
which as a lunette symbolized the female principle, with the linga, for a mast ; 
for according to the Brahmins, it was under this form that the two principles of 
generation* were preserved at the universal deluge. Thus were religion and 
philosophy veiled under the impervious shade of hieroglyphical symbols; unin- 
telligible to the profane, and intended to lead them into a maze of error, from 
which it was difficult to extract a single idea which bore any resemblance to the 
original truth. These symbols were publicly displayed in their temples, and 
beamed streams of radiant light to the initiated ; while to the profane they were 
but an obscure mass of unintelligible darkness. 

Here the initiation ended, and the candidate was allowed to marry and to 
bring up his family. His third probation, or Banperisth, commenced when his 
children were all capable of providing for themselves, and he was weary of the 
troubles and vexations of active life. He returned with his wife into the reces- 
ses of the forest ; recounced all other society ; lived in the open air ; ate only 
vegetables ; practised every kind of ablution known in his caste ; used all the 
daily prayers without any omission, and occupied himself principally in sacrifi- 
cing to the gods. And from this point of time he was said to be twice bom, and 
was considered as & being of superior order. 

The fourth Degree was believed to impart an extreme portion of merit to the 
intrepid sage who possessed courage enough to undertake the performance of its 
duties. After being formally installed by an assembly of his caste, he was 
solemnly bound by oath to the following observances : to rub his whole body 
every morning with ashes ; to avoid the company of women ; to wear heavy and 
inconvenient clogs, made of wood ; to subsist entirely on alms ; to renounce the 
world and all his former connections, and to exercise himself in incessant con- 
templation. This, added to an endless catalogue of other duties, penances, and 
mortifications, was believed capable of transforming the happy Sannyasef into 
the divine nature, and to secure him a residence amongst the celestial gods. 


♦The fact is that the entire worship of these idolaters, was, and still continues to be 
nothing less than a disgusting scene of lasciviousness, obscenity, and blood. (Vid. Bucha- 
nan. Researches in Asia, p. 120 — 141.) 

tThe word Sannyase means a total abstraction from all worldly things. (Bhagvat Qeeta. 
p. 143.) 



GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 


107 


INSTALLATION OF THE OFFICERS 
OF THE GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS* 
Os the late anniversary of St John the Evangelist, 27th December, the ancient 
Grand Lodge of this Commonwealth was opened at 9 o’clook A. M., as a Lodge 
for Instruction, and was continued open through the day. There was a larger* 
number of Lodges represented and a greater number of Brethren from the coun- 
try present than on any former occasion. The Senior Grand Lecturer, W. Br. 
John R. Bradford, assisted by W. Br. Charles R Rogers, as Junior Grand 
Lecturer, worked the lectures and ceremonies of the three degrees with his usual 
skill and exactness, and we believe to the great acceptance of the Brethren. 

In the evening, the Grand Lodge was assembled for the Installation of its 
officers. The hall was well filled with Brethren. After disposing of some neces- 
sary business, the ceremonies took place as follows : — 1. Voluntary on the Or- 
gan. 2. Prayer. 3. Ode, No. 27, from Br. Power’s Melodies. 4 Installation. 
5. Installation Ode, from the Melodies. 6. Addresses by Brs. Pickman and 
Huntoon. 7. Closing Ode, from the Melodies. 8. Benediction. 

INSTALLATION OF THE GRAND MASTER. 

The Grand Master was Installed by Past Grand Master Hon. John Abbot, 
of Westford, in a manner which, while it realized the high expectations of the 
Brethren, was worthy of the reputation which Br. Abbot has long sustained as 
an amiable and accomplished Craftsman. On Br. Peabody being introduced 
for Installation, he addressed him as follows : — 

M. W. Br. Peabody : — Having been requested to install you into the office 
of Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, to which you have been elected, I have 
been infticed to attempt it from two considerations ; premising, however, that I 
must solicit the charity of yourself, and the members of the Grand Lodge, for the 
inaccurate or imperfect manner in which I may perform it, — in consequence of 
my almost continued, but necessary absence, of late, from our assemblies. 

The first consideration i9, the long and intimate Masonic connection which has 
subsisted between us. Fortyone years have passed since I was admitted to the 
privileges and pleasures of the Institution of Freemasonry, and I then found, and 
recognized you, as a Brother. Soon after my initiation, by your kindness and 
assistance, I was instructed in, and principally acquired a knowledge of the lec- 
tures, in the manner and form, as given by our intelligent and worthy Brother 
Gleason, under the sanction, and by the direction of the Grand Lodge. Shortly 
after, also, by you, M. Worshipful, was I brought by a way, I knew not, and led 
in paths, I had not known you.” You too, “made darkness light before me, and 
crooked things straight,” and in my travel did not forsake me. And from the 
commencement of this period, till the present time, has this Masonic connection 
been as intimate, as our respective situations admitted. The recollection of these 
circumstances is to me, “ the memory of joys which are past, pleasant and mourn- 
ful to the soul — pleasant from the principle of association ; mournful from the 
conviction, that they are past, and can never return. 

The second consideration is, the eminent ability and judgment you have ex- 
hibited in the government of the Grand Lodge and the Institution of Masonry 



108 


GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 


within our jurisdiction, during the two past years. In this period, the forms and 
ceremonies of initiation, and the two succeeding degrees, have been revised, 
made plain, and conformed, strictly, as is believed, to the ancient landmarks. 
The code of By-Laws of the Grand Lodge has been revised and adopted, with 
such amendments, as the returning prosperity of the Institution, and the exigen- 
cies of the Craft, required. The prerogative and powers of a Grand Lodge 
have also been examined, and defined with clearness and precision, in a report, 
which has been adopted, drawn by yourself; which report has been highly com- 
mended by a foreign review, by saying, “ it is without a parallel.” The exhibition 
of such ability and judgment, in the two preceding years, is an assurance to your 
Brethren, that this, the last year of your constitutional term of presiding, at pre- 
sent, will be equally distinguished, should any thing occur to demand their exer- 
cise ; and, as the effect of your labors, we may confidently expect the continued 
and increasing prosperity of Freemasonry within the Commonwealth ; and here- 
after have reason to consider it, an era, in the history of the Institution. 

After the investiture, Br. Abbot continued as follows : — 

And now again, M. Worshipful, let me congratulate you on the honor of being 
the third time raised from the level of equality to the high station of presiding 
over all the Lodges of this Commonwealth and jurisdiction. We look up with 
confidence to a Brother, whose age alone would entitle him to our respectful 
deference, but whose person is endeared to us by love of the Fraternity, eviden- 
ced by the experience of many revolving years. May the Father of Light invest 
you with his choicest gifts. May heavenly wisdom illuminate your mind ; may 
heavenly power give strength to your exertions ; may heavenly goodness enlarge 
your breast; may your feet rest upon the rock of justice ; from your hands may 
streams of beneficence continually issue ; and round your head may there bend a 
circle, made splendid by the rays of honor, and late, very late, in life ma^you be 
translated from the fading honors of an earthly Lodge, to mansions prepared for 
the faithful in a better world. 

THE GRAND MASTER*^ ADDRESS. 

The Grand Master then addressed the Grand Lodge as follows : — 

The flight of time, which, in its course, is rapidly wafting us all to the close of 
our mortal career, has brought us to the return of another annual rest ; and we 
are now assembled to organize anew for future operations. 

In compliance with a custom adopted long ages ago, this organization is had 
on the anniversary of St. John the Evangelist Tradition informs us, that this 
mildest of men ; this preacher of love and good will to all mankind ; this disciple 
whom Jesus loved, — was an eminent patron of our Order. This we may well 
credit ; for the charity and good will, the Brotherly kindness, relief and truth, 
which it is our chief aim to inculcate, formed almost the whole character of our 
Patron Saint 

Tradition also informs us, that soon after his death, this anniversary was se- 
lected as the appropriate day for the organization of the Lodges, in the hope that 
the influence of his mild and gentle spirit would be upon them, and enter largely 
into their labors. No Mason on this day, without forgetting to whom it is dedi- 
cated, can cherish unkind and uncharitable feelings towards his Brother. Let 



109 


GRAZED MASTER’S ADDRESS. 

us, then, in the mildness of the loving and beloved disciple, address ourselves to 
the work before us. 

The last year has been marked by prosperity. The Brethren are reassembling 
round their deserted altars, and with recovered cheerfulness and increased num- 
bers, are exchanging their vows to ameliorate the condition of mankind. But 
there is much to admonish us to proceed with caution. We yet resemble our 
ancient Brethren returning from captivity to .rebuild a fallen temple. For we 
are yet surrounded, by the ruins brought on an unoffending society, by Barbarian 
assailants. 

It is natural to inquire: Why should modest, unassuming, peaceable Freema- 
sonry, ever have provoked a desolating hostility ? Perhaps it was sent as a pun- 
ishment for its pride, in foolishly boasting of an origin, antiquity and dignity, 
which it could not prove to belong to it, instead of cherishing and practising 
those humbler virtues which are peculiarly its own. 

Affliction should inspire us with humility and caution ; and to double our dili- 
gence to understand and put in full practice, the true principles of the Institu- 
tion, which have enabled it to survive the assaults of time and hostile combina* 
tions, under which cities and nations, and languages, and all other things human, 
except the miraculously preserved nation of the Jews, have fallen into decay and 
been buried in oblivion. It should be the care of Freemasons in all ages, but 
more especially in one like this, to gain all possible knowledge of the origin, 
designs and history of the Order, and to transmit it, with the secrets, to the newly 
initiated. 

It seems to me to be profitable to inquire of, and communicate to, each other, 
the various information we can obtain on these subjects. We should inquire, 
with the sixth Henry, king of England — 

w What mote ytt be? Where dyd ytt begyne? Who did brynge ytt west- 
lye? Whatte artis haveth the Maconnes techedde mankynde which odhermen 
teclie not? Doth Maconnes love eidher odher myghtylye as beeth sayde ?” 

Inquiry leaves on my mind no doubt that Freemasons were originally a band 
of practical - builders, with, perhaps, few associates other than their employers ; 
that from their profession were taken, and has been preserved, their working tools, 
emblems and dresses. And this character was in a great measure preserved till 
about two hundred years ago, when it had become gradually changed from an 
operative to a speculative society, — still preserving, unchanged, its emblems, dress- 
es, paraphernalia, work, lectures and charges, and still more sacredly preserving, 
unchanged, its principles and practice of Charity, Brotherly Love, Relief, and 
Truth. 

In early times, none but the skilful were admitted to initiation. The science 
of building was itself a distinction, and to its cultivation they added that of other 
sciences and arts; and when the means of education were rare in the world, the 
Lodges were valuable schools of instruction. Initiation was then an enviable dis- 
tinction. This condition of things contributed to strengthen and extend tho Order. 

That the Institution existed before Christianity, I think ire have proof. But 
how it existed, till many ages after the advent of the Saviour, we are not well 
informed. So far as I have discovered, history in this respect is nearly silent, 
and tradition speaks sometimes in an ambiguous and doubtful voice. But this 



no 


GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 


we know, that when the light of modern civilization shone in on the dark ages, 
and unfolded a view of the world to the inquiring mind, Freemasonry was found 
to exist in different nations, which for a long period had held no intercourse with 
each other ; and* yet it was found to be the same, wherever it existed. So zeal- 
ously had it been cherished, and so faithfully transmitted. 

In ancient times, Masters of Lodges held absolute authority. They made 
rules and usages at pleasure, and none participated with them in the govern- 
ment Indeed, government of every kind was then absolute, and all centered in 
the rulers. In process of time, when the improvement of human intelligence 
demanded more popular forms of government, Freemasonry took the lead in the 
reform ; and the absolute power of the Masters was gradually yielded to con- 
ventions and Grand Lodges. 

The first Grand Lodge known in modem times, was formed by Edwin, the 
brother of king Athelstane, and grandson of Alfred the Great, at his castle at 
Aubrey, near York, in the year 926. That Grand Lodge continued in power till 
its junction with the Grand Lodge at London, in 1813. 

The advantage of Grand Lodges was early manifested in the ascendency that 
York Masonry gained all over the world, and has ever since maintained. From 
that time, regular records of Masonic proceedings were kept, which are still 
preserved in the archives of the United Grand Lodge of England. 

In 1567, a Grand Lodge was formed at London, which held divided, and some- 
times conflicting jurisdiction, with the institution at York, for two hundred and 
fifty years; when after much careful discussion, with the co-operation and sanc- 
tion of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, they were happily united, and 
uniformity was established throughout the kingdom. 

In 1723, the first book of Constitutions, Charges, &c. was published, collected 
from the records of York, and ancient manuscripts in various languages, found in 
antiquarian collections. Before 926, records of Masonic events either were 
never made or have not been duly authenticated. From that period its opera- 
tions can be ascertained with the precision of historical evidence. 

The Order in different ages has met with various fate. In England, the Royal 
family and the nobility have often been its patrons, but sometimes it has been 
depressed, and faded almost into non-existence. Antimasonry is no new thing. 
It has frequently assailed the Order in ages long gone by. It is remarkable, that 
in England, as well as here, it has generally had its origin in the unprincipled 
ambition of political demagogues, who deemed it good policy to aim a death blow 
at an incorruptible^ rival by assailing the society with which he was identified. 

In 1425, during the minority of king Henry VI., Henry Beaufort, Bishop of 
Winchester, had the custody of the king’s person, and was ambitious to become 
the Protector, and in fact the ruler of the realm. The Grand Master of the Ma- 
sons, a pure and high minded Prince, opposed his designs. The intriguing Pre- 
late thought he could best remove the obstacle to his ambition, by destroying the 
society under his care, and by his persevering enterprize and great popularity, he 
procured an act of Parliament to be passed, declaring all meetings of Freema- 
sons to be felonious, and that all persons who attended them should be punished 
as felons. Although the Bishop became a Cardinal, he could procure no respect 
to be* paid to his statute. When the king became of age, he joined the Order, 
and became a distinguished patron. And when afterwards the profligate Cardi- 



GRAND MASTER’S ADDRESS. 


Ill 


nal was impeached for haying committed treason, he saved his life only by pro- 
curing a pardon from the Pope. 

That statute still stands among the English statutes at large. When queen 
Elizabeth took offence at the Masons witholding their secrets from her, she de- 
sired to apply the statute to them. But her legal adviser, the great Lord Coke, 
entertained the opinion that the statute had never been in use, and was of no 
force ; and that opinion is recorded in the third part of his Institute, page 99 — a 
book which is held in the highest veneration, and is found in every well furnish- 
ed English and American lawyer’s library. 7 

When the Illuminati and other German and French societies, assuming the 
garb of Freemasonry, conspired against all government and all laws, human and 
divine, in 1798, the British Parliament passed another statute, declaring all 
meetings of secret societies to be felonious. But in this statute, Freemasons 
were honorably excepted ; it declaring that they were well known to be charita- 
ble, loyal and honorable societies. 

In this country, Freemasonry first existed in Boston, and from hence, directly 
and indirectly, it has spread over most of the Union, the British Provinces and 
the West India Islands. The first Provincial Grand Lodge in the United States, 
called St John’s Grand Lodge, was, by the Grand Lodge in London, established 
in Boston, in 1733. In 1769, the Grand Lodge of Scotland also established a 
Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston, called the Massachusetts Grand Lodge. In 
1792, they were both united, and formed the present Grand Lodge of Massachu- 
setts. 

During the last Masonic year, the Fraternity has in general been peaceful 
and prosperous. In England, the Earl of Zetland has succeeded as Grand Master 
to the long and valuable government of the Duke of Sussex. In this country, 
the States have generally adopted the uniformity of Work and Lectures recom- 
mended by the Baltimore Convention, in May, 1843. 

In Massachusetts, we feel that this is the home of Masonry in our country. 
And it is natural that our distant Brethren should expect to find it here in a high 
state of culture. And perhaps the lectures and principles are as purely taught 
here as elsewhere. But where are our charitable funds ? Where are our trea- 
suries from which good-will draws practical consolation to soothe affliction ? In 
England, Masonry has multitudes of golden stores to support the widow, the 
aged, the infirm, and the afflicted ; to educate the orphan, and to feed and clothe 
the destitute. And in this country, in Missouri, a State but of yesterday, com- 
pared with us, we hear of a Masonic College ! — and in other States, numbers 
of Academies, Schools and other well endowed institutions, are dedicated to the 
Craft. What do we find like this in Massachusetts ? These subjects demand 
our immediate and earnest attention. Let it be no longer the reproach of Massa- 
chusetts, that her charity is purely speculative, and not operative. Let it not be 
said of us, that we content ourselves with a pure faith, and take no heed to adorn 
it with good works. 

The appointed officers were installed by Rev. Br. E. M. P. Wells, Deputy Grand 
Master. After which the Grand Lodge was closed, and the Brethren repaired 
to an adjoining apartment and partook of an entertainment provided for the occa- 
sion. 



1 12 


MASONIC. CORHESPONDENCE. 


MASONIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

ST. JOHN, N. B. 

It is with much pleasure we give place to the following Addresses, presented 
in Albion Lodge, St John, N. B., to the Worshipful Master of that body, on his 
departure from the Province. 

To Olive?* Goldsmith, Esq., Assistant Commissary General, and Worshipful 

Master of Albion Lodge, No. 570. 

Worshipful Master, — Whereas the public service of our Most Gracious 
Queen Victoria, requires you to leave this, your native shore, and journey to a 
remote and foreign clirne, — the Past Masters, Wardens and Brethren of “Albion” 
Lodge, beg leave fraternally and cordially to congratulate you on your prefer- 
ment, — and to express their united and sincere hopes that your future labors may 
prove beneficial, not only to the Department with which you are more immedi- 
ately connected, and to the Public Service in general, — but, be a source of honor, 
satisfaction, and profit to yourself— as also to the increase and good of the (by 
you, much revered) Craft. 

At the same time that they tender their congratulations on your preferment, they 
desire to declare the deep and bitter sorrow felt by every member of this body, 
in parting with you— but more particularly by its seniors — with whom you have 
so frequently met “ in friendly and social intercourse.” For a period of nearly 
ten years, your Brotherly and soothing sentiments, and valuable services — espe- 
cially during the several terms that you have presided over this Lodge — have so 
associated your name with it, that it w ill be long kept in remembrance by its 
Members, and by the Brethren of this community in general. The present sepa- 
ration, they trust, may be but temporary — that ere long you may be restored to 
your native land, and to your many old and sincere friends and brethren — here 
to spend the latter days of your earthly career, in “ otium cum dignitate.” 

The members of this Lodge — desirous to demonstrate the Brotherly feeling 
which they cherish for you, — “ as a token of respect and esteem, for your long 
and able services as their Worshipful Master,’— have provided a Silver Pitcher — 
which, they request you will do them the honor to accept We, as a committee, 
now present it to you, in the name of the Brethren of “Albion Lodge,” with their 
earnest hopes, that you may be spared many years to enjoy from Heaven health, 
wisdom and peace of mind, — in moderation (which is the strength of wisdom, 
aud strongly inculcated by the rules of Masonry,) to sip from out of the “bauble” 
the nourishing and salutary juice of the grape, — that maketh glad the heart of 
man, — and when in a foreign land, and far away from the donors, that it may 
occasionally call to your remembrance, this “ sacred retreat of friendship,” in 
which you have so often presided, — and further, they request that it may once a 
year (they ask no more) draw from you a pledge to the prosperity of the Breth- 
ren of “ Albion Lodge.” 

May your journey across the “ great deep,” be pleasant and prosperous, and the 
scene of your future labors prove to your satisfaction. May prudence ever 
admonish you — may Temperance ever restrain — may Justice guide your hand— 
Benevolence warm your heart — and Gratitude to Heaven inspire you with devo- 
tion. These will give you happiness in your present state, and carry you to the 
mansions of eternal felicity, in the Grand. Lodge of the Great Architect of the 
Universe. So mote it be. Amen. 

Finally, Brother — Farewell ! Farewell ! ! Farewell ! ! ! 

Thomas Leavitt, P. M. ) 

Alex. Balloch, P. M. > CommUte e 
Alex. Robertson, P. M. ) 

“Albion Lodge , ” No, 570, R, E.> Saint John , N. JR, May 3, 5844. 



MASONIC CORRESPONDENCE. 


113 


[reply.] 

To the Worshipful Past Masters, Wardens, and Members of Albion Lodge, 
No. 570. 

For the beautiful and affectionate Address which you have presented to me, 
accept my sincere and unfeigned thanks. On some occasions language is inade- 
quate to express the emotions, the heart beats, the tongue faulters, and silence is 
more eloquent than words, and in this instance I am unable to give utterance to 
my feelings. 

Unexpectedly called upon in the service of my queen and country to proceed 
to a far-distant land, the “ Mystic Tie,” which has so long bound us together in 
the bonds of friendship and Brotherly love is to be dissolved, and a painful sepa- 
ration ensue : 

11 But where’er I roam, whatever realms I see, 

" My heart, untravel’d, fondly’ll turn to thee,” 

and cherish with grateful remembrance the confidence with which I have been 
honored, and the many tokens of regard and esteem which I have invariably ex- 
perienced. 

The piece of Plate which you have offered for my acceptance, I receive with 
pride and pleasure. I shall regard it as a proof of having been diligent and 
faithful in the discharge of my duty as your Master, and shall look upon it as a 
memorial of that uninterrupted harmony that has subsisted among us ; and I shall 
point to it hereafter as a pledge of your esteem and affection. 

And now, my Brethren, allow me to offer you my sincere and earnest wishes 
for the prosperity of your Lodge, and for the happiness and welfare of every indi- 
vidual Brother. May you be blessed in your basket and in your store, may your 
barrel of meal never waste, nor your cruze of oil fail ; and, finally, being found 
in the practice of every moral, social and religious duty, at the last great “ Rai- 
sing,” may you all be worthy and well qualified for acceptance into that celes- 
tial Lodge, where the Omnipotent Architect presides in eternal glory. So mote 
it be. Amen. 

Farewell ! Farewell ! ! Farewell ! ! ! 

Saint John , May 3, 1844. 


The following is a copy of the Inscription on the Pitcher, which is of elegant 
workmanship : 

14 'Vo Oliver Goldsmith, Esquire, 

Assistant Commissary General, 

From the Brethren of Albion Lodge, No. 570, 
held at Saint John, New Brunswick, 
as a token of respect and esteem 
for bis long and able services as their W. M. 

April, 1644” 

Portland, Union Lodge Room , May 2, 5844. 

Worshipful Brother, — It is with no ordinary feelings of personal regard 
that we beg leave to address you. 

The members of the Portland Union Lodge, numbered 324, on the registry of 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland, whom we now represent, have recently learned 
with deep regret, that you are about to leave us, to serve our gracious Monarch, 
in a very distant portion of Her Majesty’s dominions. They acknowledge with 
gratitude, the valuable services, which you have frequently rendered our Lodge, 
by cheerfully imparting your sound advice, and practical information. 

Your line of conduct as a Mason, reflects honor upon yourself, and the Craft 
at large, and whilst within the compass of its usefulness, it has embraced the 
Portland Union Lodge, the members of which duly appreciate their obligation to 
a worthy Brother , who can square his actions by the rule of strict integrity. 

15 



114 


BUNKER-HILL MONUMENT. 


IB The pain of our separation is happily mitigated, by the consoling reflection, that 
wherever your lot may be cast, a deportment, such as you have always exhibited, 
during a long residence in the city of Saint John, will ever secure for you, the 
confidence of your sovereign, the esteem of every worthy Brother of the mystic 
tie — and of all men, who can justly claim the advantage of your acquaintance. 

Worshipful Brother ; we earnestly wish you, the enjoyment of good health — of 
long life, and of continued advancement and prosperity. And with the humble 
prayer, that we may again meet in the Grand Lodge above, we proudly claim the 
privilege, of subscribing ourselves, 

Your grateful Brethren, 

John M’Creadt, M. ) 

Angus M’Apke, S. W . } Portland U. Lodge, N 324. 

G. H. Robinson, J. W. J 

Oliver Goldsmith, Esq,, W. M. of Albion Lodge, No, 570 on the Registry of the G. 

Lodge of England. 

[reply.] 

To the Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of Union Lodge, No. 324, of 

the Registry of Ireland : 

Brethren, — I return you my sincere thanks for the flattering Address which 
you have presented to me, and I beg to express my best acknowledgments for 
the cordial wishes of your Lodge. 

It affords me much satisfaction to learn that my humble efforts in promoting 
the interests of your body are so kindly appreciated, and when “ far awa,” I shall 
look back on our Masonic intercourse with grateful recollections. 

Permit me to offer my earnest hope for the prosperity of your Lodge and the 
welfare of its members ; and that the Three Great Lights may guide us all in 
the path of duty, is the wish of, 

Brethren, your faithful Brother, 

Oliver Goldsmith. 

Saint John , May 3, 1844. 


BUNKER-HILL MONUMENT. 

At the late meeting of the Grand Lodge of this State, on the 27th 
December, a communication was received from King Solomon’s Lodge, 
Charlestown, announcing that, by permission of the Bunker-Hill Monu- 
ment Association, they had determined to erect, within the present Mon- 
ument, an exact model of the first Monument erected on Bunker-Hill, by 
King Solomon’s Lodge, in 1794, to the memory of the late Grand Mas- 
ter, Joseph Warren, and his associates. The new Monument they pro- 
pose to dedicate on the 17th June next, which will be the 70th anniver- 
sary of the Battle. They also propose to make it the occasion of a public 
Masonic Festival ; and invite the Grand Lodge to be present and 
perform the services of Dedication. They likewise invite the attendance 
of the Lodges and Brethren in the State, and suggest the propriety of 
substituting this for the celebrations which would probably otherwise take 
place on the 24th June. 

The invitation was referred to a Committee of the Grand Lodge, who 


i 



MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL* 


li* 

reported in favor of its acceptance, and of inviting the Lodges under the 
jurisdiction to attend. The Committee also recommended the appoint* 
ment of a Committee oti the part of the Grand Lodge, to co-operate with 
the Committee of King Solomon’s Lodge, in making the necessary ar- 
rangements. The report was accepted and the committee appointed. 

We understand that an address will be delivered and a dinner provi- 
ded on the occasion. The particulars will be given hereafter. In the 
meantime, we trust the Lodges in the country will brush up their 1 regalia 
and make all needful preparations for an event of so much interest to 
the whole Masonic family, and on the successful issue of which so much 
depends. « 


GRAND MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL, 

AT KINGSTON, CANADA. 

The annals of Canadian festivity afford no instance of a scene so interesting 
or so imposing as that which presented itself, on the evening of the 27th Dec., 
when the sons of St John celebrated their annual Masonic festival by a ball in 
the public buildings of this City. Whether we regard this magnificent specta- 
cle in the light of a social re-union, composed of the flower of our Western Ca- 
nadian population, numbering among its ranks the beautiful, the young, the 
noble and the chivalrous, the wealthy citizen and the sturdy yeoman, the venera- 
ble sire, and the gay young stripling, or view it in connexion with the ancient 
and worthy Brotherhood, whose privilege and delight it was to preside over that 
gay and brilliant assemblage, we may venture to assert that it has never been 
equalled in this Province. 

The circumstance that the Company were to be received in state, by the Wor- 
shipful Master and Brethren, attracted the greater number of the guests at the 
appointed hour, and the ceremony of the presentation of gifts according to an- 
cient and unvarying Masonic custom, imparted additional novelty and interest to 
the scene which was to usher in the festivities of the evening. 

At 9 o’clock precisely, the doors of the noble hall were thrown open, and such 
a dazzling sight presented itself, as almost beggars description. At the further 
end of the room on a semi-circular platform covered with crimson cloth, was 
raised a splendid canopy, the ground-work of which was pure white; at the back 
of this and in the centre there was a golden Sun and the drapery was so disposed 
as to give the appearance of white rays proceeding from it (the sun) in all direc- 
tions ; the front of the canopy was festooned with pink drapery and studded with 
blue and pink rosettes ; the top was surmounted by a gilt crown and sceptre, 
beneath which were a suit of steel armour, a pavoise or triangular shield of the 
Crusaders and cross swords ; the banners of the Lodge were most tastefully 
hung in advance and on either side of the canopy, which added much to the ge- 
neral effect. Besides this, the Royal Standard, the Union Jack, the colors of the 
Frontenac Militia and of the various national Societies, were employed in deco- 
rating and furnishing drapery to the sides of the room. 



116 


MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL. 


The design in short was, to represent a gorgeous pavilion of the Crusaders, 
having at the Eastern end an alcove throne of the Knights Templars ; the pur- 
pose was faithfully carried out and eminently successful. 

The orchestra had an exceedingly chaste and beautiful appearance ; it pre- 
sented the figure of a one-arched bridge, rising from amidst a lot of Evergreens 
on either side, the ground-work was white, relieved with blue ; over the centre 
of the arch there was a brilliant star of gold, silver, blue and crimson, and the 
word “ Welcome was conspicuously placed in gilt characters. 

The St Patrick Banners were distributed here and there, which formed a plea- 
sing contrast with the other decorations. Above and behind the orchestra hung 
the Banner of St. Andrew. 

The room was brilliantly illuminated ; from the centre of each window an 
appropriate Masonic device was suspended, serving the purpose of a chandelier ; 
in the centre of the room there was an immense five-pointed Star, surmounted 
with an illuminated gilt Crown, (the Crown, of Solomon,) at the East and West 
points of the Star, were two triangles surmounted respectively with a gilded 
globe, square and compasses, and a bee-hive, in like manner brilliantly, illumi- 
nated. 

We must not omit to mention that besides these lights which amounted in 
number to nearly 400, the canopy and orchestra, were hung with large Chinese 
lamps ; the contrast which this afforded was striking and picturesque in the ex- 
treme. / 

At the throne, underneath the canopy, sat the Worshipful Master, Sir Richard 
Bonnycastle, (the worthy representative of King Solomon,) surrounded on both 
sides by the Officers of the Lodge and the members of the Masonic fraternity in 
a semi-circle, clothed in appropriate vestments, and wearing the different badges 
and insignia of their Order, and by no means the least attractive part of the spec- 
tacle were the wives and families of the Masons who occupied the platform, on 
both sides of the canopy ; — between the door and the circle of Masons, the Stew- 
ards were ranged in line, each bearing a wand ; to the right and left of the orches- 
tra, 12 chosen men from the Royal Artillery and 82d Regt were placed, which 
added much to the regularity and uniformity of the proceedings. 

There, they all remained in eager expectation, bat with Bilent and becoming 
dignity, awaiting the arrival of their guests. 

And now the Company began to pour in, each in rotation was presented in 
form to the Worshipful Master by the Master of Ceremonies, who should cer- 
tainly have adopted for his motto on that occasion u Hie et ubique But hush ! 
hark ! amidst the din and bustle of that goodly Company, who had now assem- 
bled in the room to the number of about 600, a flourish of trumpets is heard ! and 
responded to at the foot of the Canopy ; and then the Deacons with their flower 
topped wands preceded by the Master of Ceremonies, conduct their distin- 
guished guest Major General Sir Richard Armstrong and Suite to the throne, 
and present him to the Worshipful Master, who in a strain and ‘manner befitting 
the occasion addressed him as follows, — 

To Major General Sir Richard Armstrong , C. B., Commanding in Canada West 

Sir Knight, — It is the pleasing duty of him who sits on the Oriental Chair to 
address so renowned a warrior. 


/ 



MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL. 


117 


Although Freemasonry professes Faith, Hope and Charity as its guiding 6tars, 
it embraces also due acknowledgments of loyalty and of that Ancient Chivalry, 
which whilst it battled for Religious rights, forgot not the claims of the distress- 
ed and of the fair. 

The East and West alike have witnessed that you have fought the true light ; 
the warm South and the black and cheerless North alike have beheld you a true 
son of that free and fearless race who have advanced the spotless banner under 
the war cry of St. George and merry England. 

In the name of the Brethren of St John I hail you, free and accepted. 

Loyal and generous Knight, the Orders on your breast assure us that as you 
have done your devoir by your Sovereign and your Country, so will you do now, 
your devoir, by the fair. 

I present you therefore, in the name of Solomon with the Rose of Beauty and 
the Gloves of Innocence and require you Sir Kuight to present them in this pre- 
sence to the Lady of your choice. 

The effect which this appropriate and chivalric address produced upon the 
gallant General was observed by all, the feelings of the man mingled with, if 
they did not overcome, those of the soldier, and with evident emotion he thus 
replied — 

Sir Knight and Most Worshipful Master, — 

I have approached the Star in the East with much diffidence, well aware how 
limited must appear my humble lights, when brought under the lull blaze of 
those attainments, of which you are the known possessor. 

While the kindness of your reception, has on the one hand re-assured me, yet 
on the other, I am overpowered by the highly wrought eulogium, you have been 
pleased to pronounce on my Military Services, and by the allusions made to the 
distinctions, honors and rewards, that have in consequence been accorded me. 

I confess, Mo3t Worshipful Master, that I wear these condecorations proudly, 
yet not arrogantly, for I regard them, far less, as conveying any indication of my » 
individual merits, than as trophies, won for me, by the gallantry of the troops, it 
was my good fortune to lead against the enemy. They are honors which were 
open to all holding similar commands, and would equally have been reaped, by 
hundreds of my brother officers had it been their lot, to have enjoyed like oppor- 
tunities. 

Although, Most Worshipful Master, I thus disclaim any personal pretention, 
beyond others, to such honors, I can, and do, unhesitatingly bear them, under the 
consciousness of having striven hard for their attainment by a life passed, in the 
constant, and zealous performance of military duty — by devoted loyalty to my 
beloved sovereign — and by anxious attention to my country’s interests. 

The latter are qualities, in which I trust, I stand second to none — nor will I 
yield to any in my devoir to the fair — to my ardent wish for their welfare and 
happiness — holding myself at all times, ready to support their just rights, privi- 
leges and immunities. 

I well know, Sir Knight, that these sentiments are deeply implanted in your 
own breast, and have been your rule of conduct through life, thus creating a 
strong claim, to that high consideration, which has not only been manifested 
towards you by your sovereign, but also, by your becoming the chosen represen- 
tative, of that distinguished Fraternity, of which I rejoice in the opportunity of 
here greeting you as Chief. 

In most gratefully offering my thanks to you, Most Worshipful Master, and to 
the Brotherhood of this Lodge, for the distinguished reception, with which I am 
now honored, it only remains for me, to express the difficulty I feel, in obeying 
your behest, as to bestowing, the Rose of Beauty and Gloves of Innocence on 
the lady of my choice, for alas, Most Worshipful Master, I do not stand in this 
presence, so provided. 

I have with me, however, a lady, who, though married, stands to me by affinity 
as a daughter, and I trust, I may, with perfect propriety, be allowed to present to 



118 


MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL. 


her, those emblems of affection and purity, under the certainty, that with her, 
they will be most worthily enshrined. 

Here the gallant General presented the Gloves to Mrs. Captain Mayne, who 
received them most gracefully. 

The Mayor, was presented in like manner, and the Worshipful Master address- 
ed him thus, — 

Worshipful Sir, — Freemasonry especially honors those on whom the choice 
of their fellow-citizens has fallen. 

In this splendid edifice are we, the sons of St John, to-night assembled by 
permission of your honor and the corporation of this ancient and loyal town, the 
good old Kingston, ever free and ever true. 

Sir, Freemasons especially devote themselves to the reward of merit, the en- 
couragement of industry and the promotion of benevolence and friendly feelings 
amongst men. 

Untrammelled by pretension or by party, we profess attachment to the institu- 
tions of the country of our birth or adoption, and devoted loyalty to its gracious 
ruler. 

We therefore desire nothing more than to see your good town flourish, its com- 
merce increase, its unsullied reputation upheld, and that all glory and honor may 
be its appropriate distinction, until time shall be no more. 

May the golden chain of your office ever encircle the bosom of an honorable 
and just man, may he hear the sword of justice and of mercy uprightly. 

Worshipful Sir, I present you according to ancient and unvarying custom, with 
a spotless rose and spotless gloves, the emblems of beauty and purity, present 
them in vour turn to the Lady of your love. 

To which His Worship made the following 

E e p l Y . 

Worbhipul Sir, Wardens and Brethren, — 

The voice of my fellow-townsmen having placed me in the honorable office I 
hold, it is my pleasing duty to receive your address. I thank you on their behalf 
for the good opinion you have expressed of our town, and for your kind wishes 
for its prosperity. 

To the energy and enterprise of one of my predecessors in the mayoralty are 
we chiefly indebted for this splendid edifice, which displays in its proportions 
that harmony which Freemasons are taught everywhere to admire. The grace 
and strength which it outwardly exhibits, are seen to-night within its walls in 
more elegant and attractive forms ; and proud as we may be, of the beauty of our 
building, we forget it, when we look at that of its occupants. Right glad are we 
then, Sir, that we have it in our po^er to place this hall at your and their dispo- 
sal. 

I trust that good old Kingston may ever deserve the high appellation of “ Free 
and true” which you have been pleased to bestow on her ; that our loyalty may 
ever be, not that of the lip, but of the heart; the spontaneous tribute of attach- 
ment to our revered Monarch, and of faithful allegiance to her time-honored 
throne. 

I gladly accept of your present, so suitable to the donors and the occasion* 
the rose, meet emblem of the beauty, the gloves, of the gallantry which you have 
assembled at this festival. 

Among the Knights and companions of your ancient and Chivalric Order, who 
can doubt that tbc one emblem will ever readily be thrown down to challenge 
any danger that may threaten or assail the other. 

Here his Worship the Mayor presented the Gloves to Mrs. Robison. 

Mrs. Mackenzie Fraser was next presented, and the Worshipful Master de- 
scended from the throne and remaining uncovered handed her to the platform ; 
he then spoke as follows. 



MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL. 


119 


High-born and Excellent Lady, — 

The Brethren of the most ancient of all Societies, who, while they pursue in 
silence and seclusion the unvarying tenor of their way, forget not the claims of 
your sex for a single moment, and looking to the approval of woman as a guiding 
star, feel themselves peculiarly gratified in seeing you within this mystic circle 
of Freemasons whose hearts are ever open and ever ready to acknowledge that 
to women alone man owes the brightest portions of his character and his felicity. 

We hail you Lady as an old and valued acquaintance, we identify you with 
Kingston ; daughter of an honored name, niece of the Hero of the Nineteenth 
Century, welcome to the Brethren of St John. 

In the name of Solomon I present you Lady with the Rose of Beauty and 
the spotless white Gloves of Innocence, wear both, for of both are you worthy. 

The delicate and feeling allusion to the late Governor General was peculiarly 
felicitous, nor was the well-timed mention of the M hero of a hundred fights,” to 
to whom the lady he addressed was so nearly allied, the least appropriate and 
interesting feature in these chivalric proceedings. Colonel Mackenzie Fraser 
on the part of Mrs. F. briefly but pointedly made the following 

REPLY. 

Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of St. John’s Lodge, — 

Mrs. Mackenzie Fraser through me thanks you for the friendly welcome with 
which you have received her ; and still more does she thank you for the kindly 
allusion made to the memory of the late Governor General. Mrs. Mackenzie 
Fraser begs me to assure you that she will preserve the Rose and Gloves with 
which you have just presented her, in remembrance of this evening. 

The rose of beauty and gloves of innocence were placed upon a pedestal cov- 
ered with a beautifully embroidered white satin cloth, and as the gifts were being 
presented by the Worshipful Master, the oldest Mason offered them on a crim- 
son velvet cushion. 

• And now, the more solemn and stately part of the proceedings having termi- 
nated, and the surprise and delight which so novel and interesting a spectacle 
had excited in the minds of all, having somewhat subsided, the Masons walked 
round the room and saluted their guests as they passed; then came the signal 
for joining in the dance ; quadrille and waltz, gallope, country dance and reel, 
followed each other in succession, and amid the glare and glitter of a brilliant 
Company, a multitude of sparkling eyes and happy faces, to the delightful strains 
of the Band of the 14th, u all went merry as a marriage bell.” Supper was 
announced at 12 o’clock ; from the small size of the room it was found impossi- 
ble to accommodate more than a limited number ; the Worshipful Master accord- 
ingly directed the officers of the Lodge only, to conduct as many of their lady 
guests as possible to the festive board, but in the anxiety which all Masons 
evince, to do honor to the fair, they misunderstood the commands of the Wor- 
shipful Master, and proceeded in a body to the Supper room, thereby roost tmtn- 
tentionally excluding some of their guests from the first entree. 

The following toasts were drunk and enthusiastically responded to. 

1. The Queen, — The Craft. 

2. The Governor General, Sir C. T. Metcalfe. 1 

3. The Ladies who have honored us with their presence this evening. 

4. The Mayor and Corporation of Kingston. 

5. Major General Sir Richard Armstrong, and the gallant Army in Canada 
West. 



120 


MASONIC FESTIVAL AND BALL. 


6. Capt Fowell and the Royal Navy of the lakes. 

7. Our absent Brethren, their wives and daughters. 

8. The Worshipful Master and Brethren. 

Dancing was kept up with unwonted spirit until half-past 3, when with reluc- 
tant feet, the Company having finished the ball by dancing Sir R. de Coverly, 
began to disperse. 

The Band then pronounced its farewell by playing, “God save the Queen.” 

Thus ended this brilliant festival, an occasion which will be long remembered 
in Kingston with feelings of pleasure and satisfaction ; never have we witnessed 
such a display of good feeling and unanimity, never have we seen so much 
refined and finished taste exhibited in all the arrangements, and we doubt not 
that whatever may have been the existing prejudices entertained by many 
against Freemasonry (an institution based upon the broad foundation of Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, and enjoining the cultivation of every social and domestic 
virtue,) the proceedings of that night will go far towards removing them, and at 
least inducing the community at large to think favorably of the Fraternity. 

While we cheerfully accord our mede of praise to Colonel Sir Richard Bonny- 
castle and the Freemasons generally, for the great exertions they have made on 
this occasion, we must not forget that Col. Everard merits the warmest thanks 
for the readiness with which he at all times allows his delightful band, to enliven 
these occasions. The facilities afforded by Colonel Maclachlan, Royal Artil- 
lery, and Major Slater, 82nd Regiment, in completing the arrangements, must, 
we are sure, be gratefully remembered by the Freemasons, as well as by all who 
partook of their hospitality. The admirable manner in which Mr. Daley acquit- 
ted himself in the department entrusted to his peculiar care, is beyond all praise. 

We could enlarge much more on this interesting subject, but we must reluc- 
tantly take leave of it ; but expressing a hope that “ May we soon see the like 
again !” 


FESTIVAL OF ST.JOHN, TORONTO, CANADA. 

Masonic Ball. This ancient festival was, on its present occurrence (Decem- 
ber 27th last,) celebrated with unusual splendor in this city. The pure and 
enuobling principles of Masonry are becoming better understood in the Canadas, 
and, in proportion as they are better understood, they are held in greater honor, 
particularly in this, the former capital of the Upper Province, where, on St. John’s 
day, the Brethren mustered to the unusual number of upwards of one hundred 
and eighty, to welcome the fair visitors and the distinguished guests who did 
them the favor to be present. The ball room was richly decorated with the 
appropriate emblems of the Craft, enlivened by a tasteful admixture of evergreens, 
and had both a splendid and refreshing appearance. The music, excellent in 
itself, was powerfully aided by the superb band of the 82d regiment. It was & 
beautiful sight when, at the appointed hour, the Brethren of the Red and Blue 
Lodges entered the room and marched round it in procession ; the band playing 
the Masonic air. 

The whole number now assembled was about 480. Dencing proceeded with 
great spirit, and was continued, with a short interval for supper, until about half- 
past four, when the company separated to seek repose under that protecting eye 



MASONIC ANECDOTE. 


121 


which every where scans the squares and circles of the universe. Among the 
company were the Vice Chancellor and some of the Judges who joined the party 
as Brethren; and the Chief Justice and other distinguished officials, with the 
officers of the garrison, were present as guests. We have hardly ever seen a 
ball which had a more splendid appearance, and we certainly were never pre- 
sent at one in which kindliness and unanimity of feelings were more displayed. 
The supper was most superb, being provided by Brother Pearson, of the North 
American Hotel, with an elegance of taste, and a total disregard of profit, 
which does him the highest credit. j. g. J. 


MASONIC BALL AT LONDON, CANADA. 

A Masonic Ball was given at London, Upper Canada, on the evening of the 
27th December. It took place in the Mechanics’ Institute. The attendance was 
brilliant, and the arrangements of the evening reflected honor upon all con- 
cerned in their preparation. Dancing commenced about nine, and was kept up 
with unabated spirit to an early hour — it was indeed an occasion worthy of the 
Craft, and the elegant decorations of the room, the beauty which adorned it, and 
the mystic emblems which figured in the jewels and embroidery of the Masonic 
Brethren, lent quite a charm to the scene. 


MASONIC ANECDOTE. 

Eugene Marie Lagratia, a Spanish Creole, was following his occupation as 
a general merchant in Port au Prince, in the republic of Hayti, and was in prosper- 
ous circumstances, and highly respected, when, a few months since, the revolu- 
tion took place in that country. Notwithstanding his reputed character for 
being free from political bias, he was suspected of being hostile to those who 
sought for a change in the government, and being fearful of consequences his 
meditated escape was pleaded as a sufficient reason for the punishment of 
death, and he was ordered for immediate execution. The fatal guard was 
ready, the unhappy man knelt on his coffin in prayer previous to being blind 
folded ; and in this attitude, while lost to all hope but that of futurity, he felt 
himself suddenly seized in the arms of some one, when he swooned. On recov- 
ering his senses he found himself in the guard house, in the custody of the Hay- 
tian officer who commanded the fatal guard, and who, while struck with the 
awful scene of the sufferer while imploring heaven in the last agony, and observing 
his features, recollected having met him in open Lodge ; one look was enough — 
on his own responsibility he bore him away, and had the further happiness to 
preserve his life, the government being contented with the confiscation of all his 
property. Br. Lagratia was put on board a vessel bound to New York, where 
he made himself known to Br. James Herring, the Grand Secretary, who caused 
him to be relieved, and who also gave him a recommendatory letter to the Lodge 
of Benevolence of the Grand Lodge of England, to which he presented his peti- 
tion on the 31st of July, for aid to procure a passage to Barcelona, where he had 
some commercial as well as general relations. We need hardly say that his 
petition was favorably entertained . — London Quarterly. 



122 


A MASONIC REMINISCENCE. 


A MASONIC REMINISCENCE. 

LAYING OF THE CORNER STONE OF THE NEW STATE HOUSE, IN BOSTON. 

It will probably be both new and interesting to many of our Brethren to learn 
that at the particular request of the Governor, the distinguished patriot Samuei. 
Adams, the Corner Stone of the new State House in this city, was laid by the 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, with Masonic honors, on Saturday, the 4th day 
of July, 1795. The Lodges assembled in the Representatives* Chamber (in the 
old State House,) and proceeded to the “ Old South” Church, where an Oration 
was delivered. After which the procession was formed in the following order: 

Independent Fusiliers. 

Martial Music. 

Two Tylers. 

The Corner Stone,— on a truck decorated with ribbons, drawn by 15 white horses, each with 

a leader. 

Operative Masons. 

Grand Marshal. 

Stewards with Slaves. 

Entered Apprentices. 

Fellow-Crafts. 

Three Master Masons, with the Square, Level and Plumb Rule. 

Three Stewards, bearing Corn, Wine and Oil. 

Master Masons. 

Officers of Lodges with their respective Jewels. 

Past Master of Lodges. 

Grand Tyler, with a Cushing and Bible. 

Band of Music. 

Grand Stewards. 

Grand Deacons with Wands. 

Grand Treasurer and Secretary. 

Past Grand Wardens. 

Senior and Junior Grand Wardens. 

Past Deputy Grand Master. 

Past Grand Masteis. 

Reverend Clergy. 

Brothers. 

Grand Master, 

Attended by the Deputy Grand Master, Grand Stewards and Grand Sword Bearer. 
Sheriff of Suffolk. 

The Agents of the Commonwealth. 

His Excellency the Governor. 

His Honor the Lieutenant Governor. 

Assistant and Quarter Master General. 

The Honorable Council. 

Members of the Legislature. 

Clergy and Strangers of Distinction. 

In this order they moved to the spot intended for the edifice ; the procession being opened, 
the Agents, His Excellency the Governor, Grand Lodge, Lieutenant Governor, &c. passed 
through. The operative Masons having prepared the Stone, His Excellency, assisted by 
the Grand Master and Deputy Grand Master laid it — after the Grand Master had deposited 
ander it a number of gold, silver and copper coins, and and a Silver Plate bearing the follow- 
ing 

inscription : 

This Corner Stone of a structure intended for the use of the Legislature and Executive 
branches of the government of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, was laid by 
His Excellency Samuel Adams, Esqr. 

Governor of said Commonwealth, 

Assisted by 

The Most Worshipful Paul Revere, 

Grand Master. 

And the Right Worshipful William Seollay, 

Deputy Grand Master, 

The Grand Wardens and Brethren of the Grand Lodge of 
Massachusetts, 

On the 4th day of July, 1795, A. L. 5795, 
being the 20th Anniversary 
oT 

American Independence. 


THE BURNS FESTIVAL. 


123 


THE BURNS FESTIVAL. 

This great fete, in honor of Robert Burns, was celebrated at Ayr, Scot- 
land, on the 6th of August last The joint presidency of the festive board 
was entrusted by the active and influential committee to tbe Earl of Eglintoun 
and Professor Wilson, in a field some twenty acres in extent, beautifully situate 
on the banks of the Don, and distant but a few yards from the monument erected 
to Burn’s memory in 1820, in the sloping vale immediately below the cottage of 
his birth ; it had the additional charm of being in the very centre of the scene of 
Tam o’ Shanier , and within view of Alloway’s a auld haunted kirk,” where the 
revels of the unearthly legion were held. The pavilion, calculated to hold over 
2000 persons, was lined with cloth of various colors. 

The town and neighborhood of Ayr literally swarmed on the occasion ; the 
residence, celebrated by Burns as that of “ honest men and bonnie lasses.” It 
was a living panorama — puir auld Scotland never exhibited a more animated 
sight 

By eleven o’clock all was ready for the grand movement, a regimental band 
led the van, then followed a large party of “ Freemasons,” in their several or- 
ders ; the “ Ancient Foresters” were headed by a remarkably fine young fellow, 
in a suit of Lincoln green ; various trades succeeded ; then a company of arch- 
ers ; but the most interesting scene was the concluding procession of shepherds ; 
a huge bunch of thistles brought up the rear. 

The procession halted before the cottage of Burns, and as it reached the kirk 
of Alloway, and neared the platform where the visitors were assembled, in the 
front of whom were conspicuously placed the three sons of Burns, the procession 
as it passed them uncovered to a man, hat and bonnet were doffed in memory of 
the deceased poet, and in respect to his living sons. The band played several 
airs adapted to Burns’s songs, which created a stirring sensation. 

On reaching the pavilion the procession separated, and the business of the 
festival commenced. 

The Chairman, the Earl of Eglintoun, was supported by Mr. Robert Burns, 
eldest son of the poet; Major Burns and Colonel Burns; Mrs. Begg, sister of the 
poet ; Sir John M’Neill, Bart ; the Lord Justice General ; the Countess of Eg- 
lintoun, and other ladies and gentlemen. Professor Wilson, as croupier, was 
supported by Mr. A. Alison, Col. Muir, Mr. A. Hastie, M. P., Mr. J. Oswald, 
M. P., Sir J. Campbell, &c. 

The noble Cbairman’b opening address, although pithy and condensed, was 
yet sufficiently conclusive and comprehensive, delivered in a calm and impres- 
sive manner, and with a chivalrous zeal, which showed how the mind and heart 
were interested in the issue — there was an expression that told a home truth, it 
was this, that the occasion exhibited the feelings of “ repentant ? ’ Scotland. 

The learned Croupier (Professor Wilson) introduced the toast, “Welcome to 
tiie Sons of Burns,” and spoke to the subject for upwards of an hour. Enthu- 
siasm was excited to the highest degree — the effect of his eloquence was enhan- 
ced by the “ forceful” style of his delivery — augmented by the u picturesque” 
appearance of the speaker, his manly form, expressive features, intellectual head, 
and deep-toned musical voice. 

Robert Burns replied for the sons of Burns to the generous welcome in a 
brief address, during which he observed, “ we have no claim to attention indi- 
vidually, we are all aware that genius, and more particularly poetic genius, is 
not hereditary, and in this case ( Elijah’s mantle has not descended upon Elisha.” 

Three dsys after this grand public jubilee, the members of the L*>dge of St 
James, Tarbolton, met to receive and welcome within their walls, the sons of 
their immortal Master, — he who had there made his first profession of the Ma- 
sonic faith, and had shown himself true to the last in his fealty and affection by 
passing there almost the last moments which he thought he should have to spend 
before quitting forever his native hearth, and the friends of his soul. To pay 
all honor to their expected guests the Brethren went in full Masonic dress to 



124 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


meet the sons of Bums on their entering the village, and escorted them in joyful 
procession to the threshhold of the Lodge-room. There they were with all cere- 
mony and courtesy received as honorary members of the Lodge. The Right 
Worshipful Brother, Dugald Hamilton, Esq., son of one of Burns’s very earliest 
patrons and friends, presided on the occasion, and some were there present, 
old men and old Masons, who had sat in the same place, at the same board, with 
him, the master-spirit, the mighty genius, whose buirdly form and lofty brow and 
lustrous eyes they yet well remembered as if he were still before them. At such 
a scene as this, in such an hour, who would not have rejoiced to have been pre- 
sent ? and it is only to be regretted that the event was not made sufficiently 
public previously, to have enabled the reporter for this Review to have attended. 

The proceedings of the evening we understand, were conducted with all be- 
coming propriety and tact ; and what added to the interest of the meeting was, 
Major Burns singing his father’s inimitable song, the “ Farewell to the Brethren 
of the Tarbolton Lodge.” Spirit of the immortal bard, couldst thou have wit- 
nessed it, the scene of that night in thine own lowly but favored haunt, hallowed 
to all the kindly and noble feelings of humanity, might have yet more delighted 
thee even than the proud and public preparations and displays of that broad-day 
jubilee which men of all ranks and classes celebrated for thy sake ! — Freemasons ’ 
Review, London . 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

OHIO. 

The Grand Chapter of Ohio, held its annual meeting at Columbus, on the 25th 
October last. The business was entirely local in its character. The opening 
address of the Grand H. P., Comp. William B. Hubbard, Esq. is an interest- 
ing paper. We make the following extracts, not having room for the entire ad- 
dress : — 

Companions : — Favored by a superintending Providence, we are once more 
permitted to assemble in Grand Chapter Communication, and to enjoy the plea- 
sure of the social and Masonic relations consequent thereon. I take much plea- 
sure in being enabled to communicate to you, that during the past year our Ma- 
sonic Fraternity have enjoyed the blessings of peace and tranquility, with few if 
any exceptions, in their several subordinate Chapters, and with the world. Whilst 
a noble and virtuous emulation to excel in Masonic knowledge and Masonic use- 
fulness is continually increasing, I congratulate you on this manifestly favorable 
condition of your several Chapters ; and desire cordially and fervently to unite 
with you in offering up our humble thanks to Him who is “ Lord over all,” the 
“Giver of every good and perfect gift,” for these and all other of His favors. 

Since your last meeting no application has been made to me for the establish- 
ment or constitution of new Chapters ; nor have I, in my official Correspon- 
dence, any thing of importance (with perhaps one exception) to communicate to 
you. With some few exceptions, the business that principally will engage your 
attention is such as arises from your representative character, and as constituent 
members of this the most august governmental power of Ancient Masonry in the 
State. 

It is, perhaps, advisable to call your attention to the fact that the work in some 
of our subordinate Chapters is somewhat variant from others within our jurisdic- 
tion ; that this work, though not so variant as to be denominated discordant is, nev- 
ertheless, of sufficient importance to call for the suggestion of a remedy. In re- 
ference to this I intended (during the past year) to have called together the High 
Priests of the several subordinate Chapters at a suitable time and place, for the 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


125 


purpose, with the assistance of our venerable companion and Grand Lecturer, of 
going with them through the entire work of the several degrees belonging to a 
Chapter. It appeared to me that in this way, and perhaps in this way alone, an 
entire and complete uniformity of work, and unanimity of opinion upon that work, 
could be obtained. It would thus have the sanction of the highest authority 
through your official organ, and could not fail to be entirely satisfactory to the 
several members of the subordinate Chapters. Owing to a severe accident that 
occurred to myself, and other causes not necessary to mention, I did not have it 
in my power to carry out the forenamed intention. And I now bring the mea- 
sure to your consideration for your opinion and authority for or against it, and to 
the end that your own action in the premises will be decisive, as well in relation 
to my successor, as to the subordinates. 

The triennial meeting of the G. G. R. A. Chapter of the United States, assem- 
bled at New Haven, in Connecticut, on the 2d Tuesday of September last. I 
attended that meeting in person, and enjoyed the high honor of being your rep- 
resentative in that body. The meeting was characterized by representatives and 
officers of distinguised talent and virtue from all parts of our beloved and com- 
mbn country, owing allegiance to its authority ; and their proceedings and in- 
tercourse one with the other, was marked, as might well be expected of such per- 
sons, with unanimity and the best of good feelings, whilst a fervent and praise- 
worthy zeal for the true principles of our Order reigned predominant in the 
breasts of all. 

As the proceedings of that august body are now in course of publication I will 
not occupy your time in giving a detail of them, important as they are, and in- 
teresting as no doubt they would be to you all, but will content myself by ob- 
serving that with a devotion to the good of the Order, and a kind and paternal 
regard to the rapidly growing interests of Masonry in the west, the members 
were pleased to direct their next triennial meeting to be held in this city. 
***###** 

By a reference to our foreign correspondence, in the hands of the Grand 
Secretary, it will appear, that he is in the receipt of only two communications 
from other Grand Chapters, those from Virginia and Kentucky. From a perusal 
of them I do not discover any matter, except one, requiring special notice. The 
proceedings of the Grand Chapter of Kentucky, in reference to the conferring of 
the degrees of Royal and Select Master in Chapters, will probably engage your 
attention. The subject is one of much importance, and I cannot forbear express- 
ing the hope, that by your action, and that of other Grand Chapters, our sister 
Grand Chapters not in allegiance to the G. G. Chapter, may be induced, in the 
spirit of Masonic kindness and concession, to so far modify their work in their 
subordinate Chapters, as to prohibit those degrees being conferred, before that 
of the Royal Arch. 

Such action on their part would be in accordance with the recommendation of 
the Gen. Grand Chapter, and happily tending to remove some of the barriers of 
Masonic intercourse and action between Royal and Select Masters generally. 

As the official relation heretofore existing between us is now about to close, I 
take this occasion to return you my cordial thanks for the honor it has been your 
pleasure to confer on me ; for the generous confidence and support at all times 
and on all occasions manifested towards me personally and officially ; and for the 
union and uninterrupted Masonic fellowship, that has marked your intercourse 
one with the other during all our hours of labor as well as of refreshment, and to 
assure you that the remembrance thereof will be to me a source of pleasurable 
enjoyment, and that my official relations will terminate on my part with an ardent 
desire for the prosperity of our ancient and venerable Order, and the happiness 
of you all individually and collectively. 



126 


OBITUABT. 


©fcttttara. 

In this city, on the 4th of January, Hon. Benjamin Russell, aged 83 years. 
Maj. Russell was Senior Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachu- 
setts. He had been an active, ardent and consistent Brother for about sixty 
years. He had held and discharged the duties of most of the offices in the 
Grand Lodge, and was ever ready, to the day of his last illness, to answer the 
calls of his Brethren and to defend or promote the interests of the Fraternity. 
So strong were his attachments for our Institution, that in the last moments of 
his life, when reason was tottering on its throne, his mind was active in the con- 
cerns of the Grand Lodge. He died, as he had lived, a Mason . We forbear to 
make any lengthened notice of his life, inasmuch as the Grand Lodge have made 
arrangements for an Eulogy, in which the detail will be given with more cor- 
rectness than we could do it at the present time. 

His funeral took place on the 8th, and was attended by a more numerous body 
of citizens than has been seen at any public funeral in this city, for many years. 
The body, attended by the relatives and immediate friends, was transferred from 
its late residence in Central Court to the meeting house on Church Green, Sum- 
mer-street, at three o’clock. The house had been previously occupied by the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts 
and Brethren of the Masonic Fraternity, the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic 
Association, and the Franklin Typographical Society, with many other citizens, 
anxious to pay the tribute of respect to the memory of one so long known and 
venerated. The services commenced with a chant by the Choir — w Lord, thou 
hast been our dwelling place,” &c. Then followed the reading of appropriate 
passages of Scripture, by the Rev. Mr. Young. The following Hymn was then 
sung by the Choir : — 

Like shadows gliding o’er the plain, 

Or clouds that roll successive on, 

Man’s busy generations pass, 

And while we gaze, their forms are gone. 

w He lived,— he died ; M behold the sum, 

The abstract of the historian’s page ! 

Alike in God’s all-seeing eye, 

The infant’s day, the patriarch’s age. 

O Father in whose mighty hand 
The boundless years and ages lie, 

Teach us thy boon of life to prize, 

And use the moments as they fly j 

To crowd the narrow span of life 
With wise designs and virtuous deeds j 
do shall we wake from death’s dark night, 

To share the glory that succeeds. 

The Rev. Mr. Young then offered a fervent prayer, in which he referred to the 
mourners around him, and those who came up to pay the last token of affection 
and respect to the departed, — to his only sister, to his son and daughters,— (one 
son was absent in a distant state, and another was now upon the great deep,) — 
to the various associated bodies to which he belonged — his companions in arms, 
the philanthropic societies of which he was a member ; the members of that hon- 
orable art and trade to which he was trained from childhood, and which he fol- 
lowed so long and so well — that noble art, the principal means of diffusing know- 
ledge among men — and then spoke of the fidelity of the deceased in the^numer- 
ous public trusts and offices, which had been committed to him, and hoped that 
those present came not to flatter the dead, since better was the house of mourn- 



OBITUARY. 


127 


ing than the house of feasting. A good moral and religious character was the 
omy thing worth living for — the approbation of the Maker and the Judge was the 
one thing needful, ana we committed the soul of our father and our brother to 
Him, as we committed his body to the dust, in the glorious hope of a better re- 
surrection. 

The Choir then chanted the beautiful sacred pastoral — u The Lord is my Shep- 
herd,” &c. The Benediction by Mr. Young closed the service. 

A procession, composed of the several associations before mentioned, and other 
citizens, followed the hearse to the Granary Burial Ground, where the remains 
were deposited in the family vault. The streets, through which the procession 
passed, were thronged with spectators of both sexes. 

DEUS MEUMQUE JUS. 

At a meeting of the Supreme Council of Most Illustrious and Puissant Sover- 
eign Grand Inspectors General of the 33d Degree for the Southern District of 
the United States, held at their Grand Orient of Charleston, on the 5th day of the 
month Thebet, A. M. 5604, corresponding to the vulgar era 15th of December, 
1844, the following preamble and resolutions were adopted : — 

Whereas, it has pleased the Supreme Architect of the Universe to call from 
this earth to his celestial home, our beloved Brother Moses Holbrook, M. D., 
late Sovereign Grand Commander ad vitam, of this council — 

Resolved, That we deplore his death as a grievous loss to us, though to him it 
has doubtless proved an abundant gain. 

Resolved, That we condole with his afflicted widow in her bereavement, and 
sincerely offer to her the sympathies of those who were united with him whom 
she has lost, in the indissoluble bonds of Masonic brotherhood. 

Resolved, That this Council at its next sitting shall be clothed in the habila- 
ments of mourning, and that these resolutions, signed by our Lieutenant Grand 
Commander and our Grand Secretary General of the Holy Empire, be communi- 
cated to the family of our deceased Brother, and that a copy of the same be pub- 
lished in the Freemasons’ Magazine. 

Jacob De la Motta, M. D. 

Rose + Scott.*., K — H .*., S.\ P.\ R.\ S.\, 
S.\ G.\ I/. G.\ 33°. Lieut Grand Com. 

Alex. Me Donald, 

Rose -f Scott*., K— -H.\, S.*. P.% R.\ S.\, 

S.\ G.\I.\G.\ 33®. 

Attest, 

Albert G. Mackey, M. D. 

Rose + Scott*., K — H.%, S.\ P.\ R.\ S.\, 

S .*. G .*. I .*. G ,*. 33°. Grand Secretary, 

General of the H .*. E.\ 

In this town, on Friday evening the 8th inst. Mr. Peter Toppler, at the 
advanced age of 80 years, 3 months, and 23 days. For the meekness of his life, 
and the uprightness of his character and conduct, the deceased was universally 
esteemed and beloved bv all who knew him. He was a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church of this town for 26 years. His remains were interred on 
Sunday the 10th, attended by his Masonic Brethren, and a very large concourse 
of citizens of the town and county. — Canton ( Ohio) Repository. 

We learn from an extract of the Sermon preached on the occasion, that the 
deceased was made a Mason at Alexandria, D. C., and that he “ frequently sat 
side by side in the Lodge with the inmortal Washington. He was present at 
the laying of the corner stone of our national capitol, and participated in the 
ceremonies of that occasion, at which the venerated Washington presided.” 



128 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


Qj^The Hon. Francis Baylies, of Taun- 1 
ton, has been invited by the Gripid Lodge of 
this State, to deliver an Eulogy on our late 
distinguished Brother, Hon, Benjamin 
Russell. Br. Baylies has accepted the in- 
vitation, and the Eulogy will probably be 
delivered in the course of the present month. 
The well known talents of the Orator, as a 
writer and speaker, warrant the belief that 
the performance will be eminently interest- 
ing and worthy of the high character of the 
deceased. The services will be so far public 
as to admit of the attendance of ladies and 
gentlemen not of the Fraternity. 

J^-Our Brethren will find in a preceeding 
page a short notice of a proposed Masonic 
Festival on the 17th June next, to which we 
invite their attention. 

0"The members of the Lodges in Port- 
land, Me., with their wives and daughters 
and the widows of deceased Brethren, cele- 
brated the anniversary of St. John the Evan- 
gelist, at Masons’ Hall. The attendance 
was large, and we understand the assem- 
blage was a very pleasant one. 

J^"We understand that the officers of St. 
John’s Lodge, at Portsmouth, N. H., were 
publicly Installed on the evening of the 29th 
ult., on which occasion an address was de- 
livered by R. W. Br. Thomas Power, Esq. 
of this city. After which the Brethren with 
their invited guests partook of a supper to- 
gether. 

ij-We have a curious article, in German, 
on a secret society in China, a translation of 
which we shall lay before our readers next 
month, probably. 

fyS^Our Charleston correspondent is in- 
formed that the Grand Chapter of Harodim, 
formed at London in 1787, is not now, we 
think, in existence. But in our next com- 
munication to England, we will mention the 
matter, and if it be yet alive, will obtain the 
information he desires. 


QChOur readers will be interested by a pe- 
rusal of the account of the Masonic Bali at 
Kingston, Canada. It must have been a 
brilliant fete. Our Canada Brethren under- 
stand how to manage such affairs, even bet- 
ter than their transatlantic friends. 

ltJ*Br. R. Chalmers, Bookseller, No. 8, 
Great St. James street, Montreal, Canada, 
is an authorized agent for the Magazine, 
and of whom the Trestle-Board may also be 
obtained. Br. H. Scobie, 137 King-street, 
Toronto, has the Trestle-Board, and the Ma- 
sonic Melodies, on sale, and will answer 
any orders addressed to him. 

JjrThe i a te arrival of the steamer for 
December, has placed it entirely out of our 
power to lay before our readers a single item 
of the interesting matters with which our 
European correspondents have furnished us. 
They shall all be attended to in due time 
however. 

fVBr. C. S. McConico is an authorized 
agent for the Magazine at Greensboro’, Ala. 
Br. McC. is a gentleman of the legal profes- 
sion and will faithfully transact any business 
in the way of his calling which our friends 
may entrust to him. 

5^"The Masonic Mirror, at Maysville, has 
been put into a new dress, and greatly improv- 
ed its appearance and matter. We wish 
the enterprising publisher entire success. 

We have now in type the officers of 
the several Masonic bodies in Charleston, 
S. C., but have not been able to make 
room for them this month. 

Q*We have the proceedings of the Grand 
Lodges of Ohio, Missouri, Rhode Island, &c. 
all of which shall receive early attention. 

fj*The communication from our fHend 
and Brother at New York is received, and 
will appear next month, if we can possibly 
dispense with some matters already promi- 
sed. 







a •; ^ 


THE 


FREEMASON S’ 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE 


Vol. IV.] BOSTON, MARCH 1, 1845. [No. 5. 


GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 

The Convention of Delegates, assembled at Washington, in March, 1842, 
amongst other regulations which they agreed to recommend to the Grand 
Lodges of the Union for their, adoption, particularly urged the requirement 
of Grand Lodge Certificates, from strangers, “as an additional safeguard against 
the abuse of Masonic privileges by the unworthy ; some of whom are constabtly 
prowling through the land, and deriving a support from the charity of the Insti- 
tution, to which they are a disgrace.” 

This recommendation has been adopted by several Grand Lodges represented 
in that Convention, and by others that were not— as the Grand Lodge of Texas. 
By some it was passed over in silence at the time, but has been since taken np 
and approved, while others have entirely lost sight of the terms in which the 
Convention announced their recommendation, and have substituted imaginary 
objects r, totally erroneous ; which they have made the foundation of some very 
singular sentiments, incidentally uttered, while stating their objections to the 
adoption of the Grand Lodge Certificate regulation. To point out the errors, 
and- meet the objections referred to, we quote from the proceedings of the Grand 
Lodge of Connecticut, in May, 1843, the following extract 

« The R. W. Representative of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, 
having communicated information that a regulatiou had been adopted by that 
Grand Lodge, requiring every member of the Fraternity who may visit a Lodge 
under their jurisdiction, to produce a Certificate of membership, countersigned by 
the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge, under whose jurisdiction he belongs, 
the following Resolutions, after a lengthy discussion, were adopted 

« Resolved, That while this Grand Lodge does not recognize the expediency of 
the Grand Lodge of New York, or any other Grand Lodge, so far departing from 
the ancient usages of the Order, as to require a Certificate of membership, with- 
out which no Brother can be permitted to visit a Lodge within the jurisdiction of 
such Grand Lodge, still, as the Grand Lodge of New York has adopted such a 
regulation, it may be important to our Brethren sojourning in that State, that 
this Grand Lodge issue such Certificate : Therefore, 

Resolved, That the Grand Secretary be directed to give a Certificate to such 
members in good standing in subordinate Lodges under this jurisdiction, as may 
require it, under his signature and the seal of the Grand Lodge, and that fifty 
cents for every such Certificate shall be paid into the funds of the Grand Lodge.” 

17 


130 


GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 


But the subject was not allowed thus to rest in the Grand Lodge of Connecti- 
cut In May, 1844, it was revived by the introduction of a report of a Coinmit- 
. tee to whom it had been referred in 1843, previous to the adoption of the Resolu- 
tions above quoted. This report we will also give, that we may meet the ques- 
tion fairly and impartially : 
u To the M. W. Grand Lodge of Connecticut. 

At the last annual session of this Grand Lodge, a communication was received 
from the Secretary of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, through its 
Representative in this Grand Lodge,* soliciting its attention to the recommenda- 
tion therein proposed, of “ a uniform system of certifying Brethren in good and 
regular standing by the Grand Lodge from which they hail, and requiring of 
visitors, previous to examination, that species of documentary evidence known 
as a Grand Lodge certificate.” 

The Committee appointed to examine and report to this Grand Lodge on the 
merits of said communication, would respectfully represent, that after taking the 
subject into careful consideration, they are of opinion that but little benefit would 
arise from requiring Brethren to obtain certificates from the Grand Secretary, of 
their membership under this Grand Lodge, for the reasons here subjoined. 

In the first place, your committee would remark, they are fully aware of the 
evils to which Lodges are exposed by visitors of unworthy character, and to 
allay imposition or attempts at imposition, will have to be a work of time, in a 
manner changing the order of things in many of our Lodges, which, as hereto- 
fore, has now brought upon us the evils so much complained of. 

It is probably well known to this Grand Lodge, that it has been the lamentable 
practice, in cases without number, to initiate candidates into Masonry whose 
moral integrity fell too far short of the mark to do honor to our beloved Institu- 
tion, and so long as such, in the least, continues to be the practice, the same kind 
of unworthiness will ever strip the parchment evidence of membership, above 
alluded to, of the benefits intended. 

In the second place, it is easy to be seen that intrigues with parchment evi- 
dence might be readily practised, so soon as it was foqnd that Lodges placed any 
reliance thereon, and that such would have a tendency to a slack proficiency in 
the several decrees, so as to be less able to work into Lodges, is also apparent 

That it would be very inconvenient for Masons living remote and distant from 
the Grand Secretary, to apply for such Certificate, and in such cases, when liv- 
ing near the lines of our sister States, often associating with Lodges therein, 
then to be thus subjected by the several G. Lodges, cannot fail of producing a 
strong censure in the minds of Brethren, with the complaint, also, that such a 
rule was an innovation upon the ancient rights and privileges of Freemasonry. 

There are rules and rites, co-existent with Masonry itself, by 
which every Lodge may and should guard itself against all imposi- 
tion; AND TO BE IMPOSED UPON BY A CLANDESTINE MADE MASON, OR ONE 
WHO IS UNDER THE SENTENCE OF EXPULSION OR SUSPENSION, OR IN ANY 
OTHER MANNER, MUST SHOW A VERY GREAT FORGETFULNESS OF THE OBLIGA- 
TIONS BY WHICH THE FRATERNITY ARE BOUND. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. Wm. Moody, Committee .” 

It would appear to any young Mason, and indeed we think it might be justly 
inferred by any person, on reading the Resolutions of 1843, that the Grand 
Lodge of^Connecticut had never before heard of any Grand Lodge requiring 
Certificates, and that the Grand Lodge of New York had ventured on a measure 
of doubtful expediency , and by so doing had sanctioned a departure from the 
ancient usages of the Order. And yet that cannot be so. The Grand Lodge of 
Connecticut must have known that other Grand Lodges in the United States, 
besides New York, had approved of the recommendation of the Washington 



GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 


131 


Convention; and that long — long before that Convention, the granting and 
requiring of Certificates was a usage of the Order throughout the world. They 
ought at least to have known, that they had themselves issued Grand Lodge Certi- 
ficates for at least thirty years ! 

We shall proceed in the first place, to show that, the neglect of requiring Certifi- 
cates, teas a departure from the ancient usages of the Order. 

In the old records of the Grand Lodge of England, it is thus written : — “ Henry 
Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, Grand Master, Sir John Denham, D. G. M., Sir 
.Christopher Wren, Mr. John Web, Grand Wardens. ' This Grand Master held a 
General Assembly and Feast o n St. John’s Day, 27 Dec., 1663, when the follow- 
ing Regulations were made : — 

“3d. That no person hereafter who shall be accepted a Freemason, shall be admit- 
ted into any Lodge or Assembly, until he has brought a Certificate of the time and 
place of his acceptation from the Lodge that accepted him, unto the Master of that 
limit or division where such Lodge is kept ; and the said Master shall enrol fhe 
same in a roll qf parchment to be kept for that purpose, and shall give an account of 
all such acceptations at every General Assembly. 

“ 4th. That every person who is now a Freemason, shall bring to the Master a 
note of the time of his acceptation, to the end the same may be enrolled in such prior- 
ity of place as the Brother deserves ; and that the whole company and fellows may 
the better know each other. n 

Here we have evidence that both Certificates and registry were required, one 
hundred and twenty years before’the Grand Lodge of Connecticut was in exist- 
ence. 

In 1755, the Grand Lodge of England “ Ordered, That every Certificate granted 
to a Brother, of his being a Mason, shall for the future be sealed with the seal of 
Masonry, and signed by the Grand Secretary, for which five shillings shall be 
paid to the use of the general fund of charity.” 

In 1772, when the Grand Lodges of Scotland and of Ancient Masons of Eng- 
land, had one Grand Master, the Duke of Athol, the Grand Lodge of England 
“ Ordered, That no Mason who has been made under the sanction of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, shall be admitted a member, nor partake of the general cha- 
rity, without having produced a Certificate of his good behavior from the Secre- 
tary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland ; but upon producing such Certificate, he 
shall receive all the honor due to a faithful Brother of the same household with 
us.” The Grand Lodge of Scotland reciprocated this ordinance in precisely the 
same terms 

The Grand Lodge of England now requires each Lodge within its jurisdic- 
tion, when it makes a return of its members, to make, in addition to the registry 
fee, a remittance of six shillings and sixpence for every Brother’s Grand Lodge 
Certificate, which sums the Lodge may take out of the initiation fee, or charge' 
separately to the Brothers for whom the Certificates are obtained. Thus every 
Mason made under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England, is entitled to 
a Certificate from the Grand Secretary ; and the Lodges are forbidden to grant a 
Certificate , except for the purpose of enabling a Brother to obtain a Grand Lodge 
Certificate ; in which case such Certificate is required to be Specifically address- 



132 


grand lodge certificates. 


ed to the Grand Secretary. The regulations of that Grand Lodge require the 
production of Certificates by Brothers from the Grand Lodges of Scotland and 
Ireland, as well as of foreign Grand Lodges, should they make application for 
relief to the Board qf Benevolence . 

Having thus swept away every shadow of suspicipn of innovation, by the recom- 
mendation of the Washington Convention, and the consequent regulations adopted 
by the Grand Lodges of New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, &c. &C., we have 
now to meet the report of the committee of thq Grand Lodge of Connecticut, 
which was approved in 1844 , and which, on a close analysis, will be found 
to contain not one argument, opinion, or fad, which can stand against the strong 
reasons which influenced the Convention to recommend the' uniform system of 
certifying regular Masons. Let us not, however, be regarded as antagonists. 
We are perfectly convinced by rejkdion and experience , that the views of ouf 
Connecticut Brethren are radically wrong, and we shall endeavor to convince 
them, with the full faith that they will be willing to be convinced, and will not 
persist in sustaining an evil, merely because they h&ve taken ground against a 
measure, recommended as a remedy to be fret used. 

It appears that the subject was not discussed at New Haven, on the report of 
the Washington Convention, but on a communication from the Representative of 
the Grand Lodge of New York, that his constituents had adopted a regulation 
“ requiring every member of the Fraternity who may visit a Lodge under their 
jurisdiction, to produce a Certificate of membership, countersigned by the Gr. 
Secretary of the Grand Lodge under whose jurisdiction he belongs.” Now, it 
would be very easy to say — “ Well, the Brethren in Connecticut are informed of 
the regulation, and their Grand Lodge issues Certificates, which those who are 
worthy can obtain, if they please, for half a dollar ; and if they value the privi- 
lege of visiting their Brethren abroad at less than that sum, it can be of little 
consequence to them whether they visit or not.” If this be the view of the Com- 
mittee when they say, that “ they are of opinion that but little benefit would arise 
from requiring Brethren to obtain Certificates from the Grand Secretary,” we say, 
so be it— just as they please to think of it. But the Grand Lodge of N. York un- 
doubtedly intended to notify their Brethren in Connecticut, of the regulation, that 
they might not be taken by surprise. The Committee admit, to the fullest ex- 
tent, the existence of the evil now sought to be remedied, but say it “ will have 
to be a work of time* But, as rational men, can they believe that time will cure 
the disease, without the application of means ? A means is offered and they re- 
ject it, but propose none. If what they affirm, however, of “ the lamentable 
practice” of their Lodges be true, and we will not dispute that, we will not ask 
them to compel unworthy persons to provide themselves with parchment evi- 
dence, but we must still insist upon their requiring it from abroad, for we would 
not have the most indifferent regular Brother imposed upon, by the charlatans who 
are abroad in the land, the wolves in sheep'* clothing, who, under every species of 
pretence, are draining the funds of benevolence from our unguarded Lodges. 

The possibility of “ intrigues with parchment evidence,” is not so M qgsy to be 
" seen.” They wiU not, cannot be received as sole evidence of the applicant’s 
title to fraternal privileges, and were never intended to be so.' The Washington 
Convention recommended them as an additional safeguard ; and our previous and 



GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 


133 


subsequent experience compels us to say, in explicit terms, that the committee 
are' laboring under a most egregious error, in the opinion of security they have 
expressed, with so much apparent satisfaction to themselves, in capital letters, 
and the sooner they can be convinced of it the better. 

As to the inconvenience of applying to the Grand Secretary for Certificates, 
“ producing a strong censure in the minds of Brethren, with the complaint, also, 
that such a rule was an innovation upon the ancient rights and privileges of 
Freemasonry.” This may probably be found to be perfectly true ; for if the 
Committee of the Grand Lodge sanction such opinions, in advance, there will be 
a willingness undoubtedly to find shelter under those opinions. But the fact that 
the Lodges of the whole British Empire are furnished with Certificates for their 
members from the Grand Secretary’s office at London, will serve to show that 
the inconvenience is not insurmountable ; and the anticipated complaint of mno* 
vation 9 we have already shown to be unfounded. 

There are circumstances existing at the present day, of which we cannot here 
speak particularly, but by which the Fraternity and the Lodges throughout the 
world, are exposed to the impositions of the most unprincipled ; against which all 
the fortifications by which our Brethren in Connecticut seem to think themselves 
surrounded, are but as spider-webs. In 1827, the Grand Lodge of New York 
found it necessary to ordain, that no stranger, hailing from any Lodge in that 
State, should be examined by another Lodge, without a G. Lodge Certificate, and 
that law has never been repealed. But what was necessary for the protection of 
the Lodges of New York at that time, has become doubly so since, by cir- 
cumstances which have since occurred, which still exist there , and which can 
in no way he guarded against , but by requiring Grand Lodge Certificates . 

We would also say to the Committee of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, and 
to all who are of their opinion, that many a worthy and faithful Brother from 
distant lands, where true Masonry exists, would most probably be rejected by 
them, if tested alone by what they seem to think are universal and. unfailing 
proofs. Indeed, we are * confident that if the truest hearted Mason of Sweden 
were to present himself to any Lodge in Connecticut, without a Grand Lodge 
Certificate, he would be rejected as an impostor ; and without such a document 
we would not advise an American Mason to go to any part of Europe, intending 
to visit Lodges, for he would be rejected without ceremony. 

It is true, an unworthy man may be able to obtain such a Certificate, by con- 
cealing his true character at home, or he may render himself unworthy, after he 
obtains it; but even that difficulty is not without a remedy, for we hold it to be 
perfectly justifiable and proper that such an one should be deprived of a Certifi- 
cate by any Lodge where his unworthiness becomes known, and the Grand Lodge 
he hails from should be informed thereof and the Certificate returned to them. 
Suph cases, however, would be rare in comparison with those who are imposing 
on the Lodges of this country, and in England, who cannot obtain Grand Lodge 
Certificates. Take, for instance, the whole race of clandestine Masons made 
since 1837, by the St. John’s Grand Lodge of the State of New York, by Loui- 
siana Lodge at New Orleans, and many others that we could .mention. Take 
the case noticed iu this Magazine, (vol. 2, p. 273) in the communication from 



134 


GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 


Lynchburgh, Va. The Lodge there allowed themselves to be duped of a large 
amount of charity by a man by the name of J. C. Jacobi, who, if they had examined 
the proceedings of the G. Lodge of Virginia, for 1832, they would have found re- 
ported as a suspended Mason, by the Grand Lodge of N. York. The same man is 
equally favorably known by the Brethren at Tallahassee, and probably in many 
other places. That man, and such as he, can only be checked by requiring 
Grand Lodge Certificates. Take also the following example of bare-faced im- 
posture, addressed to the editor of the London Freemasons’ Quarterly Review : 

“ Grand Hotel , Piazza , Covent Garden^ April 29, 1839. 

“ Mr. Editor, — Permit an ‘ old workman’ to say a word or two in favor of his 
* brother laborers.’ I am a stranger in England, but have had the happiness to 
visit once or twice the Lodge of ‘ Good Report,* No. 158. My present purpose 
is, however, to notice the proceedings of its last regular meeting, the 11th of 
April, on which occasion the yearly instalment of its officers took place. The 
impressive ceremony was performed principally by Brother George Aar^n, whose 
high standing in the ‘Craft,’ great merit, and Masonic proficiency, fully entitle 
him to the kindness and regard with which he was greeted on that evening, and 
with which he is met by the Brethren of the Institution. v 

The business of the Lodge having been closed, the newly elected Master, 
with the Wardens and Officers, were ushered into the ‘ banqueting room,’ where 
an elegant repast had been provided in the best style of Brother Evans ; the 
music was of the highest order — Brother Blewitt presiding at the piano forte. 

If the promulgation of the delightful and rational enjoyment of the visit re- 
ferred to, shall induce emulation in the sacred cause of Masonry in the Lodge of 
‘ Good Report,’ then, sir, I am amply repaid. Should that however fail to be 
the case, it does not less become me to make known the sentiments of gratitude 
which I individually entertain for the courtesy I experienced. 

I am, sir, fraternally yours, 

W. R. B. 

Past Master Friendly Lodge, Albany, N. Y., U. States of America.” 

Now, it is evident, if the Lodge of Good Report had required a Grand Lodge 
Certificate of Br. W. R. B., “ Past Master of Friendly Lodge, at Albany,” they 
would not have been imposed on, since there is not and never has been such a 
Lodge at Albany. We should not be surprised, however, if this same W. R. B. 
were the poor Brother William Bird, who lately visited Boston and imposed upon 
us by his gentlemanly manners and plausible tales, so that our sympathy overpow- 
ered our resolution to be strict in requiring Grand Lodge Certificates. This roan 
proceeded to New York, by our assistance, where he assumed the name he had 
previously used there — Charles Roseberry. We need only add, that at Paris, he 
was known as Mr. Rosenberg ; at Louisville, Ky., by the name of Bird, and, as 
he has been a traveller over a large portion of Europe and North America, it is 
quite probable he may have made known the “ sentiment of gratitude” to our 
Western Brethren, under some other nomme de guerre* We therefore furnish the 
following accurate portrait of this person, for the benefit of whomsoever it may 
concern. He is about five feet and a half high, rather stout built, red face, weak 
eyes, white hair, slightly paralyzed on the left side, — writes well in German, 
French and English ; talks well, and is free in describing his services in the 
Prussian and Russian armies. 

Many of our Brethren in the United States, and in Europe, will remember an 
accomplished swindler, who was here in 1835, by the name of Albora — the Mar- 



GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 


135 


quia D’Albora— asking assistance to convey himself and his Secretary to Texas. 
Ut had no Grand Lodge Certificate. Our Brethren in Mississippi, have lately had 
an extraordinary example of the value of tests without documentary evidence, of 
which we cannot speak further at present We could fill a volume with proofs 
of their necessity, but our volume is too small. Two other remarks, and we 
close the subject for the present. 

We arc a migrating people. Thousands annually travel from the East to the 
- West ; amongst whom are probably a general average of Masons. Many of these 
find it “ inconvenient” to pay their arrearages of dues to their Lodges and to ob- 
tain their regular discharge. Some left their Lodges long ago, because Masonry 
was unpopular ; some have been expelled, suspended, or have become morally un- 
worthy. There may, also be a few clandestine “ Brothers and Fellows,” amongst 
them, — and here and there one, who loves to think of the Institution and desires 
to maintain his connection with it, wherever he may be. None of these men 
are deprived of their memory, by their wanton disregard of their duties, their 
negligence, or their removal. In a strange place, all alike would stand on an 
equal footing, (if they thought proper to claim the privileges of Masons,) according 
to the Connecticut doctrine, as we understand its practical operation. But ac- 
cording to our views, none of them should be received without some documentary 
testimony of their standing; for we know that in the Eastern States, there are 
thousands who call themselves Masons, who do not know their own standing in 
the Order . How then can others know it, who meet them as strangers ? 

But there is another important — very important matter, worthy of the consid- 
eration of a Brother removing to a strange country or place. He has a family — 
a wife and children dependent upon him for their support He dies amongst 
strangers, and, although surrounded by Brethren, they knew him not His wife 
or his children, say the husband or the father was a Mason, and they seek for 
Masons, though he did not How shall they prove their claim upon the Frater- 
nity, but by documentary evidence P 

The question then arises, what kind of documentary evidence is best ? Lodge 
Certificates, even when genuine, most frequently emanate from bodies totally un- 
known, where they are presented. They are frequently mere scrawls upon a half 
sheet of paper, and signed by nobody knows who. And however regular in ap- 
pearance, if the Lodge is not known to exist; may, for ought that appears on their 
face, have been issued by an irregular or clandestine Lodge. For these reasons, 
Grand Lodge Certificates have been recommended. The Grand Lodges are 
known ; their forms, and the names of their officers, and their seals, are known, 
to some extent, everywhere ; therefore, they are the best for “ parchment evi- 
dence,” and they cannot be obtained, except by those who can show a lawful 
right to them, where they belong, and can prove their title to possess them after- 
wards. 

We have much more to say to some other Committees, who have betrayed 
their ignorance of the state of the Craft, and the rights and usages of the Frater- 
nity, but must defer it for the present. 



A TABLE, 

BF THE EXISTING LODGES UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS, WITH THE DATES OF THEIR CHARTERS. 


. 

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MAGAZINES WANTED. MASONIC BOOKS. 


137 


FIRST AND SECOND VOLUMES OF THE 
MAGAZINE WANTED. 

Wb have an unconditional order from Br. Spencer, of London, for 
twentyfive sets of the Magazine from the commencement, (making 100 
vols.,) which we are very desirous of supplying, but cannot do so, unless 
we can purchase twentyfive copies of the first vol. and fifteen of the 
second. We will pay the full subscription price for them, to any Brother 
who will furnish us with a copy of cash vol., or we will pay $ 2 a copy for 
the first vol., without regard to the second. Our reason for making this 
distinction is, that the second vol. will be of little use to us without the 
first ; having several copies of that vol. now on hand. They may be sent 
by mail, when it cannot be done by private conveyance. 

We feel some personal gratification in being able to state that we have 
also received from the same source, a large order for the Trestle-Board 
and for Br. Power’s Melodies. We think we have a right to indulge a 
little self-pride in these orders, for it is not often that American works 
are called for, in such quantities, to supply the demands of the English 
market. 


MASONIC BOOKS. 

We have frequent requests for catalogues of such Masonic Books as 
may be purchased in this city ; which requests it would afford us great 
pleasure to comply with, were it not that there are no books to be pur- 
chased. We know not where to look for a single Masonic work, other 
than those advertised in this Magazine, which would be of the least 
value to our correspondents. Our own Masonic Library, — the most 
valuable and extensive in this country, and perhaps in the world, — at 
least, we know of none more so, and we have the catalogues of several of 
the best in Europe, — is, with the exception of American text-books, Ahi- 
mon Rezons, and a few of a more miscellaneous character, — made up of 
foreign works, many of which have been drawn from private libraries in 
Europe. There have been but few really valuable Masonic works pub- 
lished in this country, and those are notf mostly out of print. Masonry, 
as a science, has been but little' studied in America. The Brethren 
have too generally been content with the ceremonial , without regard to 
the philosophy of the ritual ; and thus following the shadow, with* 
out venturing to seek the substance . We believe, however, that a 

better state of things is approaching. And trust, the time is not very 
distant, when the demand for Masonic knowledge, — historical and 
philosophical, as well as practical, — will warrant the publication of a 
18 



138 


foreign matters. 


Masonic Library, consisting of a series of the best works on the subject. 
Until then, the best we can do for our friends, is to import for them any 
particular work which they may order, — provided, of course, it can be 
procured. 


FOREIGN MATTERS. 

We are gratified to learn that there is now some prospects of a recon- 
ciliation of the unhappy difficulties which have for sometime disturbed 
the harmony of the Fraternity in Ireland. 

Br. Richard Lee Wilson, of London, was received and recognized as 
the resident Representative of the Grand Lodge of Texas, by the Grand 
Lodge of England, on the 4th of December. The other business before 
the Grand Lodge was entirely of a local character, possessing no inter- 
est to the general reader. The Earl of Zetland, and his Deputy, Earl 
Howe, were both absent, — the former, in consequence of the decease 
of a near relative, and the latter of a fit of the gout. R. W. Br. Rams- 
bottoji, M. P., presided. 

A quarterly communication of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Eng- 
land, was held at London, on the 6th November. Twenty pounds were 
granted to the girls’ and boys’ schools, respectively. 

A meeting of the Grand Conclave (Knights Templars,) was held on 
the 29th October. The Committee on “ the costume and regalia,” made 
their report, which was approved, but subsequently recommitted to the 
same Committee who were to report at a special Grand Conclave, on the 
31st December last. We shall notice the report when received. 

It is important that the Encampments in this country should bear in 
mind, that by a regulation adopted by the Grand Conclave of Scotland , 
it is not necessary, in that part of the United Kingdom, to be a Mason, in 
order to be a Knight Templar. It is not, therefore, now, to be inferred 
that the bearer of a Scottish Templar’s Diploma, is a Freemason. We 
may hereafter advert to this subject at length. 

The annual ball in aid of the “Asylum for aged and decayed Freema- 
sons,” took place at London, on the 22d January. The arrangements 
were on the most liberal scale, and it is to be hoped the receipts corres- 
ponded. A theatrical benefit and ball in aid of the “ Boys’ School,” 
took place on the 15th October. It was pretty successful, and the gene- 
ral concerns of the establishment are in all respects satisfactory. The 
“ Girls’ School” is likewise in most excellent condition. The “Annuity 
Fund,” for aged Brethren and their widows, (who are received as pen- 



FOREIGN MATTERS. 


139 


sioners,) is doing its full share in the great work of benevolence. These 
are all godlike charities, and it warms the heart to hear of their pros- 
perity. 

We regret to learn that the, continued ill-health of our distinguished 
friend and Brother Dr. Crucifix, has compelled him to retire from the 
city of London, for a country residence. This will necessarily take him 
from the more active duties of Masonry, though y his Brethren will still 
have the benefit of his fine talents and able pen. We most sincerely 
wish him a speedy restoration of health, and an early return to the field 
in which he delights to labor, and in which he has been so pre-eminently 
serviceable to the Craft. 

The islands of Orkney and Zetland, from the latter of which the 
present Grand Master of England derives his title, were, in 1643, held by 
the Earl of Morton by grant, whi<ih was confirmed in 1707, and rendered 
absolute in 1742. In 1766, this property was sold by the then Earl of 
Morton to Sir Laurence Dundas, by whose grandson, the present Earl of 
Zetland, it is now held. The rights and privileges are nominally very 
extensive, amounting as near to sovereignty as in these times are recog- 
nizable. 

The distinguished English archeologist, Mr. Godwin, who has for some 
time past turned his attention to the old Masonic signs which exist on 
hewn stones, in one of his recent lectures, exhibited copies of a variety 
which he had met with in various cathedrals in England and on the con- 
tinent, and which he had lately also discovered in Canterbury Cathedral. 
The subject is one of peculiar interest as connected with the history of 
Freemasonry, and we trust the lectures will be published. Similar marks 
are met with in the edifices of antiquity in the East, in still greater num- 
bers and possessing- greater peculiarities. 

We notice the death of Sir Charles Webb Duncan, K. C. H., &c., 
a gallant soldier and an exemplary Mason. He was a Provincial Grand 
Officer, and a member of the Lodge at Taunton. He served under the 
Duke of Wellington in Portugal, Spain, France and Belgium — distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Talavera, and was wounded at the battle 
of Waterloo. 

Brother F. C. B. Clavel, the talented editor of L’Orient, Revue Uni- 
verselle de la Franc-Maconnerie, has been elected W. Master of the 
Lodge Clemente Amitie, at Paris. 

Br. R. Spencer, of London, has become the publisher of the Freema- 
sons’ Calendar and Pocket Book, — under the patronage of the Grand 
Lodge of England. It needs a new editor. 



140 


HISTORY OR INITIATION. 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING a brief account of the rites and ceremonies, doctrines 

AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER V. 

THE VARIETIES IN CHINA AND JAPAN. 

The mysteries of China and its dependencies were essentially similar to those 
of India; being derived from the same source, and containing the same rites, 
founded on the same general principles ; for ancient India comprehended the 
whole of that vast continent. A recapitulation of the ceremeny of initiation will 
therefore be unnecessary. 

The Chinese practised Buddhism in its most simple form, and worshipped an 
invisible God, until a few centuries before the Christian era, when visible objects 
of adoration were introduced,* and so rapid was the march of innovation, that in 
the course of a very short period, China was as famous as any other idolatrous na- 
tion for the number and variety of its objects of popular admiratkm.f It is true 
that many abuses had crept, by gradual approaches, into their former system of 
worship ; and the people, debased by the superstition, were prepared for any 
novel scheme which might gratify their pride, or satiate they[ curiosity. The 


♦Lao-Kiun, who flourished about the year A. C. 600, introduced a system which bore a 
striking resemblance to that of Epicurus, and his followers styled themselves Immortals. 
(Maur. Ind. Ant. vol. v. p. 807.) They were materialists, but addicted, notwithstanding, to 
the worship of idols. 

tConfucious attempted to reform the abuses which had crept into their religious myste- 
ries; but licentiousness long indulged, could not quietly submit to the mortifying castiga- 
tion of austere and unbending virtue. The Emperor and his grandees disregarded his admo- 
nitions ; the Mandarins hated him for projecting a reformation in those abstruse mysteries, 
which in their present state were the chief source of all their wealth, and all their power ; 
and one of them actually made an attempt upon his life. And the great philosopher, who 
was afterwards adored as a god by his countrymen, was obliged to fly from civilized society 
to escape from the dreaded machinations of his powerful opponents. He retired into the 
desert, and formed a school of philosophy, to which he invited all who were inspired with a 
love of virtne and science ; and the genial effects of his improved system were reserved for 
the enjoyment of posterity. One prominent misconception however counteracted the bene- 
fits which might reasonably he expected to result from this great man’s improvements. On 
his death bed he predicted that there should arise in the western part of the world, a Great 
Pbophbt, (Couplet, p. 78,) who should deliver mankind from the bondage of error and 
superstition, and establish an universal system of religion, which should be ultimately em- 
braced by all the nations of the earth. His followers erroneously concluded that this great 
and powerful being was no other than Buddha or Fo himself, who was accordingly installed 
into their temples in a visible form, (Asiat. Res. vol. 3. p. 299,) with solemn pomp, as the 
chief deity of the Chinese empire. This proceeding opened a door to other idolatrous inno- 
vations ; and ideal objects of worship, attended with indecent and unnatural rites, (Martin. 

‘ Sinic. Hist. p. 149,) accumulated so rapidly, that China soon became celebrated for the prac- 
tice of every impurity and abomination which characterized the most degraded nation of 
the heathen world. 




HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


141 


priests, intoxicated with the elevation they had attained, converted the pro- 
found veneration of the worshippers to their own aggrandizement ; and succes- 
sive changes tended, in the revolution of ages, greatly to deteriorate the primi- 
tive simplicity of their unsophisticated devotion. 

The initiations were performed in a cavern ; after which, processions were 
made round the Tan, or altar, and sacrifices offered to the celestial gods. The 
chief end of initiation was a fictious immortality, or absorption into the deity ; 
and to secure this admirable state of supreme and never changing felicity, amu- 
lets,* were delivered to the newly initiated candidates, accompanied by the mag- 
cal words O-mi-to Fo,f which denoted the omnipotence of the divinity ; and 
was considered as a most complete purification, and remission of every sin. 
Their morality was limited to five precepts. The first forbids murder ; the second, 
theft ; the third, external impurity ; the fourth, lying ; and the fifth, drunkenness. 
They particularly recommended the candidate to afford protection to the bonzes, J 
that by the prayers of these holy men, they might be exempted from the fearful 
punishment of their transgressions ; which, they were told, would otherwise con- 
sign their transmigrating souls to the purifying medium of a horse, a mule, a dog, 
a cat, a rat, or of a loathsome and insignificant reptile. 

Much merit was attached to the possession of a consecrated symbol represent- 
ing the great triad of the gentile world. This was an equilateral triangle, said 
to afford protection in all cases of personal danger and adversity. This mystical 
letter Y was also much esteemed from its allusion to the same tri-une god ;§ the 
three distinct lines of which it is composed forming one, and the one is three.H This 
was in effect the ineffable Name of the deity ; the Tetractys of Pythagoras, and 
the Tetragrammaton of the Jews. A ring, supported by two serpents, was emble- 


*The most valuable amulet they can possess is a small idol enfolded in a sheet of conse- 
crated paper. To his neck and arms are appended bracelets composed of a hundred small 
beads and eight large ones 5 and in a conspicuous situation is placed a large bead in the 
shape of a gourd. The happy possessor of this trinket on important occasions counted the 
beads pronouncing the mysterious words O-mi-to Fo ! accompanied by genuflections. The 
performance of this ceremony is recorded by marking a red circle round the neck of the ge- 
nius ; and at the death of the devotee, the aggregate number of these circles, as indisputa- 
ble testimonials of the divine favor, or of deliverance from danger, are minutely attested and 
sealed by the officiating Bonze. The whole is then deposited in a small box and buried 
with the deceased as a passport to heaven, and a certain deliverance froip the dreaded evil 
of successive transmigration. 

lOmitto was derived, says Sir W. Jones, (Asiat. Res. vol. ii. p. 374,) from the Sanscrit 
Armida, immeasurable ; and Fo was only another name for Buddha } or more properly, the 
same name softeped down by a diversity of language and pronunciation. 

$These artful priests used magical ceremonies to delude the multitude, and to direct the 
tide of popular prejudice in their favor, through the medium of superstition. 

S" Tao, or reason hath produced one ; one hath produced two ; two have produced three ; 
and three have produced all things.” (Du Halde, China, vol. ii. p. 30.) 

ITWe find here again a superstitious veneration for odd numbers, as containing divine prop- 
erties. Thus, while the sum of the even numbers, 2-J-4+6+8+ 10=30 designated the num- 
ber of Earth; the sum of the odd numbers, 1+3+5+7+0=25 was dignified with the ap- 
pellation of the Number of Heaven. > 




142 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


raatical of the world protected by the power and wisdom of the Creator ; and 
referred to the diluvian patriarch and his symbolical consort, the ark ; and the 
ark itself was represented by a boat, a mouth, and the number eight 

The Rainbow was a celebrated symbol in these mysteries, and doubtless origi- 
nated in the history of the deluge ; for it was believed that the father of their 
radiant god Fo-hi, was a rainbow, which miraculously surrounded his mother 
while walking by a river’s side. The aspirant, however, was the representative 
of Noah ; and the ark, which was accounted his mother , as well as his wife, was 
actually surrounded by a Rainbow at the time of his deliverance or new birth ; 
and hence he was figuratively said to be the offspring of the Rainbow. 

The Japanese held that the world was inclosed in an Egg* before the creation) 
which floated on the surface of the waters. At this period a prickle or pearch 
appeared amongst the waves, which became a spirit, and was called Kunitoko- 
dcUsno-MUcotto ; from whence sprang six other spirits ;f who, with their wives 
were the parents of a race of heroes from whom proceeded the original inhabi- 
tants of Japan. They worshipped a deity who was styled the son of the unknown 
god, and considered as the creator of the two great lights of heaven. 

The caverns of initiation were in the immediate vicinity of their temples, be- 
cause one of their old deities was said to be born from a cave ; and generally in 
the midst of a grove and near to a stream of water. They were furnished with 
large mirrors, to signify that the imperfections of the heart are as plainly dis- 
played to the sight of the gods as the worshippers behold their own image in the 
glass. Hence the mirror was a significant emblem of the All-observing Eye of 
the god Tensio Dai Sin. They were also decorated with a profusion of hiero- 
glyphical designs cut in white paper, as striking symbols of the purity acquired 
by initiation. 

The terra of probation for the highest degree was twenty years ; and even 
the hierophant was not competent to perform the ceremony of initiation until he 
himself had been initiated the same period ; and his five assistants must neces- 
sarily have had each ten years’ experience from the date of their admission be- 
fore they were competent to take this subordinate part in the initiations. The 
aspirant, during the term of his trial, learned to subdue his passions ; devoted 
himself to the practice of austerities, and studiously abstained from every carnal 
indulgence.} In the closing ceremony of preparation he was entombed within 
the Pastos or place of pennance ; the door of which was said to be guarded by a 
terrible divinity armed with a drawn sword, as the vindictive fury or god of pun- 
ishment During the course of his probation, the aspirant sometimes acquired 
such a high degree of enthusiain, as induced him to refuse to quit his confine- 
ment in the pastos; and to remain there until be literally perished with famine. 


*The Egg was always esteemed an emblem of the earth. 
tThe good deity was called Amidas ; the evil, Jemma. 

tile was obliged to renounce the use of flesh, and to subsist wholly upon vegetable 
food j to use numerous ablutions daily ; and it is expressed by Ksnipfer, kneeling 
down on the ground, with his buttocks to his heels, and clapping his hands over his 
head, to lift himself up seven hundred and fourscore times every day. 




REGALIA PROPER TO BE WORN IN A LODGE. 


143 


To this voluntary martyrdom was attached a promise of never-ending happiness 
in the paradise of Amidas. Indeed the merit of such a sacrifice was boundless. 
His memory was celebrated with annual rejoicings. The initiations however 
were dignified with an assurance of a happy immortality to all who passed 
through the rites honorably and with becoming fortitude. 

Amulets* were delivered to the initiated as & certain source of protection in 
all dangers and adversities. Amongst these, two were the most venerated ; a 
ring or circle of gold, as an emblem of eternity, ritually consecrated, was suppo- 
sed to convey the blessing of a long and prosperous life ; and a chaplet of con- 
secrated flowers or sacred plants and boughs of trees ; which being suspended 
about the doors of their apartments, prevented the ingress of impure spirits ; and 
hence their dwellings were exempted from the visitations of disease or calamity. 


REGALIA PROPER TO BE WORN IN A LODGE 
UNDER THE ENGLISH JURISDICTION. 

A Canadian correspondent inquires — If it be proper and Masonic for 
the Master of a Blue Lodge to refuse a respectable and well known 
Brother, who appears at the door of the Lodge, clothed as a Royal Arch 
Mason, and asks to be admitted as a visitor ? We answer, that under the 
English jurisdiction, it is entirely proper. The Master has no other alterna- 
tive. The Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, are clear and 
positive in this particular. Our correspondent is not probably aware of 
the existence of the regulation. We therefore quote it : — 

“ No Brother shall, on any pretence, be admitted into the Grand Lodge, 
or any subordinate Lodge , without his proper clothing .” Again — “ no 

• honorary or other jewel or emblem, shall be worn in the Grand Lodge, or 
any subordinate Lodge, which shall not appertain to, or be consistent with, 
those Degrees which are recognized and acknowledged by, and under the 
control of, the Grand Lodge.”t 

These regulations the Masters of the Lodges under the English juris- 
diction are bound to respect and enforce. Should they neglect or refuse 
to do so, they would render themselves liable to impeachment and expul- 
sion. 

The next inquiry of our correspondent involves a question of etiquette, 
not of law, and is, therefore, a matter to be disposed of by the Master, as 
his sense of propriety may dictate. We may, however, remark, that it 
is customary for the Lodges in this country to furnish aprons to visiting 

• Brethren who may desire them. But it is done as a matter of courtesy, 

*The Amulets within their dwellings were numerous ; every disease and misfor- 
tune having its appropriate charm. 

tConstitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, page 1 12. 



144 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


not of regulation. Every Brother at his initiation is furnished with an 
apron, and if he neglect to take it with him when he visits the Lodge, he 
does it in his own fault, and must take his chance of being furnished with 
one. He certainly cannot be admitted without it. 

Our correspondent is undoubtedly correct in his next inquiry ; but it 
is a local question, and can be best settled by bringing it before the Lodge. 
If the Lodge see fit to pay the expense, there is an end of the matter. 


CORRESPONDENCE. . 

Bloomington , Iowa, January 16, 1845. 

Brother Moore: 

I have just returned from attendance on the second communication of the 
Grand Lodge of Iowa, which was a very interesting one. There were full re- 
presentations from the four chartered Lodges and four under dispensation (issued 
during the past year,) together with the officers of [the Grand Lodge and many 
visiting Brethren. The proceedings of the G. Lodge (which will be published 
and sent to you in due season,) exhibit the Institution in a flourishing condition, 
and show that Masonry is extending its influence in this far western region, in a 
wholesome manner. 

I herewith send you in advance of the proceedings, the Grand Master’s Ad- 
dress, and a list of the Grand Officers. 

The Grand Lodge resolved to husband its funds, and took steps towards the 
submitting of a plan for the disposition thereof, for the purpose of Educating the 
Orphans of deceased Brethren, under its jurisdiction; thus early directing its 
attention to this most excellent and praiseworthy object 

It was also resolved, to form a Masonic Library for the use of the Grand 
Lodge, and a commencement made by placing five dollars in the hands of the 
Grand Secretary, to purchase books to that amount You will therefore oblige 
me by sending your valuable Magazine for this year (vol. 4,) to this place, di- 
rected to the “ Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Iowa, Bloomington, Muscatin 
county.” 

The Grand Lodge adopted the “Trestle-Board,” as a text book for the 
Grand Lodge and all subordinate Lodges under its jurisdiction, and ordered the 
Grand Secretary to furnish each Lodge with a copy of the same. 

The Grand Lodge also adopted the “ regulations” of the Convention for the 
government of future Conventions ; as also the “ work and lectures” thereof, as 
received through Brs. Carnegy and Foster, delegates from the Grand Lodge of 
Missouri. 

We have received during the past year the proceedings of only fourteen Grand 
Lodges. Why is it the others neglect us ? We thought it was the custom for 
all to exchange, and so sent two copies to each and every Grand Lodge in the 
Republic ; which I shall do this year, in the hope of being better treated by 
those who have been remiss. Yours, fraternally, T. S. P. 



GRAND LODGE OF MISSISSIPPI* — ALABAMA. 


145 


GRAND LODGE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

The annua] communication of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi, was held at 
Natchez, in January last * The session continued a week. Our correspondent 
writes, that there was a larger number of delegates present, than at any preced- 
ing meeting, and that he “ never saw in any State deliberative assembly, a more 
intelligent or better looking set of men.” 

Our readers will recollect the singular case commented on in the second num- 
ber of the present volume of the Magazine, (p. 53) under the head — “ Expulsion 
of a Master of a Lodge and acting Grand Master of a State, by a subordinate 
Lodge.” For reasons which need not now be stated, we at the time omitted the 
names of all the parties interested in the matter. Those reasons, however, no 
longer exist, and we may now state, that the individual expelled by the Lodge 
was C. R. Prczrjminskt,* Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Mis- 
sissippi Our correspondent, in submitting the inquiries on which he asked our 
opinion, was in error in saying, “that by the death of the Grand Master, the 
Senior Grand Warden was himself the presiding officer.” This led us to infer 
that there was no Deputy Grand Master, and gave a turn to the course of a por- 
tion of our reasoning, somewhat different from that which it would otherwise have 
taken. We are happy to learn, however, that there was a Deputy Grand Mas- 
ter at the time, and that the G. Lodge has been saved from the melancholy and 
unprecedented necessity of expelling its presiding officer. The Deputy Grand 
Master was our estimable and worthy Brother, the R. W. Harvey W. Wal- 
ter, Esq., who, the present year, fills the office of Senior Grand Warden, in place 
of C. R. Prczriminski, who, by reference to a succeeding page, it will be seen, 
has been expelled by the Grand Lodge. 

Our correspondent also informs us, that the Grand Lodge unanimously passed 
resolutions in favor of the Magazine, and adopting the Trestle-Board as the 
text-book for the Lodges under its jurisdiction. 


GRAND LODGE OF ALABAMA. 

The Committee of the Grand Lodge of Alabama, to whom the Trestle-Board 
was referred for examination, object to it, because it “casts no additional light 
upon the subject of Masonry,” but “ takes from the Chart many of our important 
emblems.” Did the Committee expect a history on the subject of Masonry ? 
Such is not thp design of the work. But ia this respect, it contains more than 
the Chart or Monitor ; and all that is either necessary or desirable. It likewise 
contains every emblem to be found in the Chart, except in the first degree, the 
group of four figures representing T. F. P. and Justice ; which, not being illustra- 
tive , and therefore useless, were omitted. They were introduced by the author 
of the Chart, and are to be found in no Masonic book, nor, as we believe, on 
any Masonic Carpet, ever previously published. Had we introduced the figures 


•He ought to be expelled for having such an unpronouncable name, if for nothing else! 

19 




146 


INSTALLATION AT PORTSMOUTH. 


of F. H. and C., the committee would probably have regarded them as innova- 
tions. In the second degree, every emblem in the Chart is to be found in the 
Trestle-Board. In the third degree, the same, except the five-pointed Star, and the 
naked-heart, under the All-seeing eye. The former has no explanation in the 
degree, and is not a Masonic emblem, as genuine Masonry is practised in this 
country. The latter is of the same significancy as it would be if placed in con- 
nection with the Bee-Hive, and not more so. We find no fault with the com- 
mittee ; and certainly not with the Grand Lodge, which has very generously 
placed a copy of the work in the possession of every Lodge under its jurisdic- 
tion. They will use it or not, as they see fit Neither have we any cause to 
complain of the success of the book. It is in use in nearly every State in the 
Union, where the system of Masonry to which it is adapted is cultivated, as well 
as in all the British North American Provinces. Liberal orders for it have also 
been received from England, as will be seen by reference to a preceding page of 
the present number of the Magazine. It is not, however, adapted to the innova- 
tions and corruptions which may have been ingrafted upon the system ; and 
where they exist, it will be found to be deficient It is not a little singular, that 
while in one quarter, we are told that the work does not contain enough, in anoth- 
er, we are told that it contains too much ! These complaints are about equally 
balanced. Pope has laid it down as an axiom, that u the truth lies between the two 
extremes.” We therefore infer that the work is just about what it should be, 
and we advise both parties to use it, and Btop fault finding ! Just as it suits 
them, however. We would not deprive them of any gratification ! 


INSTALLATION 

OF THE OFFICERS OF ST. JOHN’S LODGE, PORTSMOUTH, N. H. 

The officers of St John’s Lodge, Portsmouth, were Installed on the 29th ult., 
in due and ancient form, by the R. W. John Christie, S. G. Warden, of the 
Grand Lodge of New Hampshire. The Installation took place At the Temple, in 
Chestnut street The Brethren assembled at 7 o*clock. The performances 
were as follows : — 

1. Ode — No. 1, Br. Power’s Melodies. 

2. Prayer — By Rev. Br. Kelley, of New Market 

3. Installation. 

4. Ode — No. 80, Br. Power’s Melodies. 

5. Address — By R. W. Br. Power, of Boston. 

6. Doxology. 

7. Benediction. 

The Temple was filled to overflowing — there were not less than thirteen hun- 
dred present — most of whom were ladies. A greater display of beauty was 
never before exhibited in Portsmouth. 

Br. Power was listened to with attention. His address was neither lengthy 
nor prosy, but a plain unvarnished illustration of the principles of our Order, and 



INSTALLATION AT FARMINGTON. 


147 


in its delivery he not only did credit to himself, but raised our beloved Institu- 
tion in the estimation of all who heard him. 

After the completion of the ceremonies at the Temple, the Brethren, with 
their female friends and invited guests, numbering about one hundred, repaired 
to Franklin Hall, where a sumptuous entertainment was prepared by Br. Willis 
Barnabee, of the Franklin House, to which they sat down, and after passing an 
hour or two in social converse (in which the bounties of the table were not for- 
gotten,) they parted well pleased with the festivities of the evening. The sup- 
per was strictly on temperance principles, which must be my apology for not 
furnishing sentiments. 1 think I can without fear of contradiction say, that 
there has never been a Masonic Festival, of any kind, got up in Portsmouth, where 
better feeling, and more unanimity existed. It was a time long to be remem- 
bered. Among the Brethren present at the Installation were many whose heads 
were silvered by age, some of whom had filled important offices in the Grand 
Lodge of that State. There was one Brother present whose age was about 
eightynine, and who still retains his faculties, and is hale and hearty. 

The following were the officers Installed : — 

Albert f£. Hatch, Master; Jphn W. Abbott, S. W. ; Henry T. Wendall, J. W. ; 
John Christie, Chaplain ; Hanson M. Hart, Treasurer ; Orlando Yeaton, Sec. ; 
Joseph M. Edmonds, S. D. ; John Dame, J. D. ; John Nutter, S. S. ; Benjamin 
Weeks, J. S. ; Samuel Beck, Marshal ; Charles A. Colcord, D. M.; Isaac Max- 
well, Tyler. 


INSTALLATION 

OF THE OFFICEKS OF MIDDLESEX LODGE, FRAMINGHAM, NOV. 21, 1844. 
R. W. Br. Moooe: 

Dear Sir, — I have been prevented, by reason of my living at a distance from 
Framingham, from giving you an earlier notice of the meeting of Middlesex 
Lodge, on the interesting occasion above mentioned, and I beg the privilege of a 
corner of your “ Magazine” for that purpose now, though a little out of season. 

The services of Installation were held at our Lodge room, and were public. 

After the usual religious exercises, the Master elect was installed in due form 
by Rev. Br. Charles Train, P. M. ; and^then the Master, by Br. T.’s request, re- 
sumed the chair, and Installed the remaining officers. An Address was then 
given by R. W. Br. Thomas Power, of Boston, whicji was able and appropriate, 
and delivered with a fervid eloquence, and depth of feeling, that had a most 
happy effect. 

The Address was well received, and gave great satisfaction to all who listened 
to it 

The Lodge subsequently passed a unanimous vote of thanks to Br. Power, for 
the favor be conferred upon it though the precise phraseology of the vote I do 
not recollect 

The exercises at the Lodge room being concluded, the Brethren, with their 
ladies and invited guests, repaired to the Hotel of Joseph Fuller, Esq., who had 



148 


MASONIC ANECDOTE. 


served up a sumptuous and elegant supper, and there the company spent about a 
couple of hours in a very sociable and agreeable manner. The number that sat 
down to supper was about seventyfive, more than a third being ladies ; and though 
we have never before had their company at our annual entertainment, we shall 
never hereafter willingly dispense with it A song was sung by Br. Power with 
his usual good taste, and remarks and sentiments were offered by several Breth- 
ren, and by some, who are not yet , in a technical sense, Brethren, but they are 
none of them recorded. Altogether the occasion passed off agreeably and profi- 
tably. And while it afforded ample proof that public sentiment is becoming more 
just and liberal toward our peaceful and charitable Fraternity, it gives us tokens 
of a bright and prosperous future for Freemasonry. 

Respectfully and fraternally yours, 

J. Q. S. 


MASONIC ANECDOTE .* 

We were staggering along, under light canvass, when the look-out a-bead 
announced a light on the weather-bow ; it was evidently coming towards us, and 
scarce half a mile distant ; we had no more than time to hang out a lantern in 
the tops, and put up the helm, when a large ship, whose sides rose several feet 
above our own, swept by us, and so close, that her yard-arms actually touched 
our rigging as she yawed over in the sea. A muttered thanksgiving for our 
escape, for such it was, broke from every lip ; and hardly was it uttered, when 
again a voice cried out,' “ here she comes to leeward !” and sure enough the 
dark shadow of the large mass, moving at a speed far greater than ours, passed 
under our lee, while a harsh summons was shouted out to know who we were, 
and whither bound. The u Northumberland, with troops,” was the answer ; and 
before the words were well out, a banging noise was heard — the ports of the stran- 
ger-ship were flung open — a bright flash, like a line of flame, ran her entire 
length, and a raking broadside was poured into us. The old transport reeled 
over and trembled like a thing of life — her shattered sides and tom bulwarks let 
in the water as she reeled to the shock, and for an instant, as she bent beneath 
the storm, I thought she was settling to go down by the head. I had little time, 
however, for thought ; one wild cheer broke from the attacking ship — its answer 
was the faint sad cry of the wounded and dying on our deck. The next moment, 
the grapples were thrown into us, and the vessel was boarded from stem to 
stern. The noise of the cannonade, and the voices on deck, brought all our 
men from below, who came tumbling up the hatches believing we had struck. 

Then began a scene, such as all I have ever witnessed of carnage and slaugh- 
ter, cannot equal. The Frenchmen, for such they were, rushed down upon us as 
we stood defenceless and unarmed ; a deadly roll of musketry swept our thick 
and trembling masses. The cutlass and the boarding pike made fearful havoc 
among us, and an unresisted slaughter tore along our deck, till the heaps of dead 
and dying made the only barrier for the few remaining. 


♦From “Arthur O’Leary vol. i. p. 193, 



WHO 18 MY NEIGHBOR. — ANCIENT REGULATIONS. 


149 


A chance word in French, and a sign of Masonry, rescued me from the fate of 
my comrades, and my only injury was a slight sabre-wcund in the fore-arm, 
which I received in warding off a cut intended for my head. The carnage last- 
ed scarce fifteen minutes ; but in that time, of all the crew that manned our craft y 
what between those who leaped overboard in wild despair, and those who fell 
beneath fire and steel, scarce twenty remained, appalled and trembling — the 
only ones rescued from this horrible slaughter. 

A sudden cry of “ she ’s sinking !” burst from the stranger ship, and in a mo- 
ment the Frenchmen clambered up their bulwarks — the grapples were cast off — 
the dark mass darted onwards on her course, and we drifted away to leeward, 
a moving sepulchre. 


“WHO IS MY NEIGHBOR.” 

Ba. Moore,— I t happened in the town of P , in Jan., 1844, that a worthy 

Brother Mason retired to rest, with a wounded limb, at a Temperance Inn, in that 
town, to pass the night At a late hour, he was ordered to seek lodging where 
he best could find it. He did so, and came very near freezing to death. His 
shelter that night was a barn. He went to a Brother Mason the next day, who 
took care of him, and bound up his wounds. Ask him who his neighbor was, 
and he will tell you. I admire temperance as much as any person. It is one of 
the virtues enjoined upon every Mason, to be temperate. But poor human na- 
ture cannot live to it in every thing. We may approximate to being temperate 
in a certain degree — as the mathematician does to the exact area of a circle. But 
after all, there is a fractional point which he cannot measure. Let us, my Breth- 
ren, be Masons indeed, and the smiles of heaven will rest upon us. Let us re- 
member that Masonry is not confined to any particular section of the globe ; its 
bounds being marked by the circuit of the sun, and its covering no less than the 
canopy of the Universe. L. S. B. 


ANCIENT REGULATIONS. 

’ Amono the regulations adopted by the first “ constituted Lodge” in Boston, and 
in America, were the following : 

“ 5. No Brother that lives within or about this town (thdt is not a member of 
this Lodge,) shall be admitted as a visitor, before he has signified his desire of 
being a member and paying his quarterages, or else make it appear that he is 
actually a member of a regular Lodge ; unless by a dispensation of the Master 
and Wardens. 

“6. No Brother shall propose any person in the Lodge to be made, without 
first asking leave of the Master and Wardens.” 

The above regulations were adopted October 24, 1733. 



150 


MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. 


MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. 

At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, in October 
last, the R. W. J. Worthington Smith, Esq. submitted the following report : 
To the Most Worshipful , the Grand Lodge of Missouri : 

The undersigned, President of the Masonic College, begs leave to present the 
following Report of the condition, wants and prospects of the Institution, over 
which, he has the honor to preside. The undersigned arrived at the College, 
and entered upon the discharge of his duties on the 14th of May last, at which 
time, twelve Pupils entered. The season was inauspicious, owing to the unpar- 
alleled rains, the country was for many weeks nearly impassable, and the number 
of pupils increased slowly. On the 6th June, Professor Patterson arrived, and 
entered upon his duties as Principal of the Preparatory Department ; the rains 
ceased about the 20th June, and from that date the number of Pupils increased 
rapidly. On the 1st August, those Pupils who were qualified, were matriculated 
in due form and commenced their regular course. 

The present number of Matriculates is fifteen, viz : 1 Sophomore and 14 
Freshmen* and there are 29 in the Preparatory School, making a total of 44. 
Of these, four are Beneficiaries, viz : One sent by Palmyra Lodge, No. 18. 
One by the Paris Union Lodge, No. 19. One by the Naphtali Lodge, No. 25, 
and one by the Palmyra Royal Arch Chapter, No. 2. The Students have thus 
far enjoyed remarkable health, there having been but one case of sickness during 
the whole time ; they are for the most part, distinguished for their correct, moral 
and gentlemanly deportment, and diligent application to study, and are making 
as good proficiency as could reasonbly be expected or desired. The refectory is 
well kept; the Table being abundantly supplied with every thing necessary for 
health and comfort. The undersigned has constantly eaten at the same table 
with the Students, and can confidently assert, that it is not in any respect infe- 
rior to the tables of Yale or Harvard. 

The Exercises of each day are begun and closed, by reading a lesson from the 
Holy Scriptures and Prayer, at which all Students are required to attend. 

On every Sunday Morning, after the ordinary religious services, the Pupils 
are required to spend an hour or two in reciting lessons from the Bible ; at their 
recitations, in accordance with the Catholic Spirit of Masonry, no book or ques- 
tions are used, the pure word of God without note or comment, being the only 
fountain where the Pupils are invited to drink of the water of life. 

After the most mature deliberation, the faculty adopted the following Course 
of Study : 

Preparatory Department. — 1. Reading, Orthography and Pennmanship, daily ; 
2. English (irammar; 3. Modern Geography (Mitchell’s) and Atlas; 4. Arith- 
metic, Ray’s First Lessons ; 5. Algebra, Harney’s and Day’s; 6. An- 

cient Geography; 7. Latin; Adam’s Grammar; Anthon’s Latin Reader; 8. 
Greek; Anthon’s Grammar and Greek Reader ; 9. Composition and Declama- 
tion every Saturday ; 10. Bible Recitation every Sunday morning. 

Freshman Class.'— Cicero’s Select Orations; Horace’s Odes; Greek Testa- 
ment; Grecia Majora; First Volume Ty tier’s Elements of History ; Geometry, 
Legendrie’s; Compositions, in English and Latin ; Declamation, -every Satur- 
day ; Bible Recitation every Sunday morning. 

Sophomore Class. — Grecia Majora; 2d vol. Horace’s Satires ; Epiottes and 
Art of Poetry; Plane and Spherical Trigonometry ; Mensuration; Navigation; 
Surveying ; Astronomy ; Application of Algebra to Geometry ; Conic Sections, 
&c. ; Blair’s Rhetoric ; Hedge’s Logic ; Folsom’s Livy ; Tacitus ; Cicero’s Ami- 
citier, de Senectute, and de . Natura Decorum ; Greek and Latin Translations 
and Compositions ; Declamation weekly ; Bible Recitation every Sunday morn- 
ing. , 

Junior Class. — Juvenal Homer’s Iliad ; Natural Philosophy, Olmsted and Lec- 
ture’s; Differential and Integral Calculus, (Cambridge 'Course ;) Lyell’s Geology 
and Lectures; Cleavland’s Mineralogy and Lectures; Chemistry (Turner’s and 



MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. l;5i 

Lectures;) Latin and Greek Composition and Declamation; Bible Recitation 
every Sunday morning. 

Senior Class. — Astronomy, including the Calculation of Eclipses, &c. ; Nor- 
ton’s, and Lectures ; Intellectual Philosophy ; Political Economy ; Civil Engi- 
neering, Cambridge course ; Field Practice ; Constitutional and International 
Law; Evidences of Christianity; Practical Botany and Vegetable Physiology; 
Declamation of Original Composition ; Bible Recitation every Sunday morniugt 

The Hebrew, French, Spanish and Italian languages will be taught at any 
period of the College course, if desired by the Student or his Guardian. Stu- 
dents who shall go through the whole course above mentioned, and shall pass a 
satisfactory examination in all the studies, will be entitled to the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts, and, three years thereafter, to the degree of Master of Arts in 
course. 

The Grand Lodge will perceive, that the course here adopted, is as liberal and 
extensive as the system pursued at the oldest and most reputable Colleges in 
America. It is the wish and determination of the Faculty, to present the Grad- 
uate of the Masonic College on a par with those of the most favored Institutions 
in our country, and this design appears to them perfectly practicable. The 
course pursued in the Preparatory School, will qualify the Student to enter the 
Military Academy at West Point, or, to matriculate in any College or Univer- 
sity in the United States. The location of the College, is in many respects hap- 
pily chosen. It is situated in a high, and beautiful [country] distinguished for 
the salubrity of its air, far removed from the noise and bustle of any town or vil- 
lage, in the midst of a population decidedly moral and religious, and offering no 
inducements to idleness and dissipation. The Faculty yet labor under many in- 
conveniences, arising from the want of suitable repairs in the College. It is 
presumed that the condition of the College property is unknown to the most of 
the Members of the Grand Lodge. But as all have an equal and common inter- 
est in it, it is right that all should be acquainted with the true state of the case. 

' When the undersigned first arrived at the College, the place presented a scene 
as cheerless and desolate as can well be imagined. The whole premises did not 
contain one building fit for a human habitation. The only ones that could be 
used at all, were the President’s House and Refectory, and even those were ex- 
tremely leaky and uncomfortable. The Brick Row, which contains 28 dormito- 
ries, was entirely unfit for use. The doors and windows were utterly demol- 
ished and many of the rooms had been used as stables and hog-sties. The Hall, 
which formerly served for a Chapel, and Recitation Rooms, were in a similar 
state of ruin. The doors and windows utterly destroyed, and the floors covered 
with filth and water. The Refectory had not escaped much better ; one of the 
rooms in the basement story had been converted into a hog-sty, the meat house 
into a stable, much of the glass broken out, and the cistern filled with filth, ren- 
dering the water exceedingly offensive to the taste and smell. The beautiful 
prairie in front of the College, containing about 160 acres was, and still is, a 
common, furnishing pasturage for all the horses, cattle and sheep of the neigh- 
borhood, every rail of the fence that once enclosed it having been abstracted , 
some of these damages have been already repaired. 

The Dormitories have been renovated, and made as comfortable as could be 
desired. The cisteps have been cleansed, and the Hall and President’s House 
are now undergoing repairs. But much more must be done to render the premi- 
ses a comfortable residence during the approaching winter. The Recitation 
rooms and dormitories, must be furnished with stoves ; as the expense of fuel in 
the Jong and severe winter, in this latitude, is a serious and onerous tax. An ice 
house is also absolutely necessary not only to comfort, but to health. Raised 
walks should also be thrown up Detween the President’s house and Refectory, 
and from these to the College Hall. Two or three additional Cisterns are also 
needed, the present number being totally inadequate for the supply of water dur- 
ing a dry season. To render the farm of much value to the Steward, the prai- 
rie in front of the College, should he enclosed with a substantial fence. This it 



152 


MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. 


is estimated will require about 6000 rails. All these improvements, together with 
those already commenced, will cost but a small sum, and as they are indispensa- 
ble to the welfare of the College, it is hoped that the Grand Lodge will take im- 
mediate action on the subject. To place the moral and religious advantages of 
the Pupils on a footing of equality with those of other Colleges, it seems to the Fac 
ulty necessary that a Chaplain be appointed to perform divine service every Sun- 
day. To guard against any danger of Sectarian influence, should such danger be 
apprehended, it may perhaps be best to appoint the Chaplain for one year only, and 
at the expiration of that period, elect another from a different denomination. 
This is the plan adopted by the University of Virginia, and it has given general 
satisfaction to the Patrons of that Institution, who like ours, are composed of citi- 
zens of all the various denominations. The Chaplain, at all events, should be a 
Master Mason, and a gentleman of high literary attainments, capable of explain- 
ing and enforcing the great fundamental doctrines of our holy religion. This is 
a subject of vital importance to the prosperity of our College. We live in a reli- 
gious community, a vast majority of parents will always send thleir sons to those 
Seminaries where religious advantages are enjoyed, and this is right. The edu- 
cation of youth should always be conducted on religious principles. It is earn- 
estly hoped that the Grand . Lodge, will take this subject into serious and solemn 
consideration, and act on it in such a way, as may best promote th6 interest of 
our Institution, and most redound to the glory of the Grand Master of the Uni- 
verse. 

Such, Brethren, is a brief view of the present condition, the wants and the 
prospects of the Masonic College of Missouri. It is an institution capable of 
rivalling any of the numerous seats of learning within our wide spread borders. 
Needs but your fostering care and constant patronage, to place it at once on that 
proud eminence to which its numerous advantages give it an undoubted claim. 
It is the first public charity of the kind ever yet attempted on earth, and by the 
smiles of the Supreme Grand Master , it is destined to confer unspeakable bles- 
sings on the children of misfortune throughout this vast and lovely valley, and 
cannot fail to clothe with undying honor, those .noble Craftsmen, whose wisdom 
planned, and whose liberality has achieved the glorious undertaking. The un- 
dersigned takes this occasion to express to you, Brethren, his grateful sense of 
the distinction you have conferred on him, by appointing him to the honorable 
post he now occupies, and also for the unceasing kindness and genuine hospital- 
ity he has experienced, from the first moment of his arrival in Missouri. 

In return, he pledges himself that all his zeal and fidelity and whatever tal- 
ents he may have received from God, shall be unceasingly employed for the pros- 
perity of the College, and for the promotion of the best interest of the Craft. 

J. Worthington Smith, 

President Masonic College of Missouri 

The Report was referred to a Committee, who submitted the following Report 
thereon : 

The Committee, to whom was referred the communication of J. W. Smith, 
(President of the College,) setting forth the system of education adopted, and the 
condition, wants and prospects of our beloved Institution, have carefully exam- 
ined that communication and report as follows : 

Your committee, with unfeigned pleasure, congratulate the Grand Lodge, and 
the great Masonic family of this country, upon the fact of their having secured 
the services of able, practical men, of unblemished morals, to preside over the 
interests of that institution, to whom all may safely confide the most sacred of 
all trusts — the education of their children. 

Your Committee recommend the approval of the course of study which has 
been adopted, without any alteration or amendment, except a single addition of 
the German language with the French, Spanish and Italian, or a substitution of 
the German for the Italian. 



GRAND LODGE OF KENTUCKY. 


153 


Your Committee recommend the adoption of the following' resolutions : 

Resolved, That such repairs as are of pressing necessity, be immediately made, 
and that the expenses thereof be defrayed out of any moneys which can be ap- 
propriated. 

Resolved, That inasmuch as moral and religious instruction, especially on the 
Sabbath day, is of primary importance to the young, this Grand Lodge will take 
such measures as shall seem best calculated to secure, with as little delay as 
possible, the services of a competent Chaplain on the principles and under the re- 
strictions recommended by the President of the College . 

Resolved, That in order to accomplish these important and most desirable ends, 
the Grand Lodge appeal to their Brethren and other benevolent individuals 
throughout the State, to aid them by pecuniary contributions, with a liberal and 
charitable hand. 

And while your Committee submit these resolutions, they may be permitted to 
say, in the language of ardent hope and expectation, that such an enlarged and 
liberal charity, as that designed in the founding and rearing up the u Masonic 
College or Missouri,” a charity which regards the tears of the widow and the 
cries of the orphan — which proposes to watch over their morals, and provide for 
them the food of thought, while it opens to them the treasures of science and 
literature and lifts them up from the desponding helplessness of orphanage j—yea, 
we do most assuredly hope and believe that such a charity will receive, not only 
the smiles of Heaven, but also the approving testimony of all enlightened men, 
along with the open handed liberality of many, very many, who may aid us by 
their contributions. With these views and hopes, your Committee submit their 
report H. Chamberlain, Chairman, 

Both Reports, with some slight alterations, were adopted by the Grand Lodge. 
There are some other reports in connection with this interesting subject, for 
which we shall endeavor to find room in our next. 


PROPOSED REGULATIONS OF THE GRAND 

LODGE OF KENTUCKY. 

The following regulations were proposed at the last communication of the 
Grand Lodge of Kentucky, as amendments to its Constitution. They lay over 
until the ensuing annual meeting, when they will probably be adopted : 

Resolved, That the following be added to the by-laws of the Grand Lodge of 
Kentucky, as amendments to the same : 

3. It shall be the duty of every Brother Master Mason, demitting from, and 
residing within the limits of any Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky, to pay into the funds of the Lodge nearest his residence, for 
the term of ten years, a semi-annual contribution of fifty cents, as a charity fund. 
Any Brother demitting from pecuniary embarrassment, shall not be liable for 
this contribution. 

2. It shall be the duty of every Brother Master Mason, demitting from, or 
removing without the limits of any Lodgd, to report himself to the nearest Lodge, 
within one month after he may settle down, and shall continue to pay, as he may 
change his residence, the annual contribution for the time recognized by these 
by-laws. He shall, also, exhibit the certificate of the Secretary of the Lodge to 
which he last paid his dues, of his having so done, and the length of time that he 
has made this payment 

3. Should any Brother Master Mason fail to pay the sums due under these by- 
laws, for four successive semi-anniversaries, he shall be summoned by the Lodge 
taking cognizance of his case, to appear and show cause why he has not done so ; 
and upon failure to appear, or give satisfactory explanation for his remissness, it 

20 




154 


GRAND LODGE OF IOWA. 


shall be the duty of the Brethren to suspend him from all privileges and benefits 
of the Order : not again to be restored until he has complied with these by-laws ; 
and then, by vote of two-thirds of the Lodge suspending him, or by the action of 
this Grand Lodge. 

4. Should there be more than one Lodge in any town, the Secretary of the 
oldest Lodge shall make out, semi-annually, a list of all the demitted Masons 
subject to these by-laws, and shall distribute to the Secretaries of other Lodges, 
an equal proportion of these names, whose duty it shall be to endeavor to collect 
the sums accruing from them, and report all delinquents at each anniversary of 
the Saints John. 

5. Every Subordinate Lodge shall incorporate into its annual report to the 
Grand Lodge : 1st The names of all demitted Master Masons within its bounds, 
subject to these by-laws. 2d. The names of all demitted Master Masons within 
its bounds not subject to these by-laws. 3d. The sums annually collected from 
demitted Master Masons. 

6. Any Brother Master Mason demitting from a Subordinate Lodge, and pay- 
ing into the hands of the Secretary, the sum of ten dollars, shall forever thereaf- 
ter be exempt from the payment of this semi-annual contribution ; the receipt of 
the Secretary, or the Brother’s affirmation to be sufficient evidenced the fact 
The payment of this sum of ten dollars, or the semi-annual contribution, shall 
not entitle any demitted Brother to greater privileges than those given by the 
by-laws to demitted members. 

7. These by-laws shall be incorporated, for convenience referent, into the 
by-laws of all the Subordinate Lodges under the jurisdiction of this G. Lodge. 


GRAND LODGE OF IOWA. 

The Grand Lodge of Iowa held its annual communication at Iowa City, on the 
7th Jan. last The Grand Master, Oliver Cook, Esq. opened the session with 
the following 

▲ no re ss. 

Brethren of the Grand Lodge of the Territory of Iowa : — We have abundant 
reasons to be thankful to the Grand Master of the Universe for his kindness ex- 
tended towards ns during the past year. We have been blessed in our endea- 
vors to procure the necessaries of life, and in our efforts for the advancement of 
our glorious and benevolent Institution ; our lives have been spared and our fami- 
lies ; for all of which let us collectively, and individually, render unto the author 
of all good the homage of grateful hearts. 

I am happy to be able to inform you that, from all the information I have ob- 
tained, our Institution is in a prosperous condition throughout this jurisdiction — 
a common feeling to labor for its advancement inspires the several Lodges, and 
nothing has occurred to disturb its harmony or retard its onward progress to be- 
nevolence and usefulness. 

Since our last annual communication, I have issued dispensations erecting 
Lodges at Marion, Linn county, Augusta, Des Moines county, and Mount Plea- 
sant, Henry county. All these Lodges have petitioned in due form ; their peti- 
tions are herewith submitted to the Gr. Lodge for its action. 

Shortly after the meeting of the Grand Lodge in January last, the Grand 
Lodge promptly caused the proceedings of the convention and the constitution 
and ny-laws or the Grand Lodge to be printed and distributed among the Lodges 
under this jurisdiction, thereby to enable them to conform thereto m their sev- 
eral codes of by-laws. As your constitution and by-laws differ in some essen- 
tial particulars from those of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, I would direct your 
attention to the by-laws of the several Lodges under this jurisdiction, lest some 



GRAND LODGE OP IOWA. 


195 


neglect or omission may have occurred in making the by-laws of the several 
Lodges conform to the constitution and by-laws of this Grand Lodge. 

The thirtyfourth section of the by-laws makes it the duty of the Grand Lodge 
to publish a list of the rejections, suspensions and expulsions under the jurisdic- 
tion of this Grand Lodge ; this provision seems to me to be highly impolitic and 
obnoxious, liable to exert a pernicious influence and retard the advancement of 
our institution. I would recommend that this section be repealed or so amended 
as to render it less liable to objection. Perhaps a provision requiring notice of 
all rejections, suspensions and expulsions to be communicated to the Grand 
Secretary, and by him to the several subordinate Lodges under this jurisdiction, 
and if deemed expedient to the several Grand Lodges with whom this Grand 
Lodge has correspondence, would answer the end desired and be less liable to 
objection, (as this section cannot be altered or amended at our present session, 

I would recommend the passage of a resolution suspending its operation until the 
next annual communication.) 

In the early part of the year and before the Grand Secretary had distributed 
the proceedings of the Grand Lodge, I directed him to erase the rejections, as 
the individuals were refused admittance into the different Lodges at the time 
they were working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Missouri in 
whose code such provision exists. 

In conformity with a resolution of this Grand Lodge, I deputed Brother John 
L. Corse, of Burlington, to attend the communication of the Grand Lodge of 
Missouri, apd lay before that body the proceedings of the convention and the 
constitution and by-laws of this Grand Lodge, he reports verbally that on pre- 
senting his credentials he was courteously received, and our proceedings ap- 
proved by that body. 1 

Our by-laws make it the duty of the Grand Master annually to visit and lec- 
ture the different Lodges, or to appoint some competent Brother to perform this 
duty ; in accordance with this provision, I deputed Brother J. R. Harts ock, of 
Iowa City, to visit and lecture the several Lodges of Iowa City, Bloomington, 
Davenport, Wapello and Marion ; a report of nis proceedings is herewith sub- 
mitted marked A. 

I herewith lay before you copies of the Masonic Mirror, printed at Maysville, 
Ky. ; the American Masonic Register, at Albany, N. Y. ; and the Freemasons’ 
Monthly Magazine, at Boston, Mass., all of which periodicals are highly recom- 
mended by the Grand Lodges of several States. I would earnestly recom- 
mend that every Lodge under this jurisdiction, should as early as practicable, 
subscribe for a suitable' number of copies of some one or more of these periodi- 
cals, since I am convinced that nothing tends more to establish and elevate true 
Masonic feelings among the Brethren than some appropriate readings on the 
general principles of the Order. 

Many of the Grand Lodges are engaged in laying the foundation, and erect- 
ing institutions for the education of the children of indigent Masons. A more 
suitable undertaking could not engage the attention of this Grand Lodge ; it is 
true we are yet in our infancy — too young and feeble, perhaps to take any imme- 
diate steps towards the attainment of this object, yet it is one we should con- 
stantly have in view — let steps be taken as early as practicable (having a strict 
regard for economy) that will insure at some future period an asylum for the 
needy offspring of deceased Masons. It should be the steady purpose of the 
Grand Lodge, as well as the subordinate Lodges, to practice a rigid system of 
economy ; without this, debt, embarrassment, disgrace and ruin are inevitable — 
with it, under the guidance of the principles of our Order a bright career of pros- 
perity and usefulness lies before us. 

It has been suggested to me that if a certain amount of the funds of the Grand 
Lodge should be set apart each year, for the purpose of procuring books for the 
G. Lodge, a very respectable Masonic library might thus be collected without the 
amount expended being felt by the Grand Lodge, this seems to me a subject 
worthy of your consideration. Complaint has been made from various parts of 
the Territory, that the fees for the advancement of candidates are too high for 



156 


OBITUAHT. 


the state of the times and scarcity of money in the Territory. Many worthy 
men, well calculated to make active and zealous Masons are said to be prevented 
from offering themselves as candidates by this cause alone. Money is far from 
being a measure of a man’s worth or standard of merit, and though we certainly 
should guard against establishing the fees so low as to affect our resources, it 
seems worthy our inquiry, whether a slight reduction, say of five dollars in the 
three degrees, would not have a contrary effect A certain resolution of the 
Grand Lodge, at its last communication, made it my duty to select some Brother 
to deliver an address publicly before the Grand Lodge during its present ses- 
sion ; under that resolution I solicited the services of Brother Wilson, which invi- 
tation has been accepted, so that unless prevented by some unforeseen occur* 
rence, he may be expected to address us at such time and place as the Grand 
Lodge may appoint for the installation of its officers. 

Brethren, in closing these suggestions, let me earnestly recommend to you har- 
mony in the prosecution of your labors ; we are called together for no object of 
self, our duty, and I trust our pleasure, is to labor for the general good of the 
Fraternity — to build up and perfect in this young Territory, an institution which 
shall endure for ages, scattering broad-cast here as she has in other lands, innu- 
merable blessings upon millions yet unborn, let each keep constantly in view a 
deep sense of the responsibility resting upon him ; forgetting self, let us like true 
Masons labor for the common welfare — if we disagree as to measures let us differ 
as Brothers should — let there be neither heart-burnings, jealousies or strifes 
among us — if there be emulation, let it be without contention, in short let us all 
be inspired with that noble emulation of who can best work, and who can best 
agree. 


©fiftuars. 

Peppered, February 8, 1845. 

Br. Moore: 

I with mournful feelings inform you of the death of two Brother Masons. . 
Jan. 22d. Br. Samuel Spear, of Townsend, died of lung fever, aged 57 years. 
One more faithful Mason has gone the road which we are all rapidly travelling. 
Soon the messenger of death will strike us from the roll of the living — and the 
clods of the valley cover us. But thanks be given to God — we have an immortal 
part that will progress forever in realms of light. 

Feb. 6th. Hon. James Lewis, of Pepperell, aged 60 years, died in Boston, 
where he had been sick a number of months, (rheumatic fever.) He was a 
peaceful and enlightened townsman, and a firm supporter of the Masonic Order. 
He had held various offices in St Paul’s Lodge— presided as its Master a 
number of years — and as High Priest of St. John’s Royal Arch Chapter, in Gro- 
ton, Mass. One' more has gone to swell the ranks of the slumbering dead. His 
soul, we trust, is now reposing on the bosom of his Maker in the holy of holies ; 
in that Temple made without hands eternal in the heavens — where our Supreme 
High Priest forever presides and forever reigns. A Companion saw his body 
deposited in the silent tomb, and drop’d the tear of sympathy there ! May we 
all have our minds garnished in the glorious lectures of Freemasonry, that we 
may be fitted and prepared to enter the Grand Lodge of eternity, as workmen 
who have not spent our strength and time for naught When we enter into the 
world and discover around us the effects of the artifice of the tempter in the 

g arden, and when we behold this arch apostate transformed into a serpent, we 
ave passed the first veil of our existence. At the close of life, when we are 
called from this probationary scene and prostrated in the pallid leprosy of death, 
the second veil is drawn behind us. In the morning of the resurrection when 
the slumbering ashes shall arise, and we learn that the words of the woman of 
Tekoa are untrue, when she declares that “we are as water spilt upon the ground 
which cannot be gathered up,” then shall the third veil be parted before us. 
Though the frosts of death may palsy the mortal tenement of the soul shrouding 



EXPULSIONS* 


157 


it in the coffin, and withering it in the tomb ; the soul itself remains unaffected, 
flourishing in immortal vigor. Thus, when the faithful die— -they have only 
given the watch word to the grim tyrant death, and passed on to serve a better 
Master. A Companion, E. A. Mason. 


[From the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Missouri.) 

The following preamble and resolutions were offered by R. W. H. Chamber- 
lain, G. C., and unanimously adopted : 

Whereas, the Grand Lodge of Missouri has learned with pain and deep regret, 

the recent death of their beloved Brother, Rev. J. H. Fielding, Past Grand 

Chaplain of this Grand Lodge, and at the time of his death President of St 

Charles College ; therefore 

Resolved , That the deeply afflictive dispensation of Divine Providence which 
has cut down in the midst of his days, his honors and his usefulness, this highly 
esteemed member of our Order, and the Church of God, and removed him in an 
unexpected hour, far from the toils and trials of this sublunary world, to the 
peaceful shore of a happy and blessed eternity, calls for humble submission to 
the wise Master who rules over all — while it becomes us to cherish the most 
grateful and lasting recollections of his Masonic and Christian virtues. 

Resolved , That this Grand Lodge bear testimony to the great moral worth of 
their departed Brother, whose unblemished life as a man, a Mason and a Chris- 
tian — whose public services in the cause, in behalf of Masonry, richly entitle his 
memory to this respectful notice from us. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathise with that highly respectable and impor- 
tant institution of learning, which has been deprived of his invaluable services ; 
but more especially do we tender our most sincere and heartfelt sympathy to her 
whose widowed heart is now called to mourn the husband of her youth, and the 
father of her orphan children, who have been so unexpectedly plunged into the 
deepest earthly too. 

Resolved , That the Grand Lodge will be clothed in the usual badge of sorrow 
for thirty days. 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to th£ afflicted family 
of our deceased Brother, and also, to the Board of Curators of the College over 
which he presided. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished for publication in the 
papers of this city, and forwarded to the Masonic Magazine for the use of its 
columns. 


EXPULSIONS. 

At a regular communication of Ebenezer Lodge, No. 33, held at their Lodge, 
Wooster, Wayne County and State of Ohio, October the 19th, A. L. 5842, it was 
on motion 

Resolved, That Ezra E. Dill be expelled from all the rights and privileges of 
Masonry — and on the 31st day of January, A. L. 5844, it was 

Ordered, That the Secretary of this Lodge cause notice to all the Lodges of 
Free and Accepted Masons in the Territory of Iowa, of the expulsion of said 
Ezra E. Dill, and also that the editor of the Masonic Magazine, in Boston, be 
requested to publish the same in his Magazine. 

Attest, Charles E. Graeter, Secretary of Ebenezer Lodge , A o. 33. 


[by the grand lodge or Mississippi.] 

At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi, held at 
Natchez, Jan. 25, 1844, Maj. C. R. Prczriminski, was expelled from all the 
rights and privileges of Masonry. He is a Polander by birth, aged about 40 
years — a Civil Engineer by profession — a R. and S. M. ; — very lively and socia- 
ble, with fine musical talents, and good address — about 5 feet and 9 inches in 
height Per order, G. Sec. 



158 


REGISTER OF OFFICERS, 


REGISTER OF OFFICERS. 


THE FOLLOWING ARE OFFICERS OF MA80NIC INSTITUTIONS IN CHARLESTON, S. C. 


GRAND LODGE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

M. W. John B. Irving, Grand Master. 

R. W. John C. Norris, D; G. M. 

“ Frederick C. Barber, 8. G. W. 

“ A. E. Miller, J. G. W. 

“ John II. Honour, G. Treas. 

“ A. G. Mackey, G. Sec. 

W. H. S. Cohen, ) n c ~ 

“ Samuel J. Hull, J D< 

" I Frankfort] G J D ‘ 

“ N. Levin, G. Marshal. 

“ T. J. Salter, G. Pursuivant. 


CAROLINA CHAPTER, NO. I. 

Frederick C. Barber, High Priest. 
John E. Odena, King. 

John Ewan, Scribe. 

John H. Honour, Treasurer. 

C. Pankin, Secretary. 


UNION CHAPTER, NO. III. 

A. G. Mackey, High Priest. 

C. M. Furman, King. 

Samuel J Hull, Scribe. 

Charles Clapp. Treasurer. 

James H. Ferguson, Secretary. 


SOLOMON’S LODGE, NO. I. 

Charles Clapp, Master. 

/Alfred Price, S. W. 

Ebenezer Thaver, J. W. 

Z. B. Oakes, Treasurer. 

G. Crawford, Secretary. 

James H. Ferguson, S. D. 


UNION KILWINNING LODGE, NO. IV. 

Richard Yeaton, Master. 

John Schnierle, S. W. 

Daniel Horlbeck, J. W. 

T. W. Bacot, Treasurer. 

John Bay, Secretary. 


FRIENDSHIP LODGE, NO. IX. 

N. Levin, Master. 

L. L. Levy, S. W. 

A. Josephi, J. W. 

J. Rosenfeld, Treasurer. 

J. Valentine, Secretary. 


ORANGE LODGE NO. XIV. 

James O’Rielly, Master. 

Joseph Harrison, S. W. 

Joseph Long, J. W. 

Samuel Seyle, Treasurer. 

J. Landers tune, Secretary. 


SOUTH CAROLINA ENCAMPMENT. 

Sir John H. Honour, G. Commander. 

“ Charles Clapp, Generalissimo. 

“ Samuel J. Hall, Captain Gen. 

“ Frederick C. Barber, Prelate. 

“ Robert Pennall, Treasurer. 

“ James H. Ferguson, Recorder. 


WASHINGTON LODGE, NO. V. 

Samuel J. Hull, Master. 

Frederick Rice, S. W. 

P. K. Coburn, J. W. 

John E. Odena, Treasurer. 

Thomas Allison, Secretary. 

W. W. Dennison, S. D. 


st. Andrew’s lodge, no. x. 

Frederick C. Barber, Master. 

Edmund Bull, S. W. 

V. Lowenstein, J. W. 

H. S. Cohen, Treasurer. 

Richard Mooney, Secretary. 

S. Frankford, S. D. 


PYTHAGORIAN LODGE NO. XXI. 

John Collingwood, Master. 

George Wood, S. W. 

D. Strohecker, J. W. 

F. Stein, Treasurer. 

F. Merteins, Secretary. 


LA CANDEUR LODGE NO. XXXVI. 

N. D’Alvigny, Master. 

James Vidal, S. W. 

John Barre, J. W. 

C. Pancen, Treasurer. 

E. Huchet, Secretary. 


WALHALLA LODGE, NO. LXVK 
(york-eitb.) 

John James Boesch, Master. 

Christian Bronner, S. W. 

John C. Blohme, J. W. 

Henry Mayer, Secretary. 

Richard Rose, Treasurer. 

Peter Radinger, S. Deacon. 

Franz Schneider, J. Deacon . 

C. Bernhard Alsgush, 1st Mac ter rf Cere. 
Nicolas Boesch, 2d do. 

Charles Tusti, Hospitalier. 

Lewis William Sass, Tyler. 

John Andrew Wagener, Past Master. 

Charles F. Bauer, W. M. of Pythagoras 
Lodge, No. 86, O. of New York, Repre- 
sentative and Honorary Member of Wal- 
halla Lodge, No. 66, in Charleston, S. C. 



REGISTER car OFFICERS- 


159 


GRAND LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

M. W. Augustus Peabody, G. Master. 

R. W. E. M. P. Wells, D. G. M. 

“ Robert Keith, S. G. W. 

“ John Hews, J. G. W. 

" John J. Loring, G. Treasurer, 

“ Charles W. Moore, R. G. Sec. 
u Rev. Benjamin Huntoon, C. G. Sec. 
" “ Samuel Barrett, > ch 

« ■« Joseph O. Skinner, \ GUftap * 

W. Winslow Lewis, Jr. G. Marshal. 

“ E. A. Raymond, S. G. Deacon. 

" Joel Talbot, J. G. Deacon. 

" William Eaton, } 

«“ RMC^L r WymoDd 1 [ G S,ewa,d *- 
" William Palfrey, J 

« Hugh H. Tuttle, G. Sword Bearer. 

: oiSZ'si'S'l 0 - 
: SSSIrtefS 0 -— 

11 Francis L. Raymond, G. Organist. 

M John B. Hammatt, J 
“ John R. Bradford, V Com. of Finance. 

“ Hugh H. Tuttle, ) 

Bra. S. W . Robinson , } 

M John Hews, 

“ Hugh H. Tuttle, >Com. on Charity. 

IC Edward Stearns, I 
11 William Eaton, J 
'district deputy grand masters. 

R. W. Rev. Addison Searle, Chelsea, 1st D. 
“ Sam’l Bowden, Marblehead, 2d. 

(< Nathan Old way, Fitchburg, 3d. 

•* Jona. Greenwood, Framingham, 4th. 

** Samuel Chandler, Stoughton, Btn. 

** Pliny Slocomb, Sutton, 6th. 

,f Lncien B. Keith, N. Bedford, 7th. 

Br. Josiah Baldwin, Tyler. 


DSMOPOLIfl LODGE, DBMOFOL1S, ALA. 

Joseph Packard, Jr., Master. 

Lewis B. M’Carty, S. W. 

George Skinner, J. W. 

P. A. Savage, Treasurer. 

F. S. Palmer, Secretary. 

James L. Skinner, S. Deacon. 

William H. Roberts, J. Deacon. s 

J. W. Duun, > 

F. Rosenbaum, \ Stewarda * 

L. B. M ; Carty, } 

James L. Skinner, J 

W. H. Roberts, >Com. on Charity. 

F. S. Palmer, j 

A. Fournier, j 

John Black, Tyler. 

Meets 1st Saturday every month. 


LAFAYETTE LODGE, CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cording Jackson, Master. 

H. W. Bigelow, S. W. 

M. Taylor, J. W. 

Samuel J. Lowe, Treasurer. 

L. C. Kerchual, Secretary. 


DE MOLAY ENCAMPMENT, LYNCHBURG, 
va. 

Sir E H. Gill, Grand Commander. 

“ J. L. Brown, Generalissimo. 

“ R. H. Gray, Captain General. 

“ L. H. Trigg, Prelate. 

“ T. J. Hardy, Senior Warden. 

M J. R. McDaniel, Junior Warden. 

“ J. R. Holmes, Treasurer. 

11 E. W. Victor, Recorder. 

“ W. B. Jones, Standard Bearer. 

“ James Dolan, Sword Bearer. 

“ A. T. B. Rucker, Warder. 

“ C. W. Christian, } 

“ Henry Hall, , C Guards. 

“ R, S. Wilkins, > 

,f A. W. Cross, Sentinel. 

Meets in Masons 1 Hall, 3d Saturday each mo. 


PYTHAGORAS LODGE, NO. LXXXVI. 

OR. OP N. YORK.— (GER MAN-RITE.) 
Charles Ferdinand Bauer, Master. 

Charles William Bohne, S. W. 

John Frederick Luther, J. W. 

Andrew G. Selter, Orateur. 

John George Hoffman, Secretary. 

Henry Kutzmeyer, Treasurer, 

Paulus Margraf, Archivist. 

Joseph Pohley, 1st Expert. 

Charles Joseph Rauch, 2d do. 

Henry Hoffman, 1st M. of Ceremonies. 
Theodore Wilhelm, 2d do. 

William H. Bolhoever, 1st Hospitalier. 
Meyer Lessing, 2d do. 

John I von Bergen, Steward and Sentinel. 
Paul Charles Weizel, Adjoint Orateur. 
Frederick Robland, do. Secretary. 

Rudolph Goubelmann, do. Treasurer. 

Frederick H. Coulmann, Tyler. 

C. F Bauer, ] 

F. W. Wallis, 1 Directors of the 
A. F. Boden, f Lodge. 

J. F. Luther. J 
C. F. Bauer, 

F. W. Wallis, 

A. F. Boden, 

C. W. Bohne, 

J. F. Luther, 

A. G. Selter, 

H. Kutzemeyer, 

J. G. Hoffman, 

P. Margraf, 

J. Pohley, 

C. J. Rauch, 

Augustus F. Boden, Frederick Wm. Wallis, 
Past Masters. 

Charles F. Bauer, W. M. t Representative 
and Honorary Member of Walballa Lodge, 
No. 66, Or. of Charleston, S. C. 

John James Boesch, W. M. of Walhalla 
. Lodge, Charleston, and Representative and 
Honorary Member of Pythagoras Lodge. 
No. 86, New York. 

Frederick Wm. Wallis, P. Master and Rep- 
resentative of the Grand Lodge of Frank- 
fort on Main, Germany. 

Meet at Warren HaU is/ and 2d Friday each 
month . 


Council of the Officers. 



160 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


JJrA Montreal correspondent informs ns 
that a Warrant for a third Lodge in that 
city, has been granted, and its receipt is daily 
expected. We believe the Lodge has been 
sometime in operation, and is doing well, as 
are the two previously established. The 
anniversary of St. John was celebrated hy 
them in their respective Lodge rooms. An 
unusually large number of the Brethren were 
present. 

13" A Missouri correspondent saysr-" I 
wish you would continue to rub up the 
Brethren on the subject of becoming mem- 
bers of the Lodge nearest their residence. 
It is unpardonable for Masons in good cir- 
cumstances, to reside in the vicinity of 
Lodges, visit and join in processions, with- 
out being attached to any Lodge. Such as 
can stand aloof, I fear lack Masonic feelings. 
They should be required to join some Lodge, 
or forego the privileges of Masons.” Amen. 

J^Our correspondent is informed that Br. 
Mackey’s proposed work is not yet publish- 
ed. When it is, we shall be happy 'to fur- 
nish any of our friends with it. 

will be seen by reference to the 
communication of our Iowa correspondent, 
that the Qrand Lodge of that Territory has 
adopted the Trestle-Board, and the work 
of the Convention. The Grand Lodge of 
Mississippi has also adopted the Trestle- 
Board. 

HSrThe table of Lodges under the juris- 
diction of the Grand Lodge of this Com- 
monwealth, in a preceding page, will be par- 
ticularly interesting to our Brethren in this 
section of the country, and generally so, as a 
matter of reference and information. It will 
be followed by others of a similar character, 
as we can find leisure to prepare them. 

UlrWe acknowledge the receipt of a copy 
of the proceedings of the Grand Chapter and 
Grand Council of Alabama, but find nothing 
in them of special interest, except an indica- 
tion of increasing prosperity in both bodies. 
There are 17 Chapters and 5 Councils in the | 
State. 


Eulogy on Br. Russell. It will be seen 
by reference to the advertisement on the 
covers, that the Eulogy on Br. Russell is to 
be delivered at the Melodeon. This place 
has been selected for the reason that it will 
accommodate a very much larger number of 
persona than ihe Temple. The Brethren 
having tickets are invited to assemble there 
at 6 I -2 o’clock. The ladies will be provi- 
ded with seats by the Marshals. The pro- 
cession will be formed in rooms adjacent to 
the Hall. It may be proper to add, for the 
information of our out-of-town Brethren, 
that the Melodeon is on Washington, just 
south of West street. 

%"1r Br. C. Robert Starkweather is an 
authorized agent for the Magazine at Chica- 
go, Illinois. Br. J. R. Golding for Bellefon- 
taine, Mi. Br. C. P. Bauer, 14 Pulton st. for 
New York city $ and Br. Henry Leuba, for 
Winchester, Ky. 

(p™We see it stated that at the annual 
communication of the Grand Lodge in Port- 
land last month, charters were restored to 
Haliowell, Dexter, Calais, and several other 
Lodges in Maine. 

O’ A quarterly communication of the G. 
Lodge of Massachusetts, will be held in this 
city on the 12th inst., and a semi- annual 
communication of the Grand Chapter on the 
Uth. 

J^rThe Grand Lodge of Missouri will cel- 
ebrate the next anniversary of St. John the 
Baptist, by Dedicating their new College. A 
very suitable day for the ceremony. 

Q9~We understand that the ensuing na 
tivity of St. John the Baptist will be cele- 
brated by Bethlehem Lodge, at Augusta, Me. 

0*Twelve numbers (384 pages) of Br. 
Oliver’s “Ancient Landmarks,” have been 
received. The work is steadily progres- 
sing. 

|3rSome of our agents are still very back- 
ward in making their collections. Have not 
yet heard from St. Louis. 



THE 


FREEMASON S’ 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

Vol. IV.l BOSTON, APRIL 1, 1845. [No. 6. 

THE SECRECY OF MASONRY. 

It is often asked — 44 If the secrets of Masonry be of any value’, why 
not make them known ? If they be useless, why guard them with such 
scrupulous and sensitive care ?” Nor do we complain of the motive 
which prompts these inquiries. We are not disposed to regard them as 
impertinent, or unnatural. It is not within the province of the will alone, 
that men derive the power, or the disposition to think, ot to question. It 
is in the nature of the human mind itself. The Almighty has implanted 
in the soul of man desires that must be gratified, and faculties of thought 
which are ever active in investigating the nature and uses of things. 
The principle is divine in its origin, and therefore entitled to respect. If 
the inquirer do not ask too much of little things, or of great things too 
little, — if his thoughts and motives do credit to candor and justice, and he 
do not indulge in an unpardonable curiosity, which pries without license 
and slanders without knowledge, we can respect the spirit which moves 
him to ask the why and wherefore. But there are, 'Unhappily, in every 
grade of society, those who are above 7 instruction, — who appear to despise 
all knowledge, but the knowledge peculiar to conceit, and to deny free- 
dom of thought to all not under their own especial guidance. Such, it 
would be a thankless and fruitless task to attempt to convince of their 
errors or their deficiences. They are like small vessels filled with 
water, — containing too little to refresh the soul, and too much to allow of 
addition without waste. We pass them as the traveller passes the stag- 
nant pool to observe the clear and flowing river. Not that we are unwil- 
ling to appreciate differences of opinion, or the rights of judgment, or to 
respect their free and unmolested exercise, — but we would make a dis- 
tinction between candor and hypocrisy, bigotry and enlightened know- 
ledge. We would make a broad and palpable distinction between the 
man who thinks, and him who merely feels, — between the being of pas- 
21 




162 


THE SECRECY OT MASONRY. 


sion, who is constantly stumbling in the dark abyss of noisy ignorance, 
and the child of thought, who modestly steps in the paths of duty and 
knowledge, according to the light which God has given him. 

Mason ically speaking, our secrets are the property of the members of 
our Institution, and however willing we may be to give reasons for not 
imparting them freely and without stint to others, we do not acknowledge 
the right of any man to demand them of us, or to prescribe the terms on 
which we shall retain them. 

Secrecy pervades all society, and the greatest difference, perhaps, be- 
tween the secrets of Masonry, and the common secrets passed from man to 
man, or from woman to womau, consists in this, — that the former have <fc un- 
derstanding without tongues ,” while the latter lose their virtue by being ex- 
tended from circle to circle, and from the mouth to the printer’s hands. 
Nature also has her secrets. They are the materials of knowledge , — and 
are to be acquired, not by presumptuously demanding their instant reve- 
lation, but by a compliance with, and submission to, such forms and pro- 
cesses as the God of nature has in his infinite wisdom, seen fitj to impose 
and require. Every man has the secret of knowing his friend, while the 
stranger is without it. Shall it be told him in words ? There is a way 
to attain the knowledge of nature, — there is a way for a stranger to gain 
the friendship of a stranger, to become familiar with his face and person, 
and there is a way to gain the secrets of Masonry . 

The secrets of our Order are the language of philanthropy and broth- 
erly kindness. It is a language that knpws no sect, no party, no distinc- 
tion. It is spoken as well by the humble swain in the rude dwelling of 
labor, as by the tongue of royalty on the throne. When spoken by the 
Christian, — the Jew and the Pagan respond in the accents of fraternal 
kindness. The traveller is cheered on his way when he utters the lan- 
guage of Masonry,— and the fallen is raised, if hp can but speak in the 
words of an accepted Brother. 

This language has its power in the secrecy of its construction, and to 
publish, would be to destroy it. Like every other language, it may be 
taught, and it may be learned, but the mode of teaching is bpst understood 
in the master’s, not the pupil’s hands. 

The secrets of Masonry are therefore of value to those who understand 
them, and to whom they rightfully belong. But expose them to the 
world — divest them of their character of Secrecy, — and they become 
valueless to Masons and to all others. 



LODGE AT ALTENBURG. — EULOGY. 


163 


THE OLD LODGE AT ALTENBURG. 

One of the oldest existing Lodges in Germany, is the “St. John’s 
Lodge, Archimedes, at the Three Tracing-Boards,” at Altenburg. It was 
instituted by a deputation from Leipsic, on the 31st of January, 1744, 
without any name. On the 17th September of the same year, it took the 
name of the Three Tracing-Boards, from the Lodge in Dresden. In 
1775, it joined the Grand Lodge at Berlin, and adopting the name of 
“Archimedes, at the Three Tracing-Boards,” remained under that Grand 
Lodge until 1785, and in 1788, joined the Eclectical Union at Frankfort, # 
on the Maine ; in 1801, left it again, and formed a directorium of its own, 
and installed two Lodges, viz., Archimedes at the Eternal Union, in Gera, 
and Archimedes at the Saxon Union, in Schnesberg. Since then it has 
stood alone. In the year 1805, it divided itself into two Lodges, viz. : St. 
John’s Lodge, Earnestness to Truth, and St. John’s Lodge, Earnestness 
to Justness, under the same directorium ; but this division ceased, and the 
whole of the Brethren joined in one Lodge, under the name of Archim- 
edes, at the Three Tracing- Boards. In 1803, it distinguished itself by 
forming a Constitution-book of its own, which is highly valued by all 
other Lodges. In 1804, the Lodge consecrated a new building for its 
own use, and struck a medal upon the occasion, the principal side con- 
taining Archimedes delineating, surrounded with all the Masonic tools, 
and his face turned towards the rising sun, and with this motto on the 
upper part — “ Noli lurbare eirculos on the lower part, “ Lodge Archim- 

edes, at the Three Tracing-Boards.” The other side contained the 
front of the new hall, to which Minerva was conducting a youth, with the 
inscription, 44 Founded the 12th August, 1802.” 


EULOGY ON THE LATE M. W. BENJ. RUSSELL. 

In pursuance of previous arrangements, a Eulogy was delivered before the 
Grand Lodge of this Commonwealth, on the life and character of our Jate 
distinguished Brother, Hon. Benjamin Russell, at the Melodeon, on Monday 
evening the 10th ult, by Hon. Francis Bathes, of Taunton. The hall, hold- 
ing sixteen hundred persons, was filled to its utmost capacity, by members of 
the Fraternity, and the friends of the deceased, M whose demise has thrown a 
mantle of gloom over our city, and whose loss will be long felt in the com- 
munity, of which he was, for many years, a useful member.” There were 
probably between four and five hundred Brethren present in their regalia. 
The Grand Lodge, the Grand Chapter, and the Boston Encampment of 
Knights Templars, occupied the stage ; and we are told by persons occupy- 
ing the body seats, that their appearance was beautiful and imposing. The 
Brethren of the different Lodges were seated on the lower floor in front of 
the stage, while the remainder of the hall and the galleries were filled with 
invited guests of both sexes, including the Governor and Council, members of 


164 


EULOGY OK LATE BENJAMIN RUSSELL. 


the Senate and House of Representatives, the Judges of the Courts, Mayor 
and other members of the City Government, Clergy, and distinguished citi- 
zens. Indeed, a more intellectual and respectable audience was rarely ever 
before assembled on any public occasion in our city. The services were as 
follows : — 

VOLUNTARY ON THE ORGAN, 

By Brother Geouge James Basnktt, of Boston. 


SELECTIONS FROM THE SCRIPTURES, 
By Rev. Br. E. M. P. Wells, of Boston. 

PRAYER, 

By Rev. Brother Samuel Bassett, of Boston, 


FUNERAL ODE, 

From Brother Thomas Power’s Masonic Melodies, No. 109. 
Music — 1 u Canterbury u A, Major. 


What sounds of grief, in sadness, tell 
A Brother’s earthly doom, 

No more in life’s fair scenes to dwell, 

A tenant of the tomb ! 

No more the friendly hand now pressed, 
No gently- whispered word, 

He finds a long unbroken rest, 

Where rules his Heavenly Lord. 


All earthly joys and sorrows o’er, 
Each changing hope or fear, 

He sees the light of that fair shore, 
Without a sigh or tear. 

Then hring to Him, whose holy care, 
That better Temple forms, 

Our wish that all may gather there, 
Beyond life’s coming storms. 


EULOGY, 

By Hon. Brother Francis Baylies, of Taunton.' 


PRAYER, 

By Rev. Brother Joseph O. Skinner, of Dudley. 


CONCLUDING HYMN, 

From Brother Thomas Power’s Melodies, No. 108. 

Music — “ Windham .” E. Minor. 


With bursting sighs, with notes of wo, 
What saddening thoughts each bosom 
swell ! 

But hope directs from scenes below 
To climes where joys immortal dwell. 

There sorrowing thoughts and sighs no more 
O’er death’s cold form shall e’er unite : 

No pain shall reach that cloudless shore, 
Where Love reflects its holy light. 


To Him, our Master, humbly bend, 
Whose Spirit gave our mortal breath ; 
His hand our stay, when life shall end, 
Will guide us through the vale of death. 

Let Hope’s immortal joys arise, 

Where grief fraternal fills each breast 2 
Let faith direct to cloudless skies, 

Where each shall find his peaceful rest ! 


BENEDICTION, 

By Rev. Brother Asa Eaton, D. D., of Boston. 


The hall was hung in black, and the appointments and proceedings were 
in keeping with the melancholy nature of the occasion. The Eulogy was a 
well- written, eloquent and elaborate production. As an able statistical paper, 
it is of intrinsic value, and will be so esteemed by the reading and reflecting 
portions of the community. Many of its details, having an important bear- 



EULOGY 05 LATE BENJAMIN RUSSELL. 


16 $ 


ing on the early history of our country as an independent nation, and on the 
organization of its government, were never before published. Much of the 
secret history of the Convention held in Boston for the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, was detailed by the speaker ; and it is an inter- 
esting incident, that the only surviving member of that body, the Hon. Judge 
Davis, of this city, was present as a listener, and a witness to the truthful- 
ness of the narrative. And whatever may be thought of the expediency of 
introducing so much of political history, we cannot think that any will, 
question the fitness or propriety of the measure, when it is known that Maj. 
Russell, though not a member, was an active and efficient agent in producing 
a favorable action in the Convention, and that he was likewise the reporter 
of the debates. He was therefore identified with the proceedings, as he was 
with most of the political movements of his times. His history can never be 
faithfully written, independently of the political history of the age in which he 
was a distinguished actor. The expediency of the measure was probably 
settled in the speaker’s mind, by the fact stated, that there is but one mem- 
ber of the Convention now livipg, and he was needed as a witness. 

There was another portion of the Eulogy, which was probably less inter- 
esting to a large portion of the audience than that to which we have just 
referred. It need not be said that Maj. Russell was a federalist, for whoever 
knows any thing of the history of parties, or of the country, knows that. It 
was the gloty of his life, and he never failed to proclaim it in the streets and 
on the house-tops, everywhere and under all circumstances. This natu- 
rally, if not necessarily, led the speaker into an examination of the history of 
the great leading principles on which that party acted. And perhaps a more 
uninteresting topic could not have come up before a mixed popular audience. 
But it formed a prominent feature in the public history of the deceased, and it 
may be a question whether the speaker could, in justice to himself and his 
subject, reject it. , At all events, he met it, and met it boldly. If he did not 
do it fairly and truthfully, — if he played the partizan and mistated the facts, 
he will probably be corrected when the Eulogy is published. 

The result of the matter was, however, that to the mass of the audience, 
the Eulogy was tiresome. .It occupied two hours and thirtyfive minutes in the 
delivery, and the speaker labored under the disadvantages of a severe cold, 
and consequent want of clearness of enunciation. 

For what follows, with some corrections, we are indebted to one of the city 
papers, (the Daily Bee,) — preferring to give the views of one not a Mason, and, 
therefore, a disinterested listener, to any thing of our own : — 

The Hon. gentleman who addressed the audience, evidently wrote with the 
ultimate view to publication, and the work will be found a very interesting and 
useful book — a succinct history of the leading events of the century behind us, 
“ the times that tried men’s souls.” 

The Hon. Speaker apologized in the commencement of his address, for the 
lengthy historical details which he found it necessary to introduce, in order to 
show the important influence exerted by Major R., and turning to the Masonic 
Fraternity he began as follows : 

We are assembled, my Brethren, to commemorate the life and death of our de- 
parted Brother, Benjamin Russell. His long journey through life is ended, and 
he has now reached that quiet place, where the wicked cease from troubling, and 
the weary are at rest 

But we cannot find room for more than a mere outline of that portion of the 
address relating solely to Major Russell himself ; and we gathered from it that 
he was the son of John Russell, and nephew of Joseph Russell, so long the 



166 


EULOGY ON LATE BENJAMIN RUSSELL. 


town treasurer of Boston. He was born in Sept. 1761 ; and bis family for four or 
fire generations immediately preceding him were Bostonians. His English an- 
cestor, John Russell, settled in Woburn, in 1635. 

1 mention these things, said the speaker, to sho wbow thoroughly our departed 
Brother was identified with this locality. To him, Boston was a sacred city — a a 
much so, as Jerusalem to a Jew. 

At the early age of 13 years, while a school-boy under the instruction of the 
celebrated Master Carter, he came upon the stage of active life, and though in an 
humble sphere, bore a part in the exciting scenes of which his native city and its 
adjacencies were then the theatre. The speaker here read an account, from Maj. 
Russell’s own pen, of the formation of the long line of British soldiers under Lora 
Percy, along Trernont street— then called Long acre — preparatory to the march 
for Lexington and Concord, in which he states that Master Carter having sent 
one of the school-hoys to reconnoitre, on receiving intelligence that the troops 
had taken up the line of march for the interior, immediately dismissed his schol- 
ars with the remark, that “ war has begun, boys, and this school is now broken 
up.” Several of the boys, Major R. among them, instead of going to their homes, 
followed the soldiers over into Cambridge, where they ascended a hillock and 
waited till the red coats returned in full retreat, under the galling fire of the pur- 
suing provincials. The boys then descended the hill, and having been without 
food throughout the entire day, “ began to search their pockets, but found them 
as empty as their stomachs.” Fanner Hastings, who lived in the neighborhood, 
tbok them to his house and cared for them, as it was impossible to convey infor- 
mation of their situation to their families in Boston. Daring the eventful days 
just previous to the battle of Bunker’s Hill, these boys were continually running 
about the gathering forces, and as General Putnam — who was a great favorite 
with them — passed and repassed the little squad, upon his long-tailed Connecticut 
horse, the enthusiastic little fellows would throw up their caps with a “ hurrah for 
old Put!” at the top of their shrill voices. 

Young Russell was received into ohe of the Companies as its Clerk, and going 
one day to the Commissary’s with some of the soldiers for their rations, he met 
his father, who with others had effected his escape from Boston, and who had not 
seen or heard from his son since the 19th of April; the joy of the old gentleman 
was so great that “ he seized hold of me,” says Major R. in his narrative, u and 
gave me a good shaking for not having written to him,” upon seeing which the 
soldiers interfered to protect u our Clerk,” as they styled him. His father, how- 
ever, obtained his discharge as a Revolutionary soldier — and took him immedi- 
ately to Worcester, where he bound him as an apprentice to Isaiah Thomas, a 
Printer. At the age of 17 he again enlisted in the Army, and marched from 
Worcester to share the hardships and the glories of his patriotic countrymen in 
the field. He was one of the guard at the execution of Major Andre. At 21, he 
was again discharged, and at once resumed his trade. On the 14th March, 1784, 
he published the first number of the Columbian CentineL While in the Army he 
had seen a meeting of Freemasons, among whom was General Washington, and 
he was puzzled to discern how it could be that a sergeant, also in the Lodge, 
should he above his venerated Chief ; this led him to inquire into the practical 
benefits of Masonry, and resulted in his joining the Order, in which he finally 
rose to be a Grand Master. As a Mason his unbounded kindness and generosity 
have been felt by many ; he never held back the helping hand from a Brother in 
distress ; and when the fiercest storms have gathered around the Order, he showed, 
like the steel of Damascus, that his temper was true. 

Ati anecdote was here related by the speaker of an interview between the 
present King of the French and Major Russell, when the former was a fugitive 
to this country, in poverty and distress. To relieve the necessities of the suffering 
Prince without inflicting a wound upon his feelings, and with proper delicacy 
towards Greatness in distress, Major Russell purchased from him some books, 
which Louis Phillippe had with him; and one of these the speaker held up to the 
Mger gaze of his audience. Another anecdote illustrative of the daring courage 



THE TEMPLE OF MASONRY; 


IW 


of Major R. and also of the benefits of Masonry, was related of his successful 
visit to the British frigate Nymph, during the last war, for the purpose of procur- 
ing the release of a relative of his, who was detained on board that vessel as a 
prisoner of war. 

The speaker here returned to the Columbian Centinel newspaper, which he 
commended in the very highest terras, and to which he attributed the greatest in- 
fluence in securing the safety and even the very existence of the federal Govern- 
ment To Major Russell’s exertions among the mechanics and merchants of 
Boston, the Hon. gentleman ascribed the adoption of the Constitution of the 
United States ; ana certainly the vivid and graphic picture which he drew of the 
excitement incident to the discussion of that instrument in the meeting of dele- 
gates from the various towns of the Old Bay State, and the important nearing of 
the Columbian Centinel and its editor upon them, warrant the belief that but for 
him the Constitution would have been rejected ; an act which all the friends of 
the Union regarded as the precursor not only of its dissolution, but of general 
anarchy and confusion. 

The patriotic efforts of Major Russell, through his paper, to allay the intern 
and dangerous excitement during the famous Shay’s Rebellion and in the quasi 
war with France, were also dwelt upon at length, and so, in short, were his effect- 
ual and beneficent exertions in behalf of his country, his countrymen, and all 
mankind, throughout his long life — as a Revolutionary soldier, as a Freemason, 
as a Printer, as a Representative of this, city, as a Senator of the County, as a 
Councillor, as a member of the City Government, as an honest, benevolent, up- 
right man, — whose equal in usefulness, where shall we look for now ? 


THE TEMPLE OF MASONRY.* 

DY Btt. W. SNEWING, LONDON. 

Lo ! where yon structure rears its amjile dome ! 

»Tis light’s abode— ’t is Masonry’s high home, 

See where its walls, by love cemented rise, 

Till their bright turrets pierce the brighter skies ! 

From where the East pours forth the ruddy day, 

To where the West receives its fading ray, 

From the mild South, to where the gelid North 
Marshals its storms, and sends them hurtling forth ; 

In form symmetrical the pile extends, 

Nor with earth’s centre, or Heaven’s concave, ends, 

Three Pillars high, their polished fabrics rear : 

And with united force the structure bear ; 

This Wisdom called, that Strength, that' Beauty named : 
Emblems of Him whose hand the Temple framed : 

Of work Mosaic, wrought with matchless skill ; 

The pavements formed, designed, the mind to fill 
With truthful images of mao’s estate, 

To curb proud scorn, and suffering truth elate. 

A blazing sun in liquid azure glows, 

And o’er the starry roof its lustre throws ; 

While all around, bright hieroglyphics gleam, 

Like Heaveu’s jewels in a slumn’ring 6tream. 

Between the pavement, and the starry spheres, 

Of many steps, a rising way appears j 
Pleasing the path, to him with Faith inspired, 

By Hope sustained, by Charity attired 3 
But effort impotent, and labor vain, 

To him who strives with carnal step to gain. 

From out the Tempi® flashing with light’s beams, 

Three rivers gush— then mix their crystal streams ; 

Still as they roll, the limpid waves expand, 

Bless every shore, and gladden ev’ry land, 

With the full tide of sweet fraternal love, 

Relief and Truth, all hallowed from above. 


♦From the Review. 





168 


CONSTITUTION OF MORNING STAR LODGE. 


CONSTITUTION OF MORNING STAR LODGE, 
WORCESTER, MASS. 

To Augustus Peabody, Esq. 

M W. G. Master, G. Lgdge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, of Mass. 

M. W. Sra: — Enclosed please find the Warrant by which you empowered me 
to constitute “ Morning Star Lodge,” and Install its officers ; and with it I 
have the honor of transmitting a Report of my official proceedings. 

The applicants for the Charter, with their associates, and many other Brethren * 

of this, and the adjoining towns, assembled at the Masonic Hall, on the evening 
of Tuesday the 18th inst, at 7 o’clock. The Lodge was opened and the neces- 
sary preparations were made for the reception of the representatives of the Grand 
Lodge. The R. W. Pliny Slocomb, Dist. Dept Grand Master, was present, 
with several other Past Masters, and to them I am much indebted for their valua- 
ble assistance. 

The Grand Lodge was represented as follows, viz : — | 

R. W. Albert Case, as Grand Master. 

“ “ Pliny Slocomb, as Deputy Grand Master. 

“ " Levi Rawson, P. M. Olive Branch Lodge, as Sen. Gr. Warden. 

“ “ Asa Woodbury, P. M. « « a ag j r . Q r# Warden. 

“ “ Daniel G. Livermore, P. M. “ “ “ as Gr. Treasurer. 

“ “ Caleb Chase, P. M. “ “ “as Gr. Secretary. 

“ James Estabrook, P. M. Morning Star “ as Gr. Marshal. 

“ Nelson Cowing, P. M. Olive Branch “ as Sen. Gr. Deacon. i 

“ Simeon Thompson, P. M. Morning Star “ as Jr. Gr. Deacon. | 

This body having formed in an adjoining room, was waited upon by a Messen- 
ger, and informed that the new Lodge was opened and ready to receive it 

The representatives then entered in procession, and were received in form. 

The officers of the new Lodge vacated the chairs, which were taken by the 
representatives, the former taking seats on the left 

The presiding officer then stated the object of the meeting, the Warrant em- 
powering me to constitute the Lodge and Install the Officers was read, and the 
Brethren signified their satisfaction with my authority. 

The Brethren, with the exception of Past Masters, then retired. During their 
absence the Worshipful Master Elect, was bound to the faithful performance of 
his trust, and took his station on the left of the Master’s chair. The Grand Mar- 
shal having formed the Brethren in procession, re-conducted them into the hall, 
and in passing the East, they saluted their Master ; after which the Lodge was 
seated. 

The preliminaries having been arranged, the Charter was read and the imposing 
ceremonies of Consecration were performed. 1 

The several Officers were Installed, and invested with the badges of their 
respective offices — the charges were delivered and the Lodge was constituted 
“inform” 

The Grand Marshal then made the usual proclamation, and the blessing of the 
Supreme Grand Master was invoked by the Past Grand Chaplain of the Grand i 



CONSTITUTION OF HORNING STAR LODGE. 


169 


Lodge of South Carolina, who officiated as G. Chaplain during the ceremony of 
Consecration. 

The Lodge is composed mostly of experienced Craftsmen, who will well and 
truly guard the Institution and promote its interets. The younger Masons asso- 
ciated with them, are intelligent, active and faithful. The prospect is that the 
Lodge will have all the work it can conveniently attend to, for the sham vail of 
antimasonry has been rent in twain — the people have began to “ consider their 
ways,” and the highly respected members of the Fraternity will commend the In- 
stitution and gain for it the approval of the wise and good. 

The Lodge retains in its possession a Bible, which the late Past Grand Mas- 
ter, Isaiah Thomas, presented to the former Lodge. After the Worshipful Mas- 
ter, Br. Horace Chekert, — had taken the chair, he presented the Lodge an 
elegant copy of the Holy Scriptures, and accompanied the presentation with a 
few appropriate remarks. It was a well-timed and useful gift, and placed in the 
centre , it shall give unfading light to the “ Star,” 

I am happy to acknowledge the assistance rendered me by the intelligent 
Past Masters from abroad. Their zeal for Masonry is truly commendable. 

. And now, Most Worshipful, I beg to congratulate you on the prosperous con- 
dition of the Masonic Fraternity in this State. Having recently returned from 
the State of South Carolina, where, for some years, l have associated with the 
Craflsmen in the labors of the Lodge, and where Masonry is enjoying a high de- 
gree of prosperity, it is a great satisfaction to me, that I am located within your 
jurisdiction, and permitted to associate in Masonic labors with the “ Sons of Light” 
“ in the East” 

I congratulate you on the uprising of the “Morning Star,” and assure you, its 
light will not be dim ! As members of the great Fraternity, may we be all, ob 
one , influenced by the benign principles of pure Freemasonry, then under the 
inspection of wise and skilful overseers, and the direction of the Supreme Grand 
Master, we shall maintain the glory of our excellent Institution — increase its 
usefulness, and hand it down, a blessing to ages yet to come, and generations 
yet unborn. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, by yours, fraternally, 

Albert Case, 

Special Deputy, Sfc* 

Worcester , Feb. 22, 1845. — A. L. 5845. 


Worcester , Feb . 25, 1845. 

Rev. Br. Albert Case, 

Decor Sir : — The undersigned were appointed a Committee of Morning Star 
Lodge, to express to you their grateful acknowledgments for the very accurate 
and acceptable manner in which you performed the Ceremonies of Consecration 
of said Lodge, and in the Installation of its officers, on Tuesday evening, the 
18th. Also, for the exceedingly able, eloquent and Masonic address, with 
which you favored them on that occasion, and they would respectfully request 
that you forward a copy of said address, with an account of the ceremonies of 
22 



170 


CONSTITUTION OF MORNING STAR LODGE. 


Consecration and Installation, to the editor oLthe Masonic Magazine for publica- * 
tion. 

With great respect, your Brothers, 

(Signed) James Estab ro ok, } Committee of 

Henry Earl, > Morning Star 
Horace Chenery, J Lodge . 


Worcester , February 26, 1845. 

Respected Brethren : 

Your favor of the 25th inst., in behalf of Morning Star Lodge, has been 
received. I am grateful for the expression of satisfaction on the part of the 
Lodge, with respect to the performance of the duties assigned me by the M. W. 
G. Master. 

The remarks addressed to the Lodge and Brethren on the occasion, imperfect 
as they were, are in substance, submitted at your request for publication. 

With sentiments of Fraternal regard, I am respectfully, your Brother, 

Albert Cask. 

To James Estabrook, J 

Henry Earl, > Committee , fyc. 

Horace Chenery, ) 


ADDRESS TO THE MASTER. 

Worshipful Master : — As the special deputy of the M. W. Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of this Commonwealth, by the power and authority by him con- 
ferred upon me, and with the assistance of the R. W. Brethren present, I have 
Consecrated “ Morning Star Lodge,” and Installed its several officers. It is with 
a degree of satisfaction I will not attempt to describe, that I now have the honor 
of inducting you into the distinguished station your Brethren have called you to 
fill. 

It would not become me to enter into' a detail of the numerous and important 
duties devolving npon you in the responsible office you have assumed, because, 
in by-gone days, you have enjoyed the satisfaction of having performed them 
with the skill of a wise and faithful Master. 

Your ability and zeal are well known to those who have reposed the trust in 
you, and you can rely with confidence on their aid, to render your labors easy, 
agreeable and profitable. 

To you, as the chief pillar of the Lodge — the Representative of Wisdom , — will 
the Brethren look for instruction. While they have been careful to fill the Chair 
with an experienced Mason, they have happily placed the jewel of your office on 
one that will not only lay out the work, and enforce the regulations, but set an 
example that shall influence others to work by the Square . As the Sun rises in 
the East to open and enlighten the day — to give warmth and vigor to man, so 
should the Worshipful Master rise, — open his Lodge in due time; give proper 
instruction for labor, cause the light of science to shine and impart knowledge 
among the Brotherhood, and thereby give greater vitality to Masonic teachings, 
that the Brethren, profiting by them, may receive full pay as Masons. 

Before you, and shedding its light all around, is that Holy Volume, which as 
Masons we revere as the rule and guide of our “ faith and practice,” and under 
the benignant bend of the “All-Seeing Eye” it will render your own and the 
pathway of the Brethren clear, and the journey pleasant. 

May that “Eye” which never slumbers nor sleeps, but sees into the innermost 
sanctuary of the heart, as well as the Lodge-room, look approvingly upon you 
and the members of the Lodge. May you have the high satisfaction of knowing 



CONSTITUTION OF MORNING STAR LODGE. 171 

that your works are accepted, and at the last be seated at the right of the Grand 
If aster Supreme, in the celestial Grand Lodge ! 

ADDRESS TO THE WARDENS. , 

Brs. Senior and Junior Wardens : — The stations you occupy are important, and 
very much responsibility devolves upon you. By a faithful performance of your 
duties, you will greatly aid the representative of Wisdom in carrying out his 
plans of instruction and rearing the moral edifice. As the representatives of the 
pillars of Strength and Beauty , you are to yield support to the Master and 
strengthen and adorn the fair fabric with those excellences and virtues, which 
are of more value than a profusion of precious stones. 

Br . Junior: — Your exertions will be required in the heat of the day, and the 
interests of Masonry demand that you be a faithful and prudent Overseer, and 
“ Ne’er Shrink from the Sun jn the pride of its height.” 

As the Sun at meridian is the glory and beauty of the day, so may you by 
precept and example cause the Brethren to act by the Plumb, to practice Tempe- 
rance, Prudence and Justice, and adorn themselves with the beauty of holiness. 

Br. Senior: — Your assistance is invaluable in directing the Craft on the level 
of equality, in their improvement in- science and virtue. As the Sun sets in the 
West to close the day, you will see that all receive a proper share of instruction, 
that good-will may prevail, and none be allowed to depart dissatisfied, so that 
harmony may strengthen and support the Lodge, and give durability to our an- 
cient Institution. 

ADDRESS TO THE LODGE. 

Brethren of the Lodge : — I congratulate you on the organization of Morning 
Star Lodge, in your beautiful Village, and on the bright prospects that open be- 
fore you, for the inculcation and practice of those sublime virtues, which have a 
common God for their origin, and a boundless universe for their temple. 

It is matter of gratulation to the Fraternity, when another is added to the num- 
ber of Mars before which Masons bow, at which they worship, and /rom which, 
the light of eternity is far shining, to instruct, improve and bless. But particu- 
larly to you, is it a joyous circumstance, that this Lodge, like a Phoenix, from the 
ashes of the old, has arisen in all the solidity and brightness of the "Morning Star P J 

Masonry, during its protracted slumber, has not here lost aught of its energy or 
its power. The workmen, though they have not for long years heard the sound 
of the gavel, calling them to labor, have been spared by the Grand Architect of 
Heaven and Earth, and now, in all the wisdom of early instruction, improved bv 
the light and meditation of after years, — with jewels all bright and glowing, with 
clean hands and pure hearts, — you have assembled to renew your labors — to im- 
part to the worthy and well qualified, those mysteries and principles which for 
long ages have made man Brethren, in fraternal affection, faithfulness and truth. 

It is well that the former workmen should again resume the tools and com- 
mence the labor. From your experience and love of Masonry, you are better 
prepared for the undertaking than young and inexperienced Craftsmen. You 
ftave seen the Institution in its palmy days, in the time of its power and useful- 
ness — in the hour of its former glory. You have witnessed its decline, and you 
know the cause . 

You saw it when a night of thick darkness threw its ponderous clouds around 
its brow — when unprincipled recreants assailed its fortress with all the weapons 
that malignity could devise or dare. You have witnessed the haughty and heart- 
less smile of the hypocritical and base pretender , as he flattered himself he saw the 
lightnings of vengeance and the thunders of wrath and indignation he had lev- 
elled against it, reaching its heart of hearts, piercing its vitals and producing its 
spasms, and its death throes ! You have seen the aspiring, the ambitious politi- 
cian, seeking to gain the hearts of the people, and rise to power, by calumniating 
an Institution whose principles were too pure for his perverted heart, and whose 
light was reaching that heart’s core, — exposing its rottenness and reproving its 



172 


CONSTITUTION OF MORNING STAR LODGE. 


\ 


sin. You have seen many of the gentler sex, who, in consequence of the false 
representations of the artful and designing, were prejudiced against the Institu- 
tion which has extended its arms to protect and bless, and been a support and 
shield to Mem, and the lone orphan* Yet amid all this opposition from the de- 
praved designing ones, and from the ignorant, yet confiding, whom the reckless 
so wickedly deceived, — you have not despaired. You have waited with good 
hope for the storm to spend its violence, and you have not waited in vain. You 
have seen the boisterous and contending elements hushed in silence, the prime 
movers of strife and discord retire in dismay and shamefaced ness. You again 
behold the fair fabric of Masonry standing up in all her first grandeur, unscatned, 
undimmed, — redeemed, — her sanctuarv cleansed, her pillars standing firm and im- 
mutable, with bright beams from the Omniscient Eye resting on their heads. 
Well did the Poet sing: 

“ Truth crushed to earth, will rise again $ 

The eternal years of God are her’* \ 

But error wounded writhes in pain, 

And dies amid her worshippers.” 

All true was this saying, and fully, in this instance, has it been verified. 

The Brethren have witnessed all this, and now there seems to come over us a 
kind of inspiration, as we assemble in this sacred retreat, linger a moment on the 
past tribulations, and gladden our hearts with our present conditions and pros- 
pects. 

M The rule and guide to our faith and practice,” is still unchanged, bright and 
inviting as before, — the “ All-Seeing Eye,” is still watching over us — Faith, Hope 
and Charity have lost none of their influence — Brotherly love and Relief may yet 
be cherished and exercised — the 

“ Truth is mighty and will prevail.” 

My Brethren : — The past , with all its lights and shades, has been — the present is. 
For this time, was the past, and we should improve its lessons. The interests of 
the Fraternity are in some measure in your “hands. Let them not suffer in the 
house of their friends. Let each one feel that on him, his zeal, his conduct, rests 
the welfare of Freemasonry, and each one will promote its respectability and 
usefulness. Preserve the ancient land-marks unmoved ; let your whole lives be 
regulated by the precepts of wisdom, — your characters have all the strength and 
support which virtue gives, and then will they be adorned with the beauty of 
holiness ! By carefully observing the principles, you will preserve the mysteries, 
and exteUd the blessings of Freemasonry. 

Ours being a system of peace, order and harmony, is promotive of fraternal 
affection and good will. These fruits should be seen in Lodge, and in all our 
intercourse with the world. Then will Freemasonry, the hand-maid of our holy 
religion, be commended, — its principles will spread abroad and their salutary in- 
fluence be excited beyond the Lodge room, beyond the members of the mystic 
tie* They will go out like seed broad-cast, improving the social relations, 
moralizing and invigorating the mass of mind. Temperance, Fortitude, Pru- 
dence and Justice shall then be recognized as powerful principles, worthy to be 
cherished and practised, rather than as mere sounding names ! Then will those 
not of the Order, feel the thrillings of benevolence and charity, and fraternize for 
the purpose of promoting the welfare of each other and of the great whole. 

When such associations arise, and arise they will, wherever Masonry spreads 
her wand and exerts her power, let us regard them without jealousy, not as Ma- 
sonic societies, but as kindred in spirit, and extend to them that kindness which 
shall encourage the growth of benevolence and charity. 

As Masons, we shall be pleased at all times to see the uprising of that Love 
which God has implanted in the bosoms of his children, — a principle which is far- 
reaching as the wants of humanity, — lasting as eternity! Be ye promoters of all 
that is good, then ye will be faithful Masons, and in due time receive a Master’s 
pay. 



WHAT IS THE SECRET. 


173 


Brethren, Officers and Members ,--- be co- workers in the great work, guard well 
the avenue to your J&ltar , allow it not to be polluted by profane hands —keep a 
strict watch over your own affections and conduct — square your lives by the 
tare of virtue and maintain such characters as shall be approved by the Infinite 

The M. W. Grand Lodge has been pleased to favor your re-organization ; it 
will rejoice in your prosperity ; that prosperity will depend on your attachment to 
Masonry, your devotion to its interests, and your observance of its requirements. 
Be ye sincere, fervent, and true, and your Lodge shall be and remain, like 

M The bright pillar that rose at Heaven’s command, 

When Israel marched along the desert land, 

Blazed through the night, on lonely wilds afar, 

And, told the path, a never failing Star” 

I have now performed the duty entrusted to me, by the appointment I had the 
honor to receive from the Most Worshipful Grand Master. As his representa- 
tive, I tender you the thanks of the Grand Lodge, for your praiseworthy exertions 
to increase its honors and extend the beneficial influences of Freemasonry. I 
give you its parental benediction, and am happy in being enabled to assure that 
distinguished body, that the interests of Masonry have here been confided to 
faithful and true Brothers, in whose hands they are safe ; that here , Masonry will 
lie inculcated and honored, and that the Lodge it has planted in Worcester, shall 
be a # firm pillar of the Grand Lodge, a -promoter of our useful art — a bright — a 

MOANING- STAR. 


Br. Moors: — It is often asked, What is the Secret of Masonry? What is it, that binds 
the Masonic-Fraternity together? As a laudable cuiiosity is always justifiable, I felt dis- 
posed to answer the inquiry by penning the following lines, which, if you think a good 
answer, you can give to the world: 

WHAT IS THE SECRET? 

Go stand on the mountain’s lofty brow 
And cast thy gaze around ; 

The ocean wave is before the now, 

*T is there the secret ’s found. 

Go stand beside the murmuring rill, 

Beneath the cooling shade ; 

Sweet thoughts of the past will o’er thee steal,— 

The eecRET is there displayed. 

Go gaze on the tints of opening day 
As they gem the morning cloud, 

Go list to the warbling sougster’s lay 
So full of praise, so loud. ' 

Go list to the anthem all nature gives 
To hail the rising Sun j 

List the sweet harmony ! All nature lives 
To praise the Holy One. 

i 

Go look on all the works of Him 
Who spoke and it was done,— 

Then ask the secret of all you’ve seen,— 

The Secbet and Love are one ! 


J. 0. B. 




BISTORT OF INITIATION 


175 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER VI. 

THE TRIAD SOCIETY IN CHINA. 

[with an engraving.] 

Our last number was on the varieties of the mysteries of China and Japan. In, 
continuation of the same subject, we give the following details of a secret 
society still pxisting in China. The account was originally published as a sup- 
plement to the Singapore Free Press. We first met with it, however, in a Ger- 
man periodical, (Latomia,) from which we give a translation ; — premising, that 
as the facts stated were originally translated from the Chinese into English, then 
into German, and now back again into English, it would be a wonder if some of 
them are not a little mystified. 

Accoont of a Secret Society, in China, called the Triad Society, by the late Dr. Milne, 

Principal of the Anglo-Chmese College, and communicated by Dr. Mobkison, Feb. 3, 

1825 . 

The author is aware of the difficulty of procuring exact information on a sub- 
ject which is kept secret by means of oaths, anathemas, and the threatened (im- 
aginary,) revenge of the gods ; and how easy it is, even with the greatest cir- 
cumspection and care, to be mistaken in the principles and actions of those 
whose lives and fortunes are dependent on the concealment of even the exist- 
ence of such societies. He gives the following, therefore, as the results of the 
best information he could gather on the subject, which, however, may not be in 
all respects considered as undoubted truths. He proposes to give some details 
as to the title, the design, the government, the ceremonies of Initiation, the secret 
signs, and the seal of the society. 

I. THE NAME OF THE SOCIETY. 

This is not given on the seal, and it is therefore difficult to ascertain it with 
certainty. It seems to be the Sanhohmty , — society of the Three United, or the 
Triad Society. The three alluded to in this name, are Tketn, Te, Jtn, or Heaven, 
Earth and Man, which arq, according to the Chinese doctrine of the universe, 
the three great powers in nature. During the first period of the reign of the 
late Chinese Emperor Kea King, this society existed, but under a different name. 
It was then called Theen te kumy, or the Terrestrio, — celestial Triad Society, or 
the society which unites heaven and earth. It rapidly extended itself through all 
the Provinces, and so effectually opposed the government, that it required eight 
yean to subdue it This was done under the reign of the said Emperor. The 
chiefs were made prisoners and put to death, and it was officially communicated 
to the Emperor, (in the inflated style of the Chinese,) that not one of the traitors 
remained under the great canopy of heaven. But the society was not sup 



I 


176 BISTORT OF INITIATION. 

pressed. They became more secret and wary in their operations, and took, after 
a few years, the name of the Triad Society , the better to .conceal their views. 
The name however under which the members recognize each other, is Hung Kea, 
. or the Water-Family . 

There are other associations which are organized in China, and in the Chinese 
colonies, as T ’keen how kwuy , or the Queen of Heaven Association, and the 
Neang ma hwuy f or the governess of the Queen of Heaven’s Association, the 
mother and protectress of alL The objects of these societies, are more commer- 
cial and religious than social, but it is said that the Queen of Heaven’s Society in 
Bengal, is a band of house robbers ! 

II. PURPOSES OR INTENTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

At first, these were not of a bad tendency, but were promotive of mutual re- 
lief. Subsequently, they degenerated into theft, violation of the laws and the 
attainment of political power. In the distant colonies they were especially allied 
for plunder and mutual defence. The idle, ignorant and opium-smoking Chi- 
nese of the lowest order, were especially members of this society. The spoils 
acquired by their robberies were divided according to the rank of the members. 
They mutually swore to defend each other against the attacks of the police, and 
to aid a captured member to escape from the hands of the law. A Chinese 
tailor at Malacca by the name of Tsau Foo , imprisoned for murder in 1818, and 
escaped from the hands of justice, was a leader of the association, and had under 
his command a great number of persons both on the sea and land. He undoubt- 
edly was rescued by his associates and at the very moment when he was about 
to undergo a criminal examination. In places where the greater part of the 
members are young or newly Initiated, it devolves upon the older to avenge any 
insult which may be offered them, by one not of the Order. 

In places where their party is powerful, many persons are accustomed to pay 
them an annual tribute in order to protect their property from their depredations 
and from other robbers. This duly they faithfully fulfil and even restore stolen 
goods as quick as possible. In places like Java, Singapore, Malacca and Pe- 
nang, Chinese strangers (who wish to tarry in the place,) usually pay a trifle in 
money to this Fraternity, in order to be free from their visitation. Still, the 
known intention of the association San ho kwuy , is benevolent, as the following 
motto illustrates : 

“ Yew full tung heang, 

Yew to tung tang 

Mutually to share in each others 

Pleasures and sufferings. 

They recognize each other by signs or tokens, which are given when as- 
sistance is required. 

III. GOVERNMENT. 

The government of the San ho hwuy , is entrusted to three persons, who are 
called the Ko, or elder brothers , as the Masonic, or as certain religious societies, 
term their members Brethren, and say Brother A. or Brother B., — so they salute 
each other. Yih ko , Urh ko, San ko , or first Brother, second Brother, and third 
Brother, are the titles of these three presiding Brothers. Where the members 



HISTORY OP INITIATION. 


ITT 


afe numerous, there may be perhape some difference in the organization of the 
Order. The writer has been unable to procure full information of the laws, dis- 
cipline and internal regulation of the San ho humy. It is said that they have a 
'manuscript, or roll, which contains their laws ; which are written on some kind of 
cloth in order to preserve them in a legible state. In case of discovery, such a 
manuscript might be thrown into a well and remain a long time without spoiling. 
Should the person, in whose possession it is, be pursued by the police and com- 
pelled to cross a river by swimming, he can take it with him. The ink appears 
to be of a peculiar nature and quality, as the writing remains' legible under every 
circumstance. As these statutes are never printed, each member commits them 
to memory, and thus they are not likely to be forgotten. The chiefs of the Fra- 
ternity, (as in all such associations,) have a larger share of the booty, than their 
subordinates. 

IV. CEREMONIES OF INITIATION. 

Of these, but a very imperfect knowledge could be gained. The Initiation 
takes place mostly during the day, in very secret and retired places. There is 
an Idol to which all the offerings are devoted, and before which, the oath is 
administered. The Chinese say, that on these occasions, san shth luh s’he, i. e. 
thirtysix oaths are taken ; but it is believed that it is but one obligation, consist- 
ing of that number of subdivisions, which have allusion to the particular nature 
and design of the society. The initiate gives a small piece of money to defray 
the expenses of the meeting. At the Initiation, they have a ceremony which 
they call kwo keaau, i. e. the passage of the bridge . The bridge is composed of 
swords, — the extremities of which rest on two tables, or are placed upon the 
hilts, so that their points shall touch ; or the members stand in two lines holding 
their swords so that the points cross and form an arch. The initiate takes the 
oath under this bridge, which is called the “ passing or crossing of the bridge.” 
The yih to, a chief presiding Brother, sits at the end of this steel bridge, and has, 
like the others, a drawn sword. He reads the articles of the oath, at each of 
which the initiate gives an affirmative answer ; after which be cuts off the head of 
a cock, (which in China is the usual form of giving additional force to an oath,) 
as a symbol that thus may all perish who divulge their oaths. But these cere- 
monies can only be undertaken when a considerable number of members are 
present These worthy members “of Heaven and Earth,” often perform the cere- 
monies of Initiation in the open air, provided the place is sufficiently retired 
and solitary. 

V. SECRET SIGNS. 

The following are some of the means by which the members of the San ho 
humy recognize each other : By mysterious numbers, the most important of which 
is the number three . This number they hold in peculiar preference as the name 
of the society, the “ Triad,” would seem to intimate. They always make U9e of 
odd numbers if possible; therefore, they say three, three-ten, three hundred, three 
thousand, rather than two, four times ten, &c. The aforementioned word, 

“ Hung,” contains the number 321, and is often used for certain purposes. They 
divide its particles thus i—tan-pak-urh-shih-yih. San is a particular form from 
Shunty (water,) and is used in combinations, and would be “tbissund;” but 
23 



178 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


in the analysis of a Chinese word, in which the form of skw uy is the true 
component, then the Brother who avouches for another says to him, “ San- 
te&n-shwuy” that is, “take three parts of the water, or the three points from the 
word ahwuy”* But if one says, “ san-ho-humy ,” then the meaning is expressed 
by the word “ san” or “ three,” while the remaining words become insignificant 
or mute. Fa, or eight, has the sound like “ pih,” (100) and spoken rapidly can- 
not be distinguished from it Urh-shth is the combined or ordinary form of urh- 
ahxh, or “ twice ten,” which sound alike by rapid pronunciation. Yih is the usual 
form for one. If in this manner, the particles of “ hung” are heard, it would ap- 
pear to the uninitiated as if it were “ Sm-pih-urh-ahih-yiL^ or 321. What the 
Brothers understand by it, we know not. When written, it can be explained as 
above ; but it is by the peculiar pronunciation and tone, that they alone understand 
each other. Particular motions of the fingers form a second class of signs. 
When a member is in a promiscuous assemblage, and wishes to ascertain if & 
Brother is present, he touches his tea-cup, or the cover, (the Chinese cups have 
covers,) with his thumb, fore and middle fingers, or with the fore, middle and 
third fingers, which, being observed by an initiate, he answers with another sign. 
If they have occasion to raise any thing that requires both hands, they make use 
of only three fingers of each hand. They use also certain chants, as signs. 
(One is given in the section or the signs in the first octagon.) 

6. the seal. (See Engraving.) 

The seal is a pentagon, because this number, as before remarked, is one of 
the mystic numbers of the society. According to the way and manner in which 
some of the characters are written on the seal, it is not improbable that some are 
not correctly explained. The following is the best we can give, deduced from 
their peculiar way of writing : 

EXPLANATION OP THE SIGNS IN THE FIVE ANGLES OP THE PENTAGON. 

1. Too . The elephant, or saturn, who, according to the Chinese belief, has a 
particular influence on the centre of the earth, as also being one of the five ele- 
ments. 

2. Muh. The Wood Planet, or Jupiter, the planet which governs the eastern 
part of the heavens. 

3. Shurny. The Water Planet, or Mercury, which governs the northern hem- 
isphere. 

4. Kin. The Metal Planet, or Venus, who presides over the west 

5. Ho. The Fire Planet, or Mars, who governs the south. 

N. B. These planets are placed at the angles of the seal, because they are 
the basis , or foundation of the Chinese Astronomical knowledge, and they are 
also considered as the remotest points of all created things. 

EXPLANATIONS OP THE FIVE SIGNS, DIRECTLY UNDER THE PLANETS. 

6. Hung . A flood or overflowing of water. One of the secret titles of this 
society is Hung Kea, literally “ the family of the flood,” designating their ac- 


*The Chinese, as well as the other Oriental languages, is modified by the use of points. 


r 



HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


179 


tivity, and their influence, which, like a flood, have extended throughout the 
world, and rendered them omnipotent 

7. Haon . A guide, a thief, or a brave man. 

8. Han, The name of an ancient and extinct royal family, but the word be- 
ing given in a particular way, it signifies, a very courageous and bold man. 

9. Ying, a hero. 

10. Kea t a pillar, which metaphorically represents a person of importance in 
the State, as it is said such a one is a pillar or support of the country. 

N. B. Although these are the ordinary significations of the above words, still 
it may be that by the Fraternity they are used in a mystical and secret sense. 


EXPLANATION OF THE OTHER SIGNS IN THE SAME LINE. 

II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 15. 17.. Yingy heung % hmuy, ho, ti»an, yum, she. 

Id. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Hewng, te i fir i kae t yih i show, the. 

The hero and associates united in complete assembly, 

Each man is a verse, to fill up the song. 

Probably this is the meaning of these words, as they are represented, but it is 
well known, that it is a custom in the Fraternity to converse in rhyme, that they 
may the better elude suspicion, and conceal their meaning. One speaks a verse, 
or only half of a verse, which of course is unintelligible, to the uninitiated, but 
readily known and responded to by a member, by the corresponding verse, or the 
other half of the verse. 

25. 26. 27. Kee, te, tuy. These three words cannot be explained in the order 
in which they are placed. Kte, signifies to chain, to bind, and is frequently used 
to denote the formation or foundation of a secret society. Te, (if we are right in 
the character,) signifies a Brother or a younger Brother, and would mean u to 
form a brotherly band.” Tuy, signifies a pair, or two things which are equal 
But it is probable that these words have some reference to others on the seal ; but 
in what relation, it is difficult to discover. 


EXPLANATION OF THE WORDS IN THE FIRST OCTAGON. 


28. 29. 30. 31. 
32. 33. 84. 35. 
36. 37. 38. 39. 
40. 41. 42. 43. 


Heiing te tung thin, 
Ko yen haou tow : 
Kaon k'e far pae ; 
Wan koo yea chuer. 


All the Brethren are assembled for battle, 

Each ia ready with a chosen sign, 

An ancient river divided into numerous branches, 

Haa flowed gently onward through the lapse of ages. 


As a help to this translation, it may be observed, that the' society has secret 
signs and tokens, by which to recognize each other, or to make communication 
of ideas, and, that during the tumults of which they are the cause, they use these 
signs to call each other to the work of plunder or destruction. They deem their 
association to be of very ancient origin, and that it has spread itself from century 
to century over the whole world. 



180 


HISTORY OF INITIATOR* 


The above words can also be read in verses of eight or seven syllables com* 
mencing with No. 32, thus : 

Ko yew haou tow We Jur 
Kami kefur pat wan koo yew. 

N. B. This last verse is repeated as far as No. 36. 

In short, it is impossible to limit the number of changes, which, like the varia- 
tions of the pa kwa (Chinese Numerical Table,) may have an infinite number of 
modifications and explanations, known only to the initiated. 

EXPLANATION OF THE CHARACTERS IN THE SECOND OCTAGON. 

44 45 . 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. These signs as thus placed cannot be explained, 
and the reason why they are written with two different kinds of ink, red and 
black, is, that they conceal a secret meaning, perhaps the real or fictitious names 
of the officers of the society. One half of the sign in red, seems to be printed 
and to have a reference to the purposes of the association, and to the other signs 
on the seal ; but the yellow portion is executed with a brush, or painted, and 
being united with the printed part, may perhaps signify the names of the officers 
in each particular place. In other places, where the names of the officers are of 
course different, the yellow part must be varied also. This supposition is deem- 
ed to be correct by several learned Chinese, who have seen and examined the 
seal. 

51. 52. 53. 54 These characters undoubtedly have reference to the great 
influences of the Order, and to their universal extent and power. 51 is 53 re- 
versed, and 53 is an abbreviated form of Van, (a myriad)— 52 (in the pentagon) 
signifies “ heaven,” and 54 44 earth.” The position in which “ heaven” and 
“ earth” are written, may signify mystically that, myriads of nations will come 
under the influence of the association. 

EXPLANATION OF THE CHARACTERS IN THE SQUARE. 

55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. Chung e foo , wo chuh tung , i. e. 44 Let the true and 
just be thus united to form one perfect whole,” (universal kingdom or govern- 
ment.) This appears to be the simple meaning of the words; but it is impossi- 
ble to say how much more significant they may be, because in different posi- 
tions, they vary essentially. Our translation is the literal one and corresponds with 
the known design of this dangerous society. 

CHARACTERS IN THE OBLONG. 

61 . 62. Yung shing. We suppose that it signifies the chief of the Frater- 
nity. Some interpret it, the name of the founder ; but the sign is written with 
yellow ink, and is probably the name of the present chief ; — after whose death 
the black space in the seal can be immediately filled with the name of his suc- 
cessor, while the name of the founder of the society, being permanent and un- 
changeable, would be printed. 



6. G. CHAPTER OP THE UNITED STATES. 


13! 


GENERAL GRAND CHAPTER OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 

We have received a printed copy of the proceedings of the G.- G. Chapter,- 
had at its triennial meeting in New Haven^ in September last; of which we gave 
a full abstract in the October number of this Magazine. In fulfilment of a prom- 
ise then made, we now give such of the reports as we can find room for : 

REPORT OF THE GENERAL GRAND SECRETARY. 

To the M. E. the General Grand High Priest, and other Officers and Members of the Gen- 
eral Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, for the United States of America. 

In pursuance of a resolution of the G. G. Chapter, requiring the G. G. Secretary 
to prepare and present, on the first day of each triennial session, a digest of the 
communications received by him requiring the action of the G. G. Chapter, the 
undersigned has the honor to submit the following: 

Soon after the close of the last triennial session, the G. G. Secretary received 
the herewith accompanying papers marked “Documents No. 1.” from San'Felipe 
de Austin Chapter, in Texas, a Chapter under the jurisdiction of this G. G. Chap- 
ter. Which documents were intended to be submitted for your advice and in- 
struction at that session ; but unfortunately the vessel by which they were sent 
was detained at sea until after the adjournment 
From these papers it appears, that, in consequence of unforeseen events, the 
Companions to whom the charter of that Chapter was granted, found it impracti- 
cable to conduct the business of the Chapter at San Felipe de Austin, the place 
designated in their Charter for its location, and assumed the responsibility of 
opening the same at Galveston, which was done on the 2d of June, 1840. It also 
appears that said Chapter has received a communication, purporting to come from 
a Chapter of R. A. Masons, at the City of Austin, in that Republic, called “ Lone 
Star Chapter, No. 3,” proposing a union with another body of Royal Arch Masons, 
at Matagorda, styling themselves “ Cyrus Chapter, No. 1,” for the purpose of or- 
ganizing a Grand Chapter of R. A. Masons for the Republic of Texas. This the 
Chapter at Galveston declined ; and wisely refused to hold Masonic intercourse 
with said so called Chapters at Matagorda and Austin, on the ground that the 
Companions composing these assemblages had no legal Masonic right to hold 
Chapters of R. A. Masons. And in this doubtless they are correct; for it is not 
pretended that they have any Charter or Warrant whatever, but are merely indi- 
vidual R. A. Masons, who have, by their own unaided act, associated themselves 
together for this purpose, assuming the right so to do on account of the people of 
the country being politically separated from all others. How the minds of these 
respectable gentlemen, having a recollection of their Masonic obligations, could 
come to such a conclusion, it is difficult to conceive. They say that the G. G. 
Chapter has no jurisdiction over the territory of Texas, and therefore they owe 
you no allegiance. This is very true ; but if a number of Masons residihg in 
Texas, where there is no Masonic body to which they could apply for authority 
to open a Chapter, apply to the G. G. Chapter, as in the case of San Felipe de 
Austin, can it be doubted, that, according to the Masonic usage of the whole 
world, you have a right to grant such authority ? Or suppose they should apply 
to the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania, or Virginia, neither of which are under 
your jurisdiction, have not either of those G. Chapters a right to grant the author- 
ity ? No one can doubt that such an act is in perfect accordance with Masonic 
usage, and that the Chapters and the members thereof, are thereby placed under 
the parent body, the same as they would have been had they been located within 
the same political bounds. Under these circumstances and facts, the officers and 
members of San Felipe de Austin Chapter, ask, first, that you will approve and 
ratify their removing their Chapter from Sait Felipe de Austin to Galveston ; and 
secondly, your advice and instruction touching their course towards the said so 
called Chapters at Matagorda and Austin. 



182 


6. G. CHAPTER OP THE UNITED STATES. 


The matter of the Royal and Select Master Masons* degrees still continue to 
be a subject of anxiety and irritation in the Southern and Western States, and 
the conferring of them, in some instances, a matter of private emolument It 
will be recollected that this subject was brought before yon at the session in 
1829; and, as was supposed, definitely settled. It seems, however, that, notwith- 
standing the undersigned has taken much pains to promulgate the order of the 
G. G. Chapter in the premises, there are those who are still uninformed as to the 
present regulation touching those degrees, or are disposed to disregard it It 
will be seen by reference to the printed minutes of the proceedings of the Grand 
Chapter of Alabama, in 1843, on page 10, that that body have determined that 
they will not recognize Royal and Select Masters who nave received those de- 
grees in Chapters of Royal Arch Masons. The same subject has been brought 
before the Grand Chapter of Ohio, as will be seen by reference to the printed 
minutes of that body of 1842, on page 17 ; and again in 1843, as will be found on 
pages 5 and 7 of the printed minutes of their proceedings in that year. A Grand 
Council for the State of Alabama also, formed, as it is believed, long since the 
regulation above alluded to, has taken action on this subject, and determined 
that they will not receive such Companions as may have received those degrees 
in Chapters, as will be found on page 15 of the pamphlet first above mentioned. 

From a communication received from Comp. Alexander T. Douglas, under 
date of March 18th, 1844, it will be seen that a certain Edwin Cruben, a R. A. 
Mason, in violation of the regulation aforesaid, is travelling from place to place, 
assuming a right to confer these degrees upon individuals when and where it 
may best suit his pleasure or convenience. Such itinerent impostors are a hin- 
drance to the well being of Masonry, and serve to destroy its usefulness. The 
papers and pamphlets touching this matter are herewith presented marked “ Docu- 
ments No. II.” 

By the record of the proceedings of the G. G. Chapter in 1819, it appears that 
the committee to whom was referred the subject matter of dispensations, granted 
by the G. G. Officers during the previous recess, had heard that the then late 
D. G. G. High Priest had granted dispensations for Chapters at Madison and at 
Brookville, in Indiana; but there being no further evidence of their existence 
before the G. G. Chapter, no ratification of those acts was passed, nor were their 
Charters ordered, although several Charters were at that time ordered for other 
Chapters, holding dispensations under authority of other G. G. Officers. Conse- 
quently, Madison and Brookville Chapters ceased to exist as legally constituted 
bodies at that time. It appears however from the herewith accompanying papers 
marked “Documents No. III.” that Madison Chapter continued its labors for 
many years; and there having been another Chapter established at Vincennes, 
in that State, in 1823, it is said a Grand Chapter was organized with the approba- 
tion of M. E. Comp. John Snow, G. G. King. No documentary evidence of that 
authority, or even records of that G. Chapter, are known to exist Nor does it 
appear of record that the G. G. Chapter was ever advised of the existence of such 
institution. These facts have been disclosed by the vigilance of our E. Comp. 
Isaac Bartlett, Secretary of Logan Chapter, upon a proposition to resuscitate said 
G. Chapter. On the true position of things being made known to the Compan- 
ions at Mndison, in the true spirit of Masonry, they immediately suspended all 
work, closed their Chapter, and determined to lay their case before you ; which 
they have done in a very frank, perspicuous and able memorial by their High 
Priest, the M. E. Joseph G. Norwood, herewith presented amongst the documents 
aforesaid, accompanied by their Dispensation, their return from 1842 to the pre- 
sent time, and the payment of such dues as have accrued within that time. 

No return has been made of their doings from the time of their organization in 
1819 to 1842. That the irregularities amongst these Companions are the result 
of mistakes as to the extent of power given by their dispensations there can be 
no doubt ; and those at Madison now pray that their acts may be made lawful 
by the approval of the G. G. Chapter, that their dues up to 1842 may be remitted, 
and that a perpetual Charter may be granted them. 



G. G. CHAPTER OF THE UNITED STATES. 


183 


There is much reason to believe that these are not the only Chapters in like 
circumstances; whilst there are others that have received Charters by order of 
the G. G. Chapter, but have never after thought proper to report their doings, nor 
to pay the constitutional dues. This may arise from a want of knowledge of the 
provisions of your constitution, or it may be from carelessness and inattention. 
It is not known that a register of the Chapters deriving their existence immedi- 
ately from this G. G. Chapter has ever been kept ; consequently, no one can ob- 
tain an account of them without first searching through the records, and then in- 
stituting inquiries whether they are now in existence. 

By the papers herewith submitted marked “Documents No.IV.” it will appear that 
an unhappy state of things has for some time past existed among the Fraternity 
in New Orleans, now or heretofore, members of the Grand Chapter of Louisiana. 
In February, 184?, the Grand Secretary of that Grand Chapter forwarded to the 
undersigned an official notice that the Warrant of Holland Chapter, No. 9, (a 
Chapter subordinate to that jurisdiction,) had been recalled for disobedience to 
the lawful authority of that G. Chapter ; and that two of its members, to wit : 
Cotton Henry and D. C. Lehman, had been expelled from the Order of Masonry 
for having taken the most active part in the rebellion. From this decree, so far 
as respects himself, and of the competency of that body to sit in judgment upon 
any Masonic matter, the said D. C. Lehman has taken an appeal to the G. G. 
Chapter, of which due notice seems to have been given to the appellees. The 
testimony of witnesses has been taken to show that the G. Chapter of Louisiana 
is not a legally constituted Masoni? body ; and also that it holds itself indepen- 
dent \>f, ana in no way subordinate to, this G. G. Chapter. The question seems 
to be one involving the entire existence of a Grand Chapter in the State of Lou- 
isiana. 

In the month of August, 1843, a Dispensation was granted to a competent 
number of petitioners, by the M. E. Joseph K. Stapleton, D_ G. G. High Priest, 
empowering them to open and hold a Chapter at Jackson, in the State of Missis- 
sippi ; and Charles R. Prezriminski, was appointed the first High Priest. By a 
copy of the record from the proceedings of that Chapter, herewith presented and 
marked “ Documents No. V.” it appears said Chapter has expelled said Prezri- 
minski “ from all the rights, benefits, and privileges of Masonry, for a flagrant, 
moral dereliction in a fraudulent and false assumption of Masonic rights to which 
he was not entitled.” 

Although not within the scope of his official duty, under the resolution afore- 
said, yet the undersigned would suggest a query whether it be competent for a 
Chapter to try and expel its own High Priest from the rights and privileges of 
Masonry, during the period for which he has been appointed ? 

There are other matters and things among the papers and documents which 
will be laid before you ; but as they will probably be the subject matter of reports 
from other G. G. Officers, it is not considered necessary here particularly to notice 
them. All which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed,) CHARLES GILMAN, G. G. Secretary . 

New Haven, September 9th, 1844. 


ON THE GRAND CHAPTER OF LOUISIANA. 

To the M. E. General Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the United States. 

The committee to whom was referred sundry papers in relation to certain dif- 
ficulties, which have arisen between a body styling itself the Grand Chapter of 
Louisiana, and the officers and members of Holland Chapter, No. 9, in the City 
of New Orleans, having given the subject careful consideration, respectfully 
report : 

From documents before them, your committee learn that a Grand Chapter of 
Louisiana was organized in 1813, by the “ Royal Lodges,” Concordia and Perse- 



184 


O. G. CHAPTER OP THE UNITED STATES. 


verance,* and such officers and members of the Grand Lodge of the State, as 
were Royal Arch Masons. 

The Grand Chapter, formed in the manner above stated, was attached to, and 
made dependent on the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, and the M. W. Grand Master 
of that body was declared to be, tx-ojffwio,VLud by u inherent right,” Grand High 
Priest of the new Grand Chapter. 

Your Committee will not stop to discuss the legality of these proceedings, for 
the question was foreclosed in 1829, by the admission of a representative from 
the Grand Chapter of Louisiana, in the person of Companion McConnell ; on 
whose return to New Orleans, the Grand High Priest, Companion John Holland, 
convened the officers and members of the Grand Chapter, who, by an official act, 
in regular assembly, enrolled themselves under the jurisdiction of this General 
Grand Chapter, in the manner prescribed by the 13th section of the 4th article of 
the General Grand Constitution ; of which act, it notified all the subordinate 
Chapters under its jurisdiction, and directed similar action on their part, and en- 
joined a strict observance of the provisions of the General Grand Constitution. 
It is believed, that from this time, 1829, to 1831, the proceedings of the Grand 
Chapter of Louisiana, were conducted in good faith and allegiance to this General 
Grand Body. But it is in evidence, that from 1831 to April, 1839, “ no meeting 
of the Grand Chapter was held for any purpose whatever.” All the subordinate 
Chapters under its jurisdiction had ceased to exist, except Holland Chapter, No. 
9, which continued its organization until its Charter was revoked in 1841, as here- 
inafter stated. 

In this year, 1841, the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, by 
direction of the Grand Master , issued notices to certain R&yal Arch Masons in 
the City of New Orleans, to assemble and elect Grand Officers, with a view to & 
reorganization of the Grand Chapter of the State. This meeting did not take 
place. Another, however, was soon after called, of which the High Priest of 
Holland Chapter, and three of his subordinate officers were notified. 

At this meeting, the usual Grand Officers were elected, and a body styling it- 
self the Grand Chapter of Louisiana, was organized. It is proper to state, that 
from the testimony before your committee, it appears that Comp. Henry, H. Priest 
of Holland Chapter, was not present at the election which took place as above 
mentioned, nor can your committee ascertain that there was any Companion 
present, who was entitled to vote in an election of Grand Officers. A few days 
subsequently to this, Comp. Henry received official notice from Comp. Dubayle, 
as “Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of Louisiana,” notifying Holland 
Chapter of the organization of said body, and requiring its returns and dues from 
1832 to 1838, inclusive. Against this demand Holland Chapter protested, and 
asked for the evidence of the legality of the organization of the body making it. 
This was refused, and Holland Chapter declined to recognize its authority. On 
this state of the case, the body assuming to be a Grand Chapter, immediately pro- 
ceeded to revoke the Charter of Holland Chapter, and to expel its High Priest, 
Comp. Cotton Henry, and its Secretary, Comp. C. D. Lehman. 

Against this expulsion, Comp. Lehman appeals to this General Grand Chap- 
ter ; having, on 24th July last, served the reputed Grand Chapter with the usual 
notice of his intention. And it is in evidence, that on this notice being served 
on the alleged Grand Chapter, the High Priest of that body, in his place and in 
open Chapter, declared that “ they did not acknowledge any other body , and were 
independent of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States .” 

Such is a brief state of the facts in the case, as they are presented to your 


* These Lodges were originally organized in the Island of St. Domingo, under Charters 
emanating from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, with powers to confer all the degrees 
from Entered Apprentice to Royal Arch, inclusive. On the breaking out of the revolution 
in St. Domingo, a portion of the members made their escape to the island of Cuba, from 
which they were subsequently obliged to remove to the City of New Orleans 3 where, hav- 
ing preserved their Charters, they soon after re-opened their Lodges. 


6. G. CHAPTER OP THE UNITED STATES. 


185 


committee. From which it appears, that the body formed in 1813, as a Grand 
Royal Arch Chapter for the State of Louisiana, voluntarily surrendered its inde- 
pendent jurisdiction, if any it possessed, and enrolled itself under this General 
Grand Chapter. This body, so legalized, continued in existence until 1831 ; 
after which time, it having failed to hold any meeting, or to elect its officers, as 
required by the 2d section of the 2d article of the General Grand Constitution, it 
ceased to exist All its existing subordinates came under the jurisdiction of this 
General Grand Chapter, which alone could legally exercise authority over the 
territory thus vacated, as provided by the 2d section of the 1st article of the 
General Grand Constitution. 

Your committee are of opinion, that the deceased Grand Chapter could be re- 
vived only in the manner prescribed in the 9th section of the 2d article of the 
General Grand Constitution. No such revival has been authorized or sanctioned ; 
and this General Grand Chapter cannot recognise the right of any foreign body 
to interfere within its jurisdiction, or with the work or business of any Chapter 
acknowledging its authority. 

Your committee therefore recommend that Holland Chapter, No. 9, in the City 
of New Orleans, be directed to resume its labors, under the direction of its former 
officers and members, with power to fill existing vacancies ; and that it be re- 
quired to make its annual returns, and settle its dues with the General Grand 
Secretary. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

(Signed,) C. W. Moore, 

* E. S. Barnum, 

W. B. Hubbard, 

E. A. Raymond, 

J. B. Hamm att, 

I. W. Crawford, 

C. G. Peters. 


ON THE GRAND CHAPTER OF TEXAS. 

To the M. £. General Grand High Priest, Officers, and Members, of the General Grand 

Chapter. 

The Committee to whom was referred sundry documents from certain Royal 
Arch Masons in the Republic of Texas, having given them careful consideration, 
respectfully report: That the General Grand Secretary be requested to write to 
the said Companions who have associated themselves under the name and style 
of “the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the Republic of Texas,” — notifying them 
that this General Grand Royal Arch Chapter cannot recognise the legality of 
their present organization, and giving them such fraternal advice and instruction, 
as may aid them in retracing their steps, and adopting such measures as may be 
necessary and proper, and as are consistent with correct Masonic practice. 

In respect to San Felipe De Austin Chapter, the committee recommend the 
adoption of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the removal of said Chapter from San Felipe De Austin to 
Galveston, be approved and sanctioned by this General Grand Chapter. 

(Signed,) Albert Case, 

Benjamin Enos, 
Wm. Field. 

New Haven, June IliA, 1844. 

24 


i 



G. G. CHAPTER OF THE UNITED STATES, 


186 


ON THE GRAND AND SUBORDINATE CHAPTERS OP INDIANA. 

Tbe Committee to whom was referred the memorial and other papers from 
Madison Chapter, No. 1, at Madison, Indiana, beg leave respectfully to report: 

They have examined the papers placed in their hands, and find a full and clear 
statement of facts from Comp. J. G. Norwood, setting forth their present position 
and past doings ; from which it appears, a Dispensation was granted April 1st, 
1819— that on the 13th May, 1823, 3 Chapters, Vincennes, Brookville, and Madi- 
son, met at Madison, and formed a Grand Chapter, which seems never afterwards 
to have assembled— -that Madison Chapter, No. 1, continued its labors to 1829, 
when they suspended their work, for reasons given, until 19th July, 1842, when 
14 Royal Aren Masonq assembled, and proceeded to open the Chapter for busi- 
ness ; all of which was illegal. 

In 1843, our M. E. D. G. G. H. P. Comp. Stapleton, notified them of their ir- 
regularity, when they immediately ceased their labors, made a full and clear 
statement of all the facts, and now come by petition, to this G, G. Chapter for 
advice ; and your committee would respectfully recommend the following : 

Resolved, 1st, That the doings of Madison Chapter, No. l,,at Madison, Indiana, 
were illegal, subsequent to the next triennial meeting of the G. G. Chapter, after 
the granting of the Dispensation. 

2. That there is no legally constituted Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, 
in the State of Indiana. 

3. That this G. G. Chapter now legalize and confirm the doings of Madison 
Chapter, No. 1, on their healing the Companions so exalted, in said Chapter, or 
so many of them as may appear in their Chapter for that purpose, and when so 
heAled, they shall be considered in good standing. 

4. That any Chapter subordinate to this G. G. Chapter, in good standing, shall 
be competent to heal any Companion exalted in Madison Chapter, No. 1, as 
aforesaid. 

5. That a Warrant be granted to Madison Chapter, No. 1, on its complying 
with the requirements of the G. G. Officers, and tney are hereby requested to 
take the whole subject matter in charge. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed,) R. R. Boyd, 

William Field, 
Chas. W. Moore. 

New Haven, September, 12M, 1844. 


CHAPTERS UNDER THE JURISDICTION. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved, That the G. G. Secretary be requested during the ensuing recess, 
to ascertain what subordinate Chapters are legally acting under the authority of 
this G. G. Chapter ; and that he make and report a register of the same, with 
such suggestions as he may deem for the benefit of this G. G. Chapter ; and 
moreover that he be, and hereby is, authorized and empowered, on behalf of this 
body, to recall the outstanding Charters and Dispensations, which may have been 
forfeited, to this G. G. Chapter. 

We have also a copy of the doings of the General Grand Encampment, but 
have not room for any part of them this month. 



MlfrftOtifcl MASONIC COLLEGE. 


W7 


MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. 

The following Report of the doings of the indefatigable agent of the above 
College, for the past year, was submitted at the last annual communication of the 
Grand Lodge of Missouri. It will be read with interest by the members of the 
Fraternity every where, for it is a matter in which the whole Masonic commu- 
nity are interested 

The undersigned, agent for the College, respectfully reports : That, since the 
last communication of the G. Lodge, he has devoted as much of his time and 
attention to the business of his office, as agent of the College, as was possible. 
He visited the Lodges in St Louis, St Charles, Danville, tMarthasville, and Mon- 
ticello, in Missouri ; and Belleville, Carlyle, Salem, and Alton, in the State of 
Illinois. An account of the proceeds of this trip is subjoined. Finding it diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, to obtain the requisite means of meeting the accruing 
demands against the G.' Lodge from the Brethren of Missouri, who had already 
contributed liberally, and whose hopes for the future had been wholly blasted by 
the unexampled rains and flood, by which the prospects of agriculture had been 
almost wholly ruined ; the undersigned deemed it imperatively necessary to seek 
assistance among more favored Brethren. He accordingly obtained from the M. 
W, G. M. his assent and, commission, and proceeded to the States of Ohio and 
Kentucky, and solicited from the Fraternity of those States the means of saving 
the College property from sacrifice. The amount realised by this journey will 
be found stated below which, though not commensurate with either our wants 
or expectations, was received from warm, pure, and disinterested Masonic benev- 
olence : and it is due to the Brethren of those States to mention, that those of 
Ohio are considerably indebted themselves, on account of their Grand Hall ; and 
the Brethren of Kentucky were engaged in establishing a School for Orphans, 
under the patronage of their G. Lodge. These causes operated against our ap- 
plication, and intercepted the donations, which otherwise would have been be- 
stowed. The efforts of our Fraternity to establish the Orphan Asylum, every 
where received the approbation of the Craft ; and your agent has the pleasure to 
acknowledge the most kind, fraternal, and affectionate attentions of the Brethren 
of those States, wherever he went. It would extend this report to too great a 
length, to give a list of all those from whom donations were received, and to Ter 
count the many evidences of fraternal regard and Masonic charity evinced 
towards him } and therefore, however pleasing the task, must omit it. He has 
made out, and will file in the office of the G. Secretary, a list of those whose 
generosity prompted them to contribute their means in aid of our school ; and, 
though he must debar himself from the pleasure of presenting a list of contribu- 
tors, he cannot omit his public acknowledgments to a few of the many Brothers, 
from whom he received the most marked and special attentions : whose ears 
were opened to hear, and whose sympathies were brought to participate in all 
that related to the Orphan School of Missouri. Of those allow him to name Brs. 
Langdou, Graff, Ezekiel, Hanselman, of Cincinnati ; Brs. Cox, Holloway, Biggar, 
Soward, Wingate, Scott, Bullock, Cunningham, Lewis, Brent, of Kentucky. 
From those, he received not only their donations, but all the aid they could be- 
stow in obtaining assistance from others ; and though he may see them no more, 
yet will he recur with gratitude and pleasure to the recollection of their kindness, 
courtesy, and Masonic benevolence ; and he tenders to all whom he saw his, 
most grateful acknowledgments. The following is the account of receipts and 
disbursements since the last annual communication : 

The sum on hand, at Oct. 1843, per report, , . . . §2,704 22 

“ proceeds of note in Bank, of Brs. McBride, Bull, Jacoby & Carnegy, for 
*3000, at 4 nios. ...... ,2,925 92 

“ proceeds of bill of exchange of Brs. Morehead and others, the donation of 
Kiehmond L. Mo. ...... 


335 16 



188 


MISSOURI MASONIC COLLEGE. 


Received of Br. Dallam, G. Sec. Charity fund, 

“ from Brethren of St. Louis, by Br. J. Foster, 

“ “ Marthasville L. by Br. Griswold, 

“ “ Danville L. their donation 

“ “ Br. Pines Shelton, St. Charles, 

“ " “ W. J. McElhmey, do. 

11 “ “ Morrison, of Belleville, Ills. 

“ “ Carlyle L. III. 

** M Monticello L. by their Tr. Br. Night, . 

M “ G. L. lor Br. J. Foster, 

“ •' G. L. by Br. Jacoby. 

Donations received from Brethren of Ohio and Ky., over expenses, 


90 

00 

68 

00 

100 

00 

100 

00 

6 

00 

6 

00 

6 

00 

8 

00 

60 

00 

104 

00 

400 

00 

31U 

00 


Total Receipts, 

Within the same period, there has been paid out the following sums 

To Perpetual Insurance Office, on the debt of the G. L. 

“ same Office, on same account, ..... 

“ Bank of Mo. first instalment on the $3,000 loan, 

“ do. do. second instalment on do. 

“ do. do. third instalment on do. . . 

Paid a Br. on the loan at Palmyra, .... 

To expenses on journey through 111. and Mo. (above,) 

Paid on contract for rails, to Mr. Smith, .... 
Balance subjeet to order of G. L. 


7,210 30 

12,626 92 
2.641 00 
600 00 
604 00 
600 00 
10 00 
33 00 
3 76 
92 63 


7,210 30 

In May last, the Committee entrusted with the sale of the out lands of the Col- 
lege, sold to Mr. Hassinger one hundred and forty acres of it, for the sum of 
$700, payable in ten years. This debt pays interest at ten per cent per annum, 
payable semi-annually: thus $70 per annum is secured, with which to educate 
such as cannot provide for themselves. 

It is due to those who provided the first payment of $3000, on the purchase of 
the College property, to acknowledge the several contributions. This would 
have been done in my last report, if I had possessed the information necessary to 
the performance of the duty, accurately : but the money was collected by va- 
rious Brothers, in whose hands subscriptions were placed, and those subscription 
papers have never come to my hands ; and I believe most of them are lost or 
mislaid. I have in my possession, however, my own memorandums of so much as 
was received by myself, and shall endeavor still to obtain the information necessary 
to an explicit statement in my next report It is expected, also, that the entire 
debt will, by that time, be fully paid oflj and an account of cost, principal and 
interest, arising from 4he purchase of the College property, can then be laid 
before the G. Lodge. 

There has been paid on the College property the sum of .... 19,346 12 

And there remains to be paid upon the original debt 6600 ; besides a small amount 

for interest. This will make the total cost of property about . . . 9,946 12 

A large portion of the money thus paid over was obtained by loan from Bank ; 
and our indebtedness, at this day, is as follows : 

To the Bank of St- Louis, about $1,600 00 

“ “ “ Palmyra, 600 00 

Due as above stated on original debt, 600 00 


Making the?sum of - $2800 00 

And we have on hand proceeds of sales of lands, and interest thereon, in notes 
as previously stated, 770 00 


Leaving a present balance of $2,030 00 

To meet this sum, all of which is now due, will demand, and (if life 'is spared) 
shall receive, the attention and best exertions of your agent ; with the hope ana 
expectation of saving the large property (or its proceeds) as a fund on which the 
destitute may draw, for such an education as will fit them for usefulness, and 
and to save them from the evils of ignorance and vice. 

The undersigned has been notified by Br. C. W. Moore, that an eminent and 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


189 


benevolent Br. of the city of Boston — Dr. Winslow Lewis — has donated to the 
G. Lodge of Missouri, for the College, a large and elegant pair of globes (celes- 
tial and terrestrial.) For this munificence we cannot be otherwise than grateful, 
and therefore tender to our worthy Br. Dr. Lewis, our grateful thanks ; assuring 
him, that, while the use of his valuable gift shall be made to impart to the desti- 
tute poor the mysteries of science, the recollection of the donor will enkindle the 
sympathies of fraternal love in the bosoms of his Western Brethren. Such is the 
situation of the G. Lodge in reference to the College, so far as the same comes 
within the scope of duties assigned to your agent 

S. W. B. Carnegy. 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

OHIO, 

The annual communication of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, was held in the city 
of Columubus in October last The proceedings, a copy of which has been po- 
litely sent us, possess a more than ordinary degree of interest We subjoin such 
portions of them as we can find room for. The address of the Grand Master is a 
well written and interesting paper. We make the following extracts — 

Brethren : — The Lodges within our jurisdiction have been vouchsafed another 
year of quiet ; in the which they have, with commendable diligence, plied them- 
selves to the unostentatious prosecution of their work. For a brief season, the 
sound of the gavel is hushed within their halls, and the Craft are called from 
their labors to refreshment and repose; while you, my Brethren, the chosen su- 
perintendents and directors of their work, have come up hither to consult our 
common Trestle-Board, and obtain designs for the future operations of our 
Lodges. It becomes us, then, here — at the very threshold of this our annual 
duty and service — to acknowledge the goodness of that A 11- Wise and never 
sleeping Providence who has been constantly over us and around us since last 
we parted ; continuing our lives — directing our paths — ministering to our thou- 
sand wants — and reserving to us the pleasure of once more assembling in Grand 
Communication. 

One of our traditions teaches, that it was the invariable custom of our ances- 
tors of the Masonic line, in the primitive days of our Institution, at short and 
stated intervals, to set aside brier periods of time, which were religiously conse- 
crated to the contemplation of the vast works of creation, and the paying homage 
to the adorable Creator. A custom thus time-honored, and approved by reason, 
by revelation, and by experience, cannot be lost to any body of Masons in this the 
XIX century of the Christian era ; and least of all can it be lost to the members 
of a Grand Lodge, constituted as is that of the State of Ohio. Let us then, 
my Brethren, as Freemasons — while enjoying the rich and multitudinous bles- 
sings showered upon us by a more than earthly benefactor — forget the lines 
which have divided U9 into evanescent parties in the State, and sects in the 
Church ; and with one heart, and one accord join in the ascription of profound 
thanksgiving to the ineffable One who presides in that catholic and celestial 
Grand Lodge, where the happiness of each craftsman is to know and to do the 
will of Him whose M presence is the light thereof.” And let us endeavor to 
appreciate our entire dependence for those prospective blessings, the hope for 
which is the occasion of our present assembling together, upon the principles and 
unspeakable goodness of that God who has hitherto spared our venerable Institu- 
tion in much of its primitive vigor, while States and empires by which it has been 
surrounded, have successively arisen, flourished, and been swept from being. 



190 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


I deem it not inappropriate, in this connection, to bring to the notice of the G. 
Lodge, a question of authority and discipline, mooted in a Subordinate Lodge, 
and on which the opinion of the Grand Master, as the representative of this body 
during its interval of recess, was solicited. It was asked by a respectable Lodge, 
whether u the denying the divine authenticity of the Holy Bible be an offence 
against the Institution of Masonry ; and if so, what are the prerogative of the 
Lodge, in such cases ? 9 While it is true that Masonry is not sectarian in its 
character, and that the established rules and regulations of our Grand Lodge po- 
sitively inhibit all religious tests, as a prerequisite to initiation, save only the ac- 
knowledgment of “a steadfast belief in the existence and perfections of Deity,” it 
is equally true that, were it possible to wrest from the “ first great light” in Ma- 
sonry its attribute of divine authenticity, the very act would overwhelm the Order 
with a visible and tangible darkness , equalled only by that which existed ere “ the 
Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Tt is impossible to despoil our 
great moral and Masonic Trestle-Board of its distinctive characteristic, without, 
at the same time, rifling the work of our Lodges, our charges and our lectures, of 
every conservative and life-giving principle. If the Bible be not indeed an ema- 
nation from Deity, then is Freemasonry an empty cheat, and those who minister 
at her altars accessaries to fraud and vile delusion. True, we have, among us, 
no Lodges exclusively Christian ; for the reason, that Masonry dates anterior to 
the Christian era ; and because her charity is sufficiently expansive to embrace 
within its ample folds, in fraternal unison, the good and true of whatever name 
or nation. While, therefore, all Christian Masons dedicate their Lodges to those 
two eminent and sainted Christian patrons who are always represented in every 
regular and well governed Lodge by most attractive and peculiar hieroglyphics, 
our Jewish Brethren may, at the same time, without let or hindrance, and without 
the remotest cause of offence to any, still commemorate in their Lodges, him 
whose name is the synonym of wisdom, and whose virtues are embalmed alike in 
the hearts of all good Masons, whether Christians or the lineal descendants of the 
twelve tribes of Israel. But, surely, it could not have been the purpose of those 
great and good men of old, in laying thus broad the foundations of our Order, to 
provide in it a covert for the deriding infidel, or an asylum for the dissembling 
hypocrite. And if, by any means, such have found their way into our midst, it is 
the first duty of the Lodge so invaded, by well doing to put to silence the igno- 
norance of foolish men ; and to teach them that though free, that they may not 
use their liberty for a cloak of licentiousness. And if, thus admonished, they 
refuse to be restrained, let them be regarded as walking disorderly, and not after 
the tradition they have received of us. And if any man obey not our word, note 
that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. 

It affords me pleasure to be able to announce to you my belief that the Order 
of Freemasonry now enjoys throughout our country, and especially within our 
jurisdiction, an exemption from the malign influences of envy and detraction, in 
a degree rarely before experinced ; that it is keeping pace with the onward 
progress of civilization and art, and gradually making its way into the favora- 
ble consideration of an unprejudiced and intelligent community. As evidence 
of this fact, individuals, “good men and true,” are shaking off the lethargy of 
years, and earnestly casting about for the means of that innocent social gratifi- 
cation whichjerst they enjoyed in the Lodge room. A recurrence to the mystical 
“ point within a circle” awakens within them recollections, which, once aroused, 
cannot be repressed, and their hearts go forth in earnest desire for a Brother's 
welfare. Lodges which, long since, fell into listless suspense, are arousing 
themselves to active duty, and burnishing anew their jewels, which had become 
dim from long neglect and disuse. And new Lodges are springing into being 
in districts where hitherto our rites have been wholly unpractised and unknown. 
# # « # # # # 

By a cursory glance at a portion of our foreign correspondence since my arri- 
val at this place, I find that while we, as a body, have, during our recess, been 
signally spared the desolating incursions of death, our Brethren, in other por- 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


191 


tions of the great Masonic vinbyard, have been called to mourn. The Grand 
Lodge of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts bows with reverence, to the will 
of Almighty God, ft having pleased Him “to remove, by death, our Worshipful 
Brother, the Rt Rev. Alexander V. Griswold, who, having attained to the 
highest degree of Masonry, and having continued, through a long life, ‘ a faithful 
and*affcctionate Brother among us,’ especially by the wisdom of his counsel in 
the day of our tribulation ; and having, by a life of extraordinary virtue, benevo- 
lence, and stern fidelity, proved the sincerity of his first Masonic declaration, 
that he put his trust in God, has left, for our consolation and hope of the Christian 
resurrection, the sprig of acacia, doubly green, springing from his grave. 
While our Brethren mourn the loss which thus afflicts them, we would mingle 
our fraternal sympathies with their grief. As has been well remarked, “States 
and Empires have their boundary — Masonry has none the sad obituary reaches 
us from beyond the Atlantic, and our Brethren of the English realm challenge 
our sympathies for their loss in the death of their Grand Master, the illustrious 
Duke of Sussex, “ Whose attachment to the Order had induced him to assume 
the care of presiding over their deliberations for nearly thirty years.” Valuable 
lessons may be derived from visiting in imagination, “ the chamber where the 
good man meets his fate.” High and holy incentives to good deeds and gener- 
ous resolves are there presented, which cannot fail to address themselves to the 
better feelings of our nature, enkindling aspirations that our last end may be like 
his. Such is the influence shed abroad in the long and useful lives of the illus- 
trious dead, whose memory we revere, and whose loss we now deplore. 

DRES8 AT FUNERALS. 

The following preamble and resolution, offered by Br. Kreider, were unani- 
mously adopted. It is a very proper and judicious provision. Too much dis- 
play at funerals is in bad taste : — 

Whereas, there has been some diversity of opinion as to the proper regalia 
to be worn on funeral occasions ; and whereas, uniformity is desirable, therefore, 

Resolved, That all funeral ceremonies, under the jurisdiction of this Grand 
Lodge be conducted under the ancient badge of white aprons and white gloves. 

INITIATION OF CLERGYMEN. 

Brother Bereman offered the following resolution, which was agreed to : 

Resolved, That when the By-laws of any subordinate Lodge provides that the 
degrees of Masonry may be conferred upon Ministers of the Gospel free of 
charge, no Initiation fees, as dues, shall be charged to such Subordinate Lodge, 
by the Grand Lodge. 

The following Resolution was unanimously adopted. It is a richly deserved 
and handsomely bestowed compliment : — 

Resolved, That the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of Ohio, enter- 
taining the highest regard for their late worthy Grand Master William J. 
Reese, both as a man, and a Mason — and remembering with pleasure the long 
and valuable services which he has rendered to this Grand Lodge, for which 
extraordinary services he has invariably refused pecuniary reward, as well also 
as his strict fidelity in every relation he has sustained to the Grand Lodge, deem 
it a duty which they hasten to discharge, thus publicly to record their sentiments 
of confidence, friendship and esteem, with the assurance to him that his memory 
and his valuable services will live in their hearts, and be cherished with all the 
ardor of Masonic Charity. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. Z. Kretder, } 

John G. Willock, > Committee . 
J. D. Caldwell, ) 

Charters were issued for several new Lodges indifferent parts of the State. 
The Grand Lodge bolds its next meeting at Columbus. 



193 MASONIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

MASONIC CORRESPONDENCE. 


Celebration on Bunker Hill. It will 
be seen by the following, that the time for the 
celebration by King Solomon’s Lodge in 
Charlestown, originally fixed for the 17th 
June, has been changed to the 24th, — the 
Nativity of St, John the Baptist,— as being a 
more appropriate day for holding a Masonic 
Festival. We believe the alteration will 
meet with the general approval of the Breth- 
ren. Invitations have been given to the 
Lodges in this and the adjoining States, and 
it is believed that there will be a more nu- 
merous assemblage of the Fraternity present 
than on any similar occasion for many years 
past. 

Celebration by King Solomon’s Lodge, 
Charlestown, Mass. King Solomon’s 
Lodge, having prepared a model of the first 
Monument erected on Bunker Hill, (which 
was erected by that Lodge in 1794) to be 
placed within the new Monument erected by 
the Bunker Hill Monument Association, 
have resolved that the same shall be Dedi- 
cated on the 24th June next, the Anniversary 
of St. John the Baptist, and that there shall 
he a public Masonic celebration of that An- 
niversary on the occasion. There will be a 
procession, formed under the escort of the 
Boston Encampment of Knights Templars, 
to Bunker Hill; the dedication of the model 
of the old monument by the Grand Lodge of 
Massachusetts ; an original Ode, by Br. 
Thos. Power ; an Address on the part of the 
Lodge, by Br. G. Washington Wahrrn. 
After which, a dinner will be provided in a 

f avitlion upon the hill, at whicn several ad- 
resses will be made. The Grand Encamp- 
ment of Massachusetts and R. Island, ine 
Grand Royal Arch Chapter cf this Common- 
wealth, and the several Chapters under its 
jurisdiction— the Grand Masonic bodies and 
their subordinates in Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Rhode Island and Connecticut, and 
the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and the 
Lodges under its jurisdiction are to be, and 
hereby are, invited to attend and join with 
King Solomon’s Lodge in this celebration. 
Members of the Masonic Fraternity in gene- 
ral are also invited. The price of tickets 
for the dinner is fixed at $1,60. Due notice 
will be given of the time and place of meet- 
ing on the morning of the day. 

John Solev, 

Thomas Hoofkb, 

C. W. Moore, 

Dexter Bowman, 

F. L. Raymond, 

C. B. Rogers, 

J. A. D. Worcester, 

G. W. Warren, 

Charlestown , April 1, 1845. 


r^Our agent at St. John, N. B. is in- 
formed that the Magazines for subscribers in 
that place, have been regularly forwarded by 
the packets, with directions for them b« 
left at the Custom House. We trust he may 
yet find the missing numbers there. If how- 
ever he should not, we will supply them on 
receiving notice to that effect. 

Washington Lodge, No. 17, Hamilton, 
Ohio, have recently erected a beautiful Hall, 
for their own accommodation, at an expense 
of about three thousand dollars. 

fj-Tbe General Assembly of Ohio, at its 
last session, granted an act of incorporation 
to the Grand Lodge of that State. 

We would oblige our Brother of the 
Signal with the No. he desires, if we bad it 
on hand. 

* f 

(TTThe publication of the officers of sev- 
eral Institutions, and a variety of other mat- 
ter, prepared fpr the present number, is ne- 
cessarily deferred. 

JjrBr. J. C. Tupprr, of Washington. Ar- 
kansas, is an authorized agent for the Maga- 
zine. Any communication from him will be 
acceptable. 

JprBr. Douglass, at New Orleans, will 
finaa bundle, directed to his care, on board 
the ship Lyons, from this port, to be for- 
warded to Mississippi. 

fVWe are gratified to learn that the 
Lodges at Marhlehead, Brighton, Uxbridge, 
and Fall River, in this State, nave recommen- 
ced their labors. f 

OChThe letter alluded to by our agent at 
Arrow Rock, Mo. was duly received and ac- 
knowledged at the time. 

ijrBr. John G. Hastings is an authorized 
agent for the Magazine, at Port Gibson and 
Grand Gulf. 

tCpThe notice of the celebration at Charles- 
ton, S. C. was so long in reaching us, that it 
had got to be an old story. 

Expulsion. — At a regular communication 
of Ebenezer Lodge, No. 33, held at their 
Lodge Room, in Wooster, Wayne County, 
Ohio, May 17, 5843, it was, on motion 

Resolved^ That Doctor Richard Seeds, 
be expelled from all the rights and privileges 
of Masonry — and it was lurther, at a meeting 
of Dec. 27, A. L. 5844, 

Ordered , That the expulsion of said Rich- 
ard Seeds, shall be published in the Boston 
Masonic Magazine. Test, 

Charles E. Gbabteb, 

Sec . qf Ebenezer Ledge, 


Committee 

► A ° f 

[ Arrange - 
menu. 



THE 



. v'VU 




, FREEMASONS' 

MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 


Vox- IV.l BOSTON, MAY 1, 1845. [No. 7. 


THE PRUSSIAN GRAND LODGE AND THE 
JEWISH FREEMASONS. 

We had hoped that before this time the question of the exclusion of 
Jews from the Lodges in Prussia, would have been settled in accordance 
with the true and legitimate principles of ancient Freemasonry, which, 
being a universal Fraternity, recognizes no sectarian principles, acknow- 
ledges no religicus or political dogmas, and admits of no other distinction 
among its followers, than the great moral distinction which marks the 
line betweea virtue and its opposite. But, we regret to be compelled to 
say, that our late intelligence from Europe, has, in this respect, disap- 
pointed our anticipations, and leaves the subject still in agitation. We 
are happy to be able to add, however, that nearly the whole Masonic 
community, in this country and in Europe, have been awakened to a 
proper sense of the importance of the subject, — of its gross injustice as 
regards a large class of the Brotherhood, and of its destructive conse- 
quences to the harmony and prosperity of the Institution, if sectioned or 
tolerated. 

Freemasonry is a unity, — the same yesterday and to-day, — here and 
everywhere. Whoever would make more or less than this of it, would 
destroy its vital principle, — would kill that which alone has sustained it, 
through good and evil report, through the changes and vicissitudes of 
time, in the midst of adversity, against the assaults of civil tyranny and 
religious fanaticism, for more than three thousand years. Let the princi- 
ple adopted by the G. Lodge of Prussia for its own, and the regulation of 
its subordinates, be carried out to its full legitimate extent, and the Masonic 
Institution would be dissolved. Its character would be entirely changed, 
with scarcely enough of the original left to distinguish it from the com- 
mon sectarian associations of the day. If the Jew may be excluded for 
his religion in Germany, the Mahommedan may for his in Asia. It is an 
25 




194 


THE PRUSSIAN GRAND LODGE 


exclusion predicated on a peculiar religious faith, and the principle involv- 
ed in it, though now practically applied to but one of the general divi- 
sions of religionists, must, and will, if occasion offer, operate against all, 
except the party imposing it. Nor is it probable that the evil would stop 
here ; for if the principle obtain as to a whole, it will be found both easy 
and natural to apply it to the multitudinous subdivisions into which that 
whole is separated. Take the broad doctrinal distinction of Unity and 
Trinity, — p. distinction of scarcely less magnitude than that between Ju- 
daism and Christianity, — for the next starting point, and there will be 
little difficulty in running the principle down throughout the whole line of 
sectarianism. 

The regulation is not only injudicious, but it is essentially wrong and in 
derogation of the ancient established landmarks of the Fraternity. It is 
as follows : — 

I “ Christian Brethren of all other Lodges, whether at the time subscri- 
J bing members or not, are admissable to the work and banquets on all oc- 
I casions, except at deliberations.” 

\ '‘"‘The intention of this law, and the practice under it, is to exclude all 

but Christians from the meetings of the Prussian Lodges. It regards 
Freemasonry as a Christian Institution, exclusive in its character. And 
I yet we do not understand that our Prussian Brethren assume that the 
l Order had its origin at a period subsequent to the Christian era. On the. 

contrary, in common with their Brethren in all countries, and through all 
j times, they maintain its greater antiquity ; and if they do not admit its 
I Jewish origin, it is because they trace its existence back to a period a n- 
j terior to the building of the first Temple at Jerusalem. |WtuTtKi§ fact 
“^before them^ we cannot readily understand in what manner they are to 
justify their attempt to change one of its most essential features, — that 
which gives to it its universality, and distinguishes it from every other asso- 
ciation on earth. They must admit that they have departed from the 
“ original plan ;” and they must be sensible that one of the u Ancient 
Charges,” — recognized by them in their own books, and by all the Ancient 
Constitutions of Masonry, wherever published, — requires every Master of 
a Lodge, “ to respect genuine and true Brethren, and to discountenance 
impostors, and all dissenters from the original plan of Freemasonry .” 
To enforce this regulation, — and unless the Grand Lodge of Berlin recede 
from its present position, it will be enforced, — would be an entire disfran- 
chisement, or exclusion of all the Lodges and Brethren in Prussia, from 
the pale of the Fraternity. And to this course they could not reasona- 
bly object. They have plaoed themselves in the wrong, by attempting 
to subvert the foundations of the old Institution, and to build another and 
a different one upon its ruins. We would not however advise to any 
stringent measures, until remonstrance has entirely failed. Several of the 



AND THE JEWISH FREEMASONS. 


195 


Grand Lodges on the continent are moving in the matter, and, should 
they not be successful in obtaining a revocation of the obnoxious law, 
we learn that it is probable the Grand Lodge of England will enter 
her solemn protest against it, and adopt such further measures as the 
importance of the question demands. 

We subjoin two of the many communications which have been ad- 
dressed by distinguished Brethren and Masonic bodies in France, to Dr. 
Behrend, Chairman of the remonstrating Committee of Israelites, at Ber- 
lin : — 

To Dr. Jos. Behrend, Berlin. 

Respected Sir and Brother A translation in French, printed at Nancy, has 
made me acquainted with the position of Freemasons, of the Jewish Religion, in 
the Orient of Berlin, and in the Prussian Lodges. 

In a journey to Frankfort S. M. I had been so fortunate as to make prevalent 
the unalterable principles of the Grand Fraternity, but the letter of the Prince 
Royal has completely neutralized the objects I had obtained. 

As a member of the Supreme Council of France, Lieutenant Grand Comman- 
dant, and an ancient Mason, I believe it my duty to represent to you, that in 
France, in our rite, under the obedience of tne Very Mighty the Duke Decaze, 
our Grand Master, we question no man who presents himself as to his religion, 
but rely on his principles. 

The Ancient Order of French Masonry believes that to allow the existence of 
any sectarian divisions would be in direct opposition to those excellencies for 
which Masonry was instituted; our God is not distinguished either as Bramah, 
Jehovah, or Christ, but the Great Architect of the Universe, the Eternal mover 
of all, who prospereth the works of those who labor in the vineyard of rectitude, 
and who loves and protects every man, of every religion, who pursues a just and 
independent path. 

To preserve the religious prejudices of the middle ages would be to perpetuate 
ignorance and barbarism and disown the law of progress, and to presume that 
the data of Masonry is from the Christian era, to deny all sacred tradition : the 
constant image of the temple of Solomon, the same designation of our divine 
Master in the Lodges, with many other customs, establish the indisputable fact, 
that Masonry existed before the coming of Jesus Christ 

Freemasonry is a religion, inasmuch that it binds man to man in the indissolu- 
ble bond of unity : it invites universal Brotherhood, it tends to uphold and sup- 
port all that is great and noble in the human understanding, to venerate and 
extol morality. 

Such, then, Dear Sir and Brother, are the universal principles that the Su- 
preme Council of France has always defended, the testimony of which I freely 
give you, that in the end, virtue and justice may meet their reward. 

Accept, dear Sir and Brother, the expressions of affectionate sentiment, 
The Lieutenant Grand Commander of the accepted Ancient Rite, 

Comte de Fernig. 


TO THE GLORY OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE. 

Orient, Bourdeaux, A. M. 6844. 
The R. L. De VEtoile De La Gironde . 

To THE RESPECTED BROTHER Jos. BEHREND, ORIENT OF BERLIN. 

Dear Sir and Brother: — We have the pleasure to hand you annexed a copy 
of the resolutions adopted by the R. L, after having heard the report presented 
at its meeting on the 17th of September last, contained in a circular letter ad- 
dressed by twentyeight Israelitish Freemasons to the Orient of Prussia, of whom 
you are the representative and most conspicuous. 



196 


THE DEGREE OF ROSE CROIX. 


We deplore to see reigning in the Prussian Lodges that spirit of intolerance 
so despicable in the present enlightened age, and which every Masonic Institu- 
tion, holding sacred the promulgation of truth, virtue and morality, should assist 
to destroy. 

The R. L. de l’Etoile constitutes all that is beautiful, grand, and sublime, and 
would, were the application of its principles universal , confer everlasting benefit 
on mankind, by expunging prejudices, so iatal and detestable as the prejudices 
of religion. Nor can any Institution, desirous of promoting the cultivation of 
liberal and charitable doctrines, view, without the deepest regret, the destruction 
by the Prussian Freemasons of the holiest asd most sacred duties of the Frater- 
nity ; and with these sentiments the Orient- Bourdeaux offers to the Masonic Is- 
raelites of Prussia its concurrence, if it be of any serviee, in arriving at a favora- 
ble result in the very praiseworthy object they seek, and which merits, and ought 
to draw the attention of all Masons, and more particularly the Masonic authori- 
ties at the head of every Institution in every kingdom ; for observations forcibly 
addressed by them will, without doubt, be understood by the L. L. of Prussia, 
and by showing them they are pursuing a false system, induce them to pursue 
the same course with the same principles as other Institutions. 

We do hope, in this state of things, the L. L. of Prussia, will not long withhold 
replying favorably to the circular letter, which only seeks that which morality, 
right, and equity entitle it to demand. 

We entreat you, very dear Brother, to submit our resolutions to those Freema- 
sons who, like yourself, signed the circular addressed to us, and we earnestly 
beg to assure you of our sincerity and sympathy. 

(Signed) Master, T. Debesse ; Wardens, Igoret and D. Mons. 

G. V 1 LLENBUVE, 

Secretary by order. 


THE DEGREE OF ROSE CROIX. 

This is one of the most beautiful Degrees in what is usually termed 
sublime or ineffable Masonry. Its origin has been lost in the darkness of 
remote antiquity ; but it is supposed to have been created in the early ages 
of Christianity. The grand revival of the Order, from which it is be- 
lieved all Chapters now in existence, have their origin, took place about 
the commencement of the fourteenth century, (1302,) — immediately pre- 
vious to the period when the splendid qualities of Robert Bruce, (dis- 
played in the assertion of his claims to the kingdom of Scotland,) vindica- 
ted the honor of his country, and restored its national independence. 

Nibet, in his old and curious system of Heraldry, notices this revival 
of the Royal Order by Bruce. He does not, however, know it to be a 
Masonic Order, but considers it to be the Order of the Thistle, — an Order 
which some maintain was unknown to Bruce ; while others incline to the 
belief that the Thistle was at one time a Secret Order , combined with 
the Royal Order of Rose Criox ; but that in lime they became separated. 
This, however, is probably fabulous, though the presumption that it may 
be true, is somewhat strengthened by the story of its origin as told by 
Bishop Ross in his history of Scotland. Borrowing the fable of the origin 
of the Order of Constantine, he gravely tells us, that “ it took its begin- 



THE DEGREE OF ROSE CROIX. 


197 


ning from a bright cross in Heaven, in form like that whereon St. An- 
drew, the Apostle, suffered martyrdom, which appeared to Achaius, king 
of Scots, and Hungus, king of the Piets, the night before the battle was 
fought betwixt them and Athelstane, king of England, as they were on 
their knees at prayer ; when St. Andrew, their tutelary Saint, is said also 
to have appeared, and promised to these kings that they should always 
be victorious when that sign appeared.” They were, of course, victo- 
rious over Athelstane, in, the battle fought on the following day. But the 
story only proves, that the true origin of the order of the Thistle was not 
known to the good Bishop, — that it had either been lost in remote anti- 
quity, or that it was originally a secret Order , and may, at some time, 
have been attached to, or formed a part of, the Royal Order of Rose 
Croix. The two, however, as they have separately existed, are essen- 
tially different. We do not attach much credit to the suggestion that they 
were ever united. 

The Order of Rose Croix, from the time of its revival, by Bruce, has 
continued to flourish with more or less success, in different parts of Eu- 
rope, to the present time, when it seems to have received a new impulse. 
In the early part of the last century, it was much cultivated in England ; 
but it soon after fell into decay. In 1743, it was again revived by the 
establishment of a Chapter at Southwark, and in December, 1744, another 
Chapter was opened at Deptford, in Kent. In 1750, there was a Chapter 
held under the presidency of the Provincial Grand Master for South Bri- 
tain, at the Thistle and Crown tavern, in Chandos street, London. The 
date of their Charter was then of great antiquity. There was also a 
Chapter at the Coach and Horses, in Walbeck street, and another at the 
Blue Boar’s Head, in Exeter street. In 1750, the Prov. Grand Master 
for the South of England, granted a Charter for a Chapter at the Hague. 
The Order again fell into decay, until 1787, when a “ Chapter of Hero- 
din”* was opened in London, as noticed by Mr. Preston, but which long 
since ceased to exist. 

At what period the Order was introduced into Ireland, is hot certainly 
known. A recent foreign writer, remarking on this subject, says, u some 
suppose that Bruce himself re-established the mystery in Ireland, during 
his residence at Rathlin, or Rachrin, a small island off the Irish coast ; 
where, with some of his faithful followers, he was, for some time, reduced 


♦It is said that the first Chapter of Rose Croix was held on Mount Herodin, in Scotland, 
and hence this name. If, however, there be such a mountain in Scotland, we have not yet 
seen sufficient evidence to satisfy us that the Order originated there. A principal or Grand 
Chapter may, at some time, huve been held there, and from it other Chapters may have 
received their authority, and in contradistinction to authorities derived from other and less 
credible sources, styled themselves Chapters of Herodin. 



198 


THE DEGREE OF ROSE CROIX. 


to seek a refuge from the pursuits of his enemies. This opinion, how- 
ever, is much shaken by the circumstance that the island had been totally 
uninhabited, until it afforded to king Robert a place of safety and conceal- 
ment ; nor does it clearly appear, that Bruce ever approached nearer to 
the Irish shores. But, however this may be, it is well known, that when 
Edward, the brothor of Robert Bruce, having been invited by the men of 
Ulster, to aid them in their resistance to the English, landed at Carrick- 
fergus, A. D. 1315, with a considerable army, that gallant and enterpris- 
ing leader initiated a number of his Irish allies into this sublime degree, 
and formed a Chapter in that ancient town, where traces of the existence 
of a Grand Lodge of Prince Masons, may even now be found. By these 
me^ns, the art of Prince Masonry was introduced into Ireland, where it is 
still cultivated, and where, for upwards of five hundred years, its pure 
light has been preserved. 

“ Among the Irish Chapters,” continues the * writer above quoted, 
“ which derive their descent in direct succession from this distinguished 
source, one is that which has been long known and recognized under the 
style and title of the “ Grand Chapter of Ireland,” which Chapter has held 
its meetings in Dublin, for a great number of years, and still continues to 
hold them in that city. This Chapter, until the last few years, used to 
meet only at intervals, for the purpose of transacting important business ; 
such as the granting of warrants, — enacting laws, — and conferring its pre- 
eminent Degrees upon the most distinguished members of the Masonic 
Order. In the exercise of these functions, it appears from its records, that 
on the 7th March, 1796, in which year several noblemen and other emi- 
nent persons, were added to the Grand Chapter, the late Grand Master of 
the Freemasons of Ireland, Lord Donoughmore, the predecessor of his 
Grace the Duke of Leinster, was advanced in this Chapter to the honors 
of Prince of Masonry ; and on the 10th June, 1809, a warrant to form a 
subordinate Chapter in Dublin, was granted on the memorial of several 
respectable Brethren of the degree of “Knights Templars.” This 
Grand Chapter is still in active existence, and the Order is diligently culti- 
vated in Ireland. 

We have not the means of knowing with certainty, at what precise 
period the Order was first introduced into France. It has, however, flour- 
ished there for a long series of years, and is at this time held in high 
esteem by the most distinguished Masons of that country. In a Charter 
or bull, granted by Prince Charles Edward Stuard, in 1744, to the town 
of Arras, as published by Thory in his “ Histoire du Grand Orient de 
France,” (p. 184,) it is stated: “Nous, Charles Edouard Stuard, Roi 
d’Angleterre, de France, de la l’Ecosse, et d’lrlande, et en cetto qualite 
S. G. M. du Chapitre de H., connu sous le titre de Chev. de l’Aigle et du 



DEDICATION OF FIRST TEMPLARS* CHURCH IN ENGLAND. 199 

Pelican, et dupuis nos malheurs et nos infbrtunes, sous celui de Rose 
Croix — creons et erigeons, par la presente bulle, en la dite ville d’ Arras, 
sur S. Chapitre primordial de Rose Croix, sous le titre distinctif,” 
From which it appears, that Charles Edward claimed, in his quality of 
king, to be the Sov. Grand Master of H. or H. R. D. M., and that he 
regarded that Order to be synonymous with the Eagle and Pelican, to 
which, after his misfortunes, he gave the name of Rose Croix. It would 
also appear, that the Order was not generally, if at all, known in France, 
prior to 1747, and that the Chapter at Arras, was the first established in 
that kingdom. If this be true, it clearly proves that the genuine Order is 
not of French origin, as has been frequently asserted, and as is too 
generally believed by many Masonic writers, who have not fully investi- 
gated its history. We are inclined to the belief, however, that the Order 
was known and practised in France, under its original designation of H., 
at an earlier period than 1747, although it may not have previously as- 
sumed an established organization. 

The Order is at this time extensively cultivated wherever Masonry 
exists on the continent of Europe, but particularly in Switzerland, Ger- 
many, Prussia, and Sweden. It was introduced into this country about 
the middle of the last century, and is now conferred under authority ema- 
nating from the Supreme Councils of 33d, at Charleston, S. C. for the 
Southern States, and of the corresponding body, sitting at the city of 
New York, for the Northern and Western States, or the mediate autho- 
rity of Chapters of R -f- established by them. 

It may be proper to add, that this Order has no connection with that of 
the “ Red Cross,” (which, en passant, is a misnomer,) attached to the 
Encampments of Kts. Templars, in this country. 


CREATION AND DEDICATION OF THE FIRST 
KNIGHT TEMPLARS’ CHURCH IN ENGLAND. 

I From Stow’s Annals of England, p. 223. Gemisius Dorobernensis.] 

In A. D. 1185, being in the thirtyfirst year of the reign of Henry the 2d of 
England, “Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, came to king Henry, desiring of 
him aid against the Turks, but the king, because of the cruelty of his sons, was 
counselled not to leave his dominions in hazard and go so far off, wherefore he 
promised the Patriarch fifty thousand marks of silver. 

“ This Patriarch dedicated the Church of the new Temple, then first builded 
in the west part of London, by the Knights Templars in England : he also dedi- 
cated the Priory of St John of Jerusalem by Smithfield.” 



A TABLE op Lodges Chartered by the Grand Lodges in Massachusetts, from 1733 to 1844 , inclusive, with tbiir 



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CHARTERED BE THE V1ITBD GRAB D LODGE 


i * 

«3 

xa 

u 

%-H 

© 

1 

March 16, 1798. 
June 12, 1728. 
December 9, 1792/ 
March 11, 1800. 
March 10, 1801. 
Jm>e 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 

June 8, 1801. 
September 14, 1801* 
September 16, 1801. 
December 14, ISO!. 
December 14, 1801. 
December 14, 1801. 
March 12, 1802. 
June 14, 1802. 

June 16, 1802 
September 13, 1802. 
September 13, 1802. 
Jane 1 3, 1803. 

June 13, 1803. 

June 13, 1803. 

June 13, 1803. 
September 12, 1803. 
September 14, 1803. 
December 3, 1803. 
June 14. 1804. 

September 14, 1804. 
June 10, 1806. 

June 10, 1806. 

September 10, 1806/ 
September 19, 1805* 

«S 

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3i 

55 

Mass. 

Do* 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine. 

Mass. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine, 

\V. Indies, 
Mass. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine, 

Mass. 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine, 

Mass. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine, 

Do. 

Mass. 

Do. 

Do. 

Maine. 

Do. 

Mass. 

Do. 

Maine, 

Ohio, 

Loeation. 

Rehoboth, 

Taunton, 

Stoughton, 

Hardwick, 

Cambden, 

Boston, 

Plymouth, 

Barnstable, 

Sunderlaud, 

Leominster, 

East port, 

Stabroek, 

Reboboth, 

Partridgefield, 

Dennis, 

Nantucket, 

Topsham, 

Duibury, 

Dedham, 

Haverhill, 

Pepperelboro’, 

Athol, 

Hampden, 

Menaon, 

W.Stockbridge 

Fryburg, 

N. Gloucester, 
New Bedford, 
Newbury port, 
Sheffield, 
Bridgetown. 

l if 

nil! 

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Evening-Star, 

King David, 

Rising-Star, 

Mount Zion, (17) 

Amity, 

Mount Lebanon, 

Forefathers’ Rock, 

Fraternal, 

Pacific, 

Aurora, 

Eastern, 

St. John’s, 

Rural, 

Sincerity 

Sumner, 

Union. 

United, 

Corner Stone, 

Constellation, 

Merrimack, 

Saco, 

Harris, 

Rising Virtue, 

Charily, 

Wisdom, 

Pythagorean, 

Cumberland, 

Washington Remembered, 

St Mark’s, 

Sheffield, 

Oriental. 

Solar, 

Amicable, 

Mount Carmel, 

Orient, 

Scioto, 

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June 1, 1792. 
December 10, 1792. 
December 10, 1792. 
March 11, 1793. 

June 9, 1794. 

June 9, 1794. 
December 9, 1794. 
June 8, 1796, 

June 9, 1796. 
December 9, 1795. 
December 14, 1795. 
June 8, 1796. 
February, 1796. 
March 17, 1796. 
March 16, 1796. 
March 16,1796. 

June 13, 1796. 

June 13, 1796. 

June 13, 1796. 
December 13, 1796. 
January 31, 1797. 
June 13, 1797. 

June 13, 1797. 

June 13, 1797. 

June 14, 1797. 

June 16, 1797. 

June 16, 1797. 
September 13, 1797. 
September 13, 1797. 
September 13, 1797. 
December 11, 1797. 
December 11, 1797. 
December 11, 1797. 
March 13, 1798. 
March 14, 1798. 
March 16, 1798. 

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Maine, 

Mass. 

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Do. (16.) 
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Location. 

Wiscassett, 

Hingham, 

Bland lord j 

Worcester, 

Castine, 

Cheshire. 

Greenfield, 

Framingham, 

Lenox, 

N. Marlboro’, 
Truro, 

Boston, 

Marietta, 

Roxbury, 

Hallowell, 

Charlton,(i5) 

Northfield, 

Dorchester, 

Portland, 

Monson, 

Groton. 

South Hadley, 

Wellfleet, 

Columbia, 

Norton, 

Bridgewater, 

Concord, 

Franklin) 

Oxford, 

Brookfield, 

Lexington, 

Watertown, 
Holmes’ Hole, 
Falmouth, 
Reading, 
Ashby, 

afi 

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1-3 

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Lincoln, 

Old Colony, 

Federal, 

Morning-Star, 

Hancock, 

Franklin/ 14) 

Republican, 

Middlesex, 

Evening- Star, 

Cincinnatus, 

King Hiram, 

Columbian, 

American Union, 

Washington, 

Kennebec, 

Fayette, 

Harmony, 

TJniou, 

Lodge No. 1, 

Thomas, 

St. Paul’s, 

Jerusalem, 

Adams, 

Tuscan, 

Bristol, 

Fellowship, 

Corinthian, . 

Montgomery, 

Olive Branch, 

Meridian-Sun, 

Hiram, 

Meridian, 

K.Solomon’8 Lodge in Perfection 
Marine, 

Mount Moriah, 

Social, 







CHARTERED BY THE UV1TED GRAND LODGE. 


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Note. Many of the Lodges in the above Tables, subsequently to their being Chartered, were permitted to change their names, and not unfrequently their loca- 
tions. We have preferred to give both as they were originally designated in their Charters. In several instances, the name of the Lodge is omitted in the 
records 3 which it is difficult now to supply. We have in a few cases attempted to do so ; but have placed a query against the name inserted, thus (?). 




NOTES TO THE TABLES. 


208 


NOTES TO THE TABLES. 

(1) This Lodge was originally styled “ The first Lodge in Boston,” and did not assume 
name of “St. John” until mauy years after its establishment. We think it did not until 
after the Union of the Grand Lodges, in 1792. 

(2) The name of this Lodge does not appear in the records. The Charter wasgranted to 
Benjamin Franklin and others. Franklin was its first Master. 

(3) This Lodge confined its labors exclusively to the raising of Masters. It conferred no 
other degree, and its regulations excluded all who were not proficient in the second degree. 
Most of the Grand Officers, including the Grand Master, Henry Price, were members of it, 
and filled the principal offices. 

(4) This Lodge was attached to the army. 

(5) Attached to the 28th British regiment. 

(6) This Lodge was attached to the army, in its expedition against Canada. 

(7) This Lodge was attached to the army. 

(8) This Charter was granted to eighteen members of St. John’s Lodge, desirous of form* 
ing a new Lodge. On the 2d Nov. 1791, it was re-united with St. John’s Lodge. 

(9) This Charter was granted to subjects of his M Most Christian Majesty,” resident in Bos- 
ton, and is, with the exception of Harmonic, which was composed mostly of foreigners, the 
only Lodge ever established by foreigners in Massachusetts. On the 8th May, 1781, the 
name was changed to “ The Perfect Union Lodge.” 

(10) This was a “ Travelling Lodgt\” and the Charter was granted to officers of the Ame- 
rican army, with authority to make Masons in Masjsachusetts, “ or in any of the United 
Stales, where there was no Grand Lodge.” 

(11) This Charter was granted to John Copp and others to hold a Lodge in “the State of 
New York.” The name of the town does not appear in the record. There seems to have 
been great carelessness in recording the Dispensations and Charters issued ; which is pro- 
bably in some measure attributable to the circumstance, that the former were frequently 
issued by the Grand Master, during the recesses of the Grand Lodge. 

(12) This Lodge originated in a division of St. Andrew’s Lodge, (Boston,) holding under 
the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

(13) This was the second Charter granted for a Lodge in Salem, under the same name. 
The Charter of the first “ Essex Lodge,” was returned March 6, 1789. 

(14) In June, 1800, this Lodge was permitted to hold its meetings alternately at Cheshire 
and Lanesboro’, three months in each place. 

(15) In June, 1799, the Grand Lodge granted permission for this Lodge to meet alter* 
nately at Charlton, Sturbridge and Dudley. 

(16) This Lodge was originally Chartered by Grand Master Hays, in 1791, with the privi- 
lege, it is said, of making Royal Arch Masons, and, therefore, we presume, considered itself 
“in perfection.” What power the Grand Master had to grant such a privilege, does not appear. 
The Grand Lodge never assumed to exercise it ; bat at a subsequent period revoked the 
Charter of a Lodge for conferring more than the three Degrees. 

(17) In Mareh; 1799, the Grand Lodge voted not to grant any more Charters for two years. 
In this case the vote was suspended. 

(18) Afterwards called Friendly Society Lodge. 

Not*.— A Table showing the Lodges in existence at the present time, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, (with the exception of Philanthropic Lodge, at 
Marblehead, since revived,) may be found in the Magazine for March last. 



304 


SlEOE AND CAPTURE OP 


SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF THE ISLE OF 
RHODES, BY THE TURKS. 

[From Stow't Annals of England, written and dedicated “ 2«th day of May, 1592,” printed 
and published “ 1606.”] 

A. D. 1522. “In the beginning of this year, Saltan Soliman Pac, called the 
Great Turk, which was the eighth of the line of Ottoman, the first that took upon 
hirp to te great captain or ruler. And to whom Sultan Solime, his father, had 
left the empires of Constantinople, Trepesonde, Alexandria, and Babylon, and 
many divers kingdoms and realms ; which Sultan Soliman the year before had 
gotten the town of Belgrade, being the key of Hungary, because he saw all the 
princes in Christendom now at discord, thought it most for his honor and profit 
to make war on the Isle of the Rhodes, and to take the same ; which Isle had 
been kept by the space of two hundred and twenty four years by the Brethren or 
Knights of St John of Jerusalem. Divers things moved him to take this enter- 
prise, one was because this Isle stood, so that the religious of the same often- 
times took and destroyed his ships, as they came with gold, and other riches 
from Egypt, Syria, and other east parts to Constantinople, so that by them of that 
Ise he sustained more hurt than by all Christendom, because the said Isle stood 
in the very entry towards Constantinople. Another motive was, because his 
father, when he died, charged him to assay to take the Rhodes, to be revenged 
of the -shame that they had done to his grandfather Mahomet the Great Turk^ 
which waa with dishonor beaten from the siege of the Rhodes. But the greatest 
occasion of all was the exhortation of a great counsellor of the religion, called 
Andrew Amirall, born in Portugal, which knew the whole estate, and in what 
case the town stood in. The cause why this Andrew Amirall bore malice to his 
religion was, because after the death of Brother Fabric a de Laretto, Lord Master 
of their religion, he was not elected to that honor, but one Phillip de Villiers de 
Lisle Adame, of France, was named to be Lord Master, wherefore the said An- 
drew provoked the Turk to come to the Rhodes. 

“ The Great Turk seeing sp great an occasion offered, and desiring honor 
and also knowing the fortress of the Rhodes to lack munitions, for the 
Brethren of the Order were both of such wealth and pride, and also of such 
wicked life, that they took no heed of their vow and solemn profession, nor 
foresaw the thing to come, and so their town unfurnished was soon surprised. 
The said Turk provided for three hundred sail, in the which he conveyed his 
artillery, and other things necessary. In the which army were sixty thousand 
.miners and pioneers prepared to dig and undermine, the rest of the army came 
by land to a place called Fisco, which standeth so directly against the Rhodes 
that a fire may he seen from the one side to the other : from the whieh place the 
Turk sent letters to the . above named Phillip de Villiers, Lord Master of the 
religion, signifying to him, that he would have the said Isle, for the great dam- 
age they had done to him and his people : and if they would yield to him the 
said Isle, he promised on his faith, and by Mahomet his first prophet, they should 
have no damage nor hurt by him, and that they that would depart should go in 
safety, and they that would tarry and serve him, "should have good wages: and 
if they refused this to do, he sware that he would subvert the walls of tbeir for- 



THE ISLE OE RHODES, BE THE TURKS. 


205 


tress, and destroy them all, and make them slaves ; which letter was dated at 
Constantinople the first day of June. 

“ The said Lord Master and his company were greatly abashed of this letter, 
but yet like hardy gentlemen they intended to defend them, and made all prepa- 
ration they could do in so short space, and wrote to all Princes Christian of 
their distress. But the Turk knowing the great division among the Christian 
Princes, so that they could send no succour to the Rhodes, sent two hundred 
thousand Turks which arrived in the Isle of the Rhodes on Midsummer day, 
which was the festival day of the Rhodes in honor of St. John Baptist, which 
sudden coming sore abashed the Rhodians, being but six hundred Knights, and 
five thousand other meet to bear arras, yet of noble courage and trusting in God, 
they determined to defend themselves against the enemies of God. And on the 
28th July the Turk arrived there in his own person, which much encouraged his 
people: he bent his ordnance toward the town, but did no great harm, wherefor 
he caused all his pioneers to cast earth one bank over another still till they 
came within a bow-shot of the walls: and although that many of the pioneers 
were slain with ordnance of the town, they never ceased till they had jnade a 
bank of earth, higher by ten feet than the wall of the town, and laid there their 
ordnance, so that no person durst stir on the walls or bulwarks. Thus with 
mounts of earth was the town environed, and behind the mountains lay the Ba- 
shaws and chieftains of the Turk, which were ever ready to take their advan- 
tage, and daily they shot into the town and beat down houses, and slew the 
people in the streets, for they upon the mount might easily see into the town : 
besides this the Turk caused so many mines to be made in divers places, that 
they within were not able to make countermines for lack of people, insomuch • 
as women were set to work to dig and carry, by reason whereof a great part of 
the walls were overthrown, and if they within had not made countermines, the 
town had been gotten within a short space. Also the Turk in the month of Sep- 
tember gave to the Rhoadians four great assaults, but the Christians so valiantly 
defended them, that at every assault they lost ten thousand Turks and more. 

“ The Great Turk seeing the loss of his men at the assaults, sent for Mostaffa 
Bashaw, and much blamed himthat he had persuaded him that he might have 
taken the town in twelve days, or a month at the most, wherefore in his fury he 
would have put him to death : but in conclusion the Turk determined clearly to 
raise his siege, and to depart, and so had done, if that night Sir Andrew Amirall, 
and the Jew within the Rhodes, had not written letters, and shot them out on 
quarries into the Turk’s army : by which letters the Turk knew the necessity of 
the town, and feebleness of the people, which caused him to change his purpose : 
but this treason was espied, the traitors taken, and put to terrible execution. 
The Turk caused so many mines to be made, that both walls, bulwarks, and 
towers were overthrown. And so on St. Andrew’s Even, he caused a great 
assault to be given : but yet the Christians so valiantly defended themselves, that 
they slew three thousand Turks, and kept them from entering that day ; but the 
citizens of the Rhodes after this assault came to the Lord Master, and prayed 
him to have compassion on them, the Lord Master comforted them with fair 
words, but by chance about the same time the Great Turk sent a letter into the 
Rhodes, willing them to deliver the town, and they all should have their lives 



206 


ALFRED THE GREAT. 


and goods, and they that would tarry should remain quiet This letter being’ 
known, the people cried out on the Lord Master to take the offer, wherefore 
calling all his counsel, for divers wants amongst them, they sent to the 
Turk two of the religion, for the assurance of his promise, who were well 
entertained, and had writings sealed of all things that they desired. To the 
which two Knights Aymech Bashaw sware, that there were slain at that siege 
sixty four thousand Turks, and forty thousand dead of mortality and more. And 
on Christmas day, the Great Turk himself entered into the Rhodes, and took 
possession thereof, and the Lord Master and all his religion, the .first day of 
January took ship and sailed to Candia and so to Rome, and there declared his 
chance and adventure. Thus was the Isle and town of the Rhodes taken by the 
Great Turk, which was a great succor to all Christian men resorting to the east 
parts of the world, which chance was much lamented, but too late, throughout all 
Christendom, and much blame put in Princes, because they sent no succor to 
them of the Isle.” 


ALFRED THE GREAT. 

Alfred was Grand Master of Masons in England, in the year A. D. 900 
Stow in his “ Annals of England,” published at London, in 1605, quoting as his 
authorities, Floriacensis, Registrum de Ranulphus Rigden, Scalachronicon, Re- 
gistrum Monast de Hyde, Thomas Rudburne, Assenius and Marianos Scotus, 
speaks of him as follows : — 

“The victorious Prince, the studious prouider for widowes, orphanes, and poore 
people, most perfect in Saxon poetrie, most liberall, endued with wisdome, forti- 
tude, iustice and temperance, -the most patient bearer of sicknesse, wherewith he 
was dayly vexed,, a most discreete searcher of trueth in executing indgement, a 
most vigilant and deuout Prince in the seruice of God, Alfreds, the xxix. 
yeare and sixt moneth of his raigne, departed this life, the xxviii. day of October 
and is buryed at Winchester, in the new monasterie of his foundation. He 
founded a . monastery of Monks at Etherlingsey, and an other for nunnes at 
Shaftsebury. He ordayned the hundreds and tenths, which men call centuries 
and cupings: he sent for Grimbald to come into England, that by his aduice he 
might erect the studie of' good learning, clean decayed. By the counsell of 
Neotus, he ordained common schools of diuerse sciences in Oxenford, and turned 
the Saxon laws into English, with diuerse other bookes. 

“ He established good lawes, by the which he brought so great a quietnesse to 
the country, that men might haue hanged golden bracelets and iewels, where 
the wayes parted, and no man durst touche them for feare of the l&we. He car- 
ried euer the Psalter in his bosome, that when he had any leisure he might read 
it ouer with diligence. 

“ He diuided the foure and twenty houres of the day and night into three 
parts : he spent eight hourg in writing,, reading, and prayiDg: eight in prouision 
of his body : and eight in hearing and dispaching the mattefs -of his subiectes. 
Hee diuided his yeerely reuenues into two parts, and the first he diuided into 
three : one part hee gave to his servants, the second part to his workmen which 



HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


207 


were occupied in building, the third part to strangers. The second part of the 
whole he divided into foure partes, the first part whereof hee gaue in almes to the 
poore, the second to monasteries by him founded, the third to schools which he 
had erected, and gathered of many both noble mens and other mens sonnes of 
his nation, the fourth part he distributed to the next monasteries in all the Eng* 
lish Saxon.” 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINES 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER VII. 

ON THE MYSTERIES OF PERSIA. 

The Persian mysteries wero indebted to Zeradusht,* or Zoroaster, for much of 
the celebrity which they attained. This great reformer is said by Hyde and 
Prideaux to be a Jew by birth, and to have received his education in the ele- 
ments of the true worship amongst his countrymen in Babylon. He afterwards 
became an attendant on the prophet Daniel, and from him received initiation into 
all the mysteries of the Jewish doctrine and practice. His abilities being of a 
superior cast, he made a rapid progress in his studies, and became one of the 
most learned men of his age. Perceiving that the homage paid to his master 
was inspired by his extraordinary endowments, Zoroaster was desirous of con- 
verting his own acquirements to the same purpose ; and as he was not enabled to 
prophesy by the aid of God’s Holy Spirit, he had recourse to the study of magic, 
which he prosecuted under the Chaldean philosophers, who conferred upon him 
the privilege of initiation into their mysteries. This brought him into disgrace 
with Daniel, who banished him from the land, and prohibited his return on pain 
of death.f He fled to Ecbatana, and giving out that he was a prophet, set about 
the arduous and dangerous design of reforming the Persian religion ; the charac- 


* He was called by the Persians, Zeradusht, and by the Greeks, Zoroaster. The ques- 
tion of the identity of Zeradusbt and Zoroaster will form no part of the present undertaking. 
Such a person, under one of these names did actually flourish in Persia, aud reform its re- 
ligion about the latter end of the Babylonish captivity, and I am little concerned in this 
much agitated question. 

1 1 have given the above account of the early life of Zoroaster on the authority of Hyde 
aud Prideaux, although I myself entertain some doubts of its probability. Whoever this 
extraordinary character might be, it is certain that he possessed an extensive knowledge of 
all the science and philosophy then known in the world and had been initiated into the pe- 
culiar Mysteries of every nation, to qualify himself for the distinguished part he was now 
about to act on the great theatre of the world. 1 think also it is highly probable that two 
distinct personages of the same name flourished in Persia at different eras, the former per- 
haps the inventor of a system which the other improved. 




208 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


ter of which, by a series of gradual and imperceptible changes, had become sub- 
verted from its primitive object j and the Sabian system had almost prevailed 
over the ancient Magian form of worship. Professing to be a rigid Magi&n, this 
plausible impostor, like other bold innovators of all ages and nations, soon found 
himself surrounded by followers in 4 every rank of life, who entered into his 
schemes with all the enthusiasm usually excited by novelty, and gave their most 
strenuous support to his projected plan of reformation. He was openly patron- 
ized by the monarch, Darius Hystaspes, who accompanied him into Cashmere 
for the purpose of completing his preparatory studies by the instruction of the 
Brahmins, from whom he had previously received initiation. After having ob- 
tained a complete knowledge of their theological, mathematical, and astronomical 
system, he returned into Bactria, and took up his residence with his royal patron 
at Balk. 

He began with their religion. Before his time the Persians worshipped in the 
open air, and resisted the innovation of covered temples,* long after they were 
adopted by other nations ; for they thought that an immaterial Being could not 
be confined in buildings erected by the hand of man ; and therefore they con- 
sidered the broad expanse of heaven as the sublime covering of a temple conse- 
crated to the deity. Their places of sacrifice were of an open and very simple 
nature, being elevated on hills, and composed principally of irregular circles of 
unhewn stone, like those of the northern nations of Europe. They abominated 
images,! and worshipped the Sun and. Fire, } as representatives of the omnipresent 
deity. Zoroaster succeeded in prevailing on them to preserve the Sacred Fire, 
which, by burning on the highest hills, was liable to be extinguished by storms 
and tempests, in covered Fire towers, which were circular buildings, with a dome, 
and a small orifice at the top to let out the smoke. In these the sacred flame, 
where God was supposed to reside, was kept perpetually alive. Thus the build- 
ing represented the Universe ; and the central fire which constantly blazed with- 
in it, was figurative of the great luminary, the Sun. 

He then proceeded to remodel the Mysteries ; and to accomplish with the 
greater effect, his ambitious designs, he retired to a circular cave or grotto in the 
mountains of Bokhara, which he ornamented with a profusion of symbolical and 


* The Persians were nor singular in this custom j for the early Egyptians, as well as the 
Druids and others, worshipped in uncovered temples. (Clem. Alex. Strom. 5. Lucian de 
Dea Syria.) 

+ Herod. Clio. 1, i. Yet, " according to the Zinat o’ttawarikh, idolatry first arose in Per- 
sia from survivors preserving the busts and images of their deceased friends which, in sub- 
sequent ages, were venerated with divine honors by their posterity.” (Wait. Orient. Ant. 

p. 11.) 

t Even the Jews in their idolatries were not exempt from the superstitious adoration of 
this element, a practice which they pretended to justify from their own scriptures. God, 
say they, appeared in the Cherubim over the gate of Eden as a flaming sword , (Gen. iii. 
24 ) and to Abraham as aflame offlre; (Gen. xv. 17.) and again to Moses as a fire at Ho- 
reb ; (Exod. iii. 2.) and to the whole assembly of the people at Sinai, when he descended 
upon the mountain in fire ; (Exod. xix. Id.) and they further urged that Moses himself had 
told them that their God was a consuming fire, (Deut. iv. 24.) which was re-echoed more 
than once j (Deut. ix. 3.) and thence the Jews were weak enough to worship the material 
substance, in lieu of the invisible and eternal God. 



BISTORT OF INITIATION* 


209 


astronomical decorations, and solemnly consecrated it to the Middle god or Me- 
diator Mithr-As, or as he was elsewhere denominated, the invisible deity, the 
parent of the universe, who was himself said to be born, or produced from a cave 
hewn out of a rock. Here the Sun, represented by a burning gem, which beamed 
forth a lustre insupportably splendid and powerful, occupied a conspicuous situa- 
tion in the centre of the roof; the planets were displayed in order round him, in 
studs of gold glittering on a rich ground of azure ; the zodiac was splendidly 
represented in embossed gold, in which the constellations Leo, or Leo Mithriaoa, 
and Taurus with the Sun and Lunette emerging from his head or back in beaten 
gold, as emblematical of the diluvian father and mother issuing from the ark, 
bore a distinguished character. The four ages of the world were represented by 
so many globes of gold, silver, brass and iron. Thus bedecked with gems and 
precious stones, and knobs of burnished gold, the cave appeared to the enraptured 
aspirant, during the celebration of the mysteries, illuminated, as it was, by in- 
numerable lamps which reflected a thousand different colors and shades of color, 
like the enchanting vision of a celestial palace. In the centre of the cave was a 
marble fountain of water, transparent as crystal, to supply the numerous basons 
with which the grotto was furnished for the purpose of ablution and ceremonial 
purifications. The cavern thus ornamented, furnished, and disposed, was an em- 
blem of the widely extended universe, supported by the three grand Pillars of 
Eternity, Fecundity, and Authority ; and the symbols with which it was profusely 
adorned referred to every element and principle in nature. 

Every preparation being completed, Zoroaster caused a rumor to be propagated 
that he had been favored with'a celestial vision, received up into the abode of 
the Most High, and permitted to converse with that awful Being face to face, 
who, he said, was encircled with a bright and ever living flame of fire ; that a 
system of pure worship had been revealed to him, which he was directed to com- 
municate to those only who possessed sufficient virtue to resist the allurements 
of the world, and were willing to devote themselves to the study of philosophy, 
and the pure and unmixed contemplation of the deity and his works. 

In the most secret recesses of this hallowed cave, he now commenced the cel- 
ebration of those famous rites which exalted his name to the highest summit of 
celebrity. Every person who wished, to attain a knowledge ©f the Persian phi- 
losophy resorted to the Mithratic cave for initiation. The fame of Zoroaster 
spread throughout the world. Numbers from the most distant regions came to 
hear his Lectures ; and, it is said, even Pythagoras travelled from Greece for 
initiation by this celebrated philosopher.* His doctrines however were a con- 
tinued tissue of allegoiy, which none could understand but those who were quali- 
fied by initiation; and his System embraced all sciences,. human aud divine. 


* Sir W. Jones thinks w it is barely possible that Pythagoras knew. him. The Grecian 
sage,” says he, “ mast have been far advanced in years ; and we have no certain evidence 
of an intercourse between the two philosophers.” — Asiat. Res. vol. ii. On the other hand, 
Dean Prideaux observes, " that they who write of Pythagoras do almost all of them tell ua, 
that he was the scholar of Zoroastrea at Babylon, and learned of him most of that knowledge 
which afterwards rendered him so famous in the west. So saith Apaleius, and so say Jato- 
blichus, Porphyry and Clemens Alexandrians.— -Connect, vol. i. p. 228. 

27 


210 


GRAND MASTERS IN ENGLAND. 


GRAND MASTERS, OR PATRONS, 

OF THE .FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS IN ENGLAND, 

from the coming in of the Saxons to the year 1839, with brief references to remarka- 
ble events. Compiled and condensed from the most authoritative records, by 
Br. Thomas Joseph Tennison, President of the Masonic Council of 
Armagh, Ireland. 

303. St. Alban the Martyr , Steward to the Rorp&n Emperor, Carnusius. 

600. Augustin the Monk , the first Archbishop of Canterbury, appeared at the 
head of the Craft in founding his Cathedral, under Ethelbert, King of Kent. 
The number of Castles, Palaces, Fortifications, and Religious Houses built at 
this period, required many Masons, who formed themselves into Lodges, and con* 
tinued to improve under the superintendance of skilful foreigners, sent over by 
Charles Martel, Grand Master of France, A. C. 710. Lodges were usually held 
in the Monasteries. The Clergy who now studied geometry and architecture, 
assisting in what they termed “Communications of Worshipful and worthy 
Brethren.” . 

680. Bennette, Abbott of Wirrall, who introduced the use of brick and stone. 

857. St. Stoithin waa the next Grand Master, and by direction, of Ethel wolf, 
undertook to repair the religious houses, and died in the odour of sanctity. 

900. Alfred the Great , who seemed bom not only to defend his bleeding coun- 
try, but even to adorn humanity, was appointed Grand Master on his return from 
Rome, where he had been anointed as future King, by Pope Leo. He employed 
the “ Fellow-Craft9 ” wholly in brick and stone, with which he rebuilt many of 
the churches and monasteries which had been burned and destroyed by the de- 
vastating and rapacious Danes. 

Ethelredj Vice-King of Mercia, succeeded Alfred. He was succeeded by hie 
brother, 

Ethdward, the Learned, who founded the University of Cambridge. 

Prince Edwin , Grand Master, brother of King Athelstane, encouraged Free- 
masons from France, who brought with them the charges and regulations of 
Foreign-Lodges, the ancient records of the Order in England having been for the 
most part destroyed or lost in the wars with the Danes, who burnt the monasteries 
where they were kept. Edwin purchased from his brother, King Athelstane, 
(who first translated the Holy Bible into the Saxon language) a charter, permit- 
ting the Freemasons to have “ A Correction,” or power to regulate themselves 
with good and wholesome instruction, to correct errors, and to hold a yearly 
communication in general assembly. Accordingly, he summoned all the Free 
and Accepted Masons to meet him at York, who came and formed a Grand Lodge 
under him, as their Grand Master, bringing with them several Greek, Latin, and 
French MSS. from which the Constitutions of the English Lodges were framed. 

933. King Athelstane. 

St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, by whose influence with the monks 
Edgar was placed on the throne. Under his Grand Mastership the King built 
about 48 religious houses. 

Edward the Confessor : in hi* reign arts and sciences flourished. 

1065-6. Leofric, Earl of Coventry, at the head of the Freemasons, built the 
Abbey of Coventry, and twelve religious houses. 

1087. Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arandel, and Gundtdph, Bishop of Roches- 
ter, were appointed by William the Conqueror, as “Heads of the Fellow-Craft, 
both in civil, military, and sacred architecture.” William brought many expert 
Freemasons from Normandy. The Tower of London, fortytwo monasteries, five 
cathedrals, ten castles, St. Saviour’s Southwark, and Battle Abbey, near Hast- 
ings, in commemoration of the conquest, were built by the Freemasons in this 
reign. 



GRAND MASTER^ IN ENGLAND. 


811 


Gilbert de Clare , Marquis of Pembroke, was Grand Master under Stephen, in 
whose reign the Masons were as much employed as the soldiers, they building 
four abbeys, two nunneries, ninety religious houses, and St. Stephen’s Chapel, 
Westminster. In the preceding reign of William Rufus, the wall roand the 
Tower of London, thirtytwo religious houses, London Bridge, the Palace of 
Westminster, and Westminster Hall, 270 feet long and 74 feet broad, were 
erected under the advice of “ The Grand Lodge of Masters.” 

1100. King Henry I. 

1185. In the reign of Henry II., the Grand Masters of Knights Templars 
erected their Society and built the Temple, in Fleet Street, London. 

Peter de Colechurch, a priest, was appointed Grand Master by King John, and 
rebuilt London Bridge of stone, which was finished by the next Master. 

1209. William Almain, The brave barons who first raised the standard of 
freedom on the plains of Runimede, and wrested from the tyrant and detested 
John, that famous bulwark of British liberties called Magna Charta, were to a 
man enrolled as Freemasons uqder Robert Fitzwalter, their General, whom they 
had dignified with the title of “ Mareschal of the Army of God and of the Holy 
Chiifch.” Almaine is the first Brother recorded as Deputy Grand Master, which 
office he held under Peter de Colechurch, previous to his election as Grand 
Master. 

1216. Peter de Ruptbus , Bisbop of Winchester, was Grand Master, and 
under him Geoffry Fitz-Peter was chief surveyor, or Deputy Grand Master. 

1284. Walter Gifford, Archbishop of York, Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Glou- 
cester, and Ralph, Lord of Mount Herman , were successively Grand Masters in 
the reign of Edward I. 

1327. Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, was the next Grand Master, under 
Edward II.; he built Exeter and Oriel Colleges, Oxford, and Clare Hall, Cam- 
bridge. 

Edward HI. became Patron of, Arts and Head of Freemasons. He rebuilt the 
Castle and Palace at Windsor; set up there the celebrated table 600 feet round. 
In this reign the Order of the Garter was instituted.' 

John de Sponlee, William de Wyekham, Robert a Bamham, Henry Yeule, and 
Simon Langnam, Abbot of Westminster, successively Deputy Grand Masters in 
this reign- 

1350. John de Sponlee , succeeded Edward, as Grand Master. He rebuilt St. 
George’s Chapel, where the Order of the Garter was constituted. 

1357. William of Wickham, Bishop of Winchester, at the head of 400 Freema- 
sons, rebuilt the castle strong and stately. 

1375. Robert of Barnham, with 250 Freemasons, finished St. George’s Hall. 

Henry Yeule, called in the records " The King’s Freemason,” built the London 
Charter House, King’s Hall, Cambridge, Queenborough Castle, and rebuilt St. 
Stephen’s Chapel, where the Commons of England assembled in Parliament until 
it was consumed by fire, in the year 1836. 

Simon Langham, Abbot of Westminster. The Constitution was now meliora- 
ted. The Grand Master, with his Wardens, with the consent of the Lords of the 
Realm, then generally Freemasons, “ordained many matters,” as imported in an 
old record. 

William of Wickham, Bishop of Winchester, who was employed by Richard II., 
as Grand Master, to rebuild Westminster Hall. William, at his own cost, built 
New College, Oxford, and founded Winchester College. 

Thomas Fitz- Allan, Earl of Surry, was appointed Grand Master by Henry IY. 
In this reign Guild-Hall was founded, 

[To be continued next month.] 



212 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Masonic College, Marion, Mo . March 20, 1845. 

R. W. Charles W. Moore 

My Dear Brother : — I know you will be pleased to hear of the prosperity of the 
College. We have at this time about sixty students ; and our future prospects 
are bright It is an institution of which the Fraternity in this State are justly 
proud. It brings the blessings of a sound and liberal education within the reach 
of many young men whose means would not enable them tb pursue a course of 
study at any other College in our land. The whole expenses here, exclusive of 
books and clothing, are only (80 a year in the college proper ; and $70 a year in 
the preparatory department Beneficiaries of Lodges pay only $50. This" reduc- 
tion of the ordinary expenses of a classical education, 1 consider to be charity in 
the highest and widest sense. There are hundreds of youths in this lovely valley, 
who have hitherto been debarred, by their limited means, from the higher walks 
of learning, but who may here enjoy all the advantages that wealth alone can 
elsewhere purchase. Here, many a widowed mother will see the children that 
God has given hep— the children of her prayers, of her hopes, and of her tears, 
rescued by Masonic charity, from want, misery and moral ruin, and made pillars 
of beauty in the fair Temple of Virtue. 

We have also now~in operation a Female Department, where young ladies can 
receive as liberal and extensive instruction, as at any school in our country, at the 
low rate of $75 a year. In this department also, as in College, beneficiaries are 
charged only for board, $50 a year. This school is situated in a beautiful spot, 
about a mile from the College, and is under the immediate control of the College 
Faculty. Yours, fraternally, 

J. W. S. 


Plymouth, M C. April 9th, 1845. 

Bro. Moore : — I had the pleasure a few weeks since, of sending for ten copies 
of the u Trestle-Board ” for the use of the members of Franklin Lodge, at 
Beaufort, N. C. which were received in due time and with which the Brethren 
were much pleased. 

The above Lodge is working under a Dispensation from the Deputy Grand 
Master, Bro. David W. Stone; and in consequence of a pressing invitation from 
the Lodge, I paid the Brethren a visit the last of March, and gave them, as far as 
I could, instruction on the subject of working in the three first Degrees. 

I found the Brethren with attentive ears and. willing to receive such instructions 
as I had to impart, and I think I can say with truth, that they are all lovers of 
Masonry and will unite their endeavors in promoting the cause they espouse, 
both by precept and example. 

1 found a hearty reception, — a heartier one, I never had, and if work is a pleasure, 
1 certainly had it, during my stay with them. 

During my stay, one wps initiated, three passed and three raised. They bid fair 
to make good and faithful craftsmen. 

Besides the enjoyments in the Lodge which I experienced, I had much out of 
doors, by having & fine view of the ocean's rolling waves, coming on the sea beach. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 


213 


of enjoying the sea air, viewing a splendidly arranged and made fort, at the 
entrance of the harbor viz: “Port Macon,” and last, but not least, of satisfying 
my appetite on the best of Oysters, and salt water fish. In short, I enjoyed myself 
and was well paid for any trouble I i?hs at in visiting the Brethren, as they en- 
deavored by all means to make me comfortable. 

That you may feel more interested, I am pleased to have it in my power to order 
four copies of the Magazine. Yours, fraternally, J. R. ' 


Tarborough, JV. C. March 13, 1845. 

Charles W. Moore Esq. — I consider the Magazine one of the best publi- 
cations of the kind ever published in the United States. It circulates so much 
useful Masonic information, I think that every Lodge ought to subscribe for it, 
as it would materially aid in transacting the business of the Lodge, and enable 
them to decide upon many doubtful questions. 

In the last number of the Magazine, I perceive that some of our Brethren 
entertain doubts as to the propriety of Grand Lodge Certificates. I give my 
humble opinion, that they are both necessary and proper, as they would be 
evidence of good moral character, and would, in some good degree, protect the 
Lodges and worthy Masons generally, from being, imposed on by unworthy 
persons. Every worthy Master Mason ought to have one. None of us know that 
we shall be exempt from misfortunes, and should it please the Supreme Architect 
of the Universe to take us from our families, a Grand Lodge Certificate might be 
of great use to them. 

By way of illustration, I will state a case in point. A Mrs. , of this county, 

about 70 years old, (and as I „am informed, a consistent professor of Religion,) 
and so infirm as not to be able to support herself bj her work, having been, as I 
presume, informed by some person that I was Master of the Lodge in this place, 
she called on me and told me that her husband was a Mason and a member of the 
Lodge at Windsor, N. C., that he moved to this County a short time before he * 
died, which was in 1808. She told me she had been informed that if. we could be 
satisfied of the truth of her statement, and that her husband was of good moral 
character, that she might apply for pecuniary assistance. I informed her that I 
would endeavor to find out the truth of her statement, and accordingly instructed 
our deligate to the last Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of N. C., 
to examine the returns of that Lodge, (the Lodge at Windsor.) He, with the 
assistance of the Grand Secretary, examined large bundles of Returns, but could 
not find any from that Lodge, as far back as 1808. I have since wrote to the 
Secretary of the Lodge at Windsor, and have received in answer that the Lodge 
which was in existence there in 1808, had been dissolved and that none of its 
Records are to be found. Yours, fraternally, L. B. 

[This is a case in point, and feelingly illustrates the importance of every Mason 
furnishing himself with a Certificate. Had the husband of the lady in question 
done so, his widow would have had no difficulty in proving her claims upon the 
Fraternity, and would readily have received that assistance which her present 
destitute circumstances seem to require.] — Ed. Mao. 



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MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

A R K AN S A S . 

The Grand Lodge of Arkansas, held its annual communication at Little Rock, 
in November and January last The proceedings indicate a high degree of 
prosperity among the Craft in that new and remote State. The meetings were 
well attended, and a great amount of business was transacted, though mostly of a 
local character. We give such portions of the proceedings as possess a general 
interest : — 

WORK IN GRAND LODGE. 

Resolved , That at eaeh annual commtmication of this G. Lodge, the ceremony 
of initiation, passing and raising a candidate shall be performed, in the presence 
of the members of this G. Lodge, and that the mode of work adopted and agreed 
upon in the several degrees, shall be adopted and practised in the subordinate 
Lodges ; and that the ceremony of opening and closing a Lodge be determined, 
which shall also, be binding on all subordinate Lodges. 

GRAND LODGE JURISDICTION. 

The committee on foreign correspondence, in an excellent report, very pro- 
perly remark : 

In regard to Grand Lodge jurisdiction, your committee regret to see so many 
instances of its violation, with a high degree of disrespect Of the many instan- 
ces, your committee will refer to only one. A citizen of this State, residing in 
the vicinity of Little Rock, petitioned u Western Star Lodge” for initiation and 
was rejected. Soon after he made a visit to North Alabama, and in a few weeks 
returned, having received the three degrees in a Lodge under the jurisdiction of 
the Grand Lodge of that State. Under ordinary circumstance* this violation 
would not perhaps have been noticed. But the individual alluded to, having 
since been excluded from the benefits of our Order, admonishes your com- 
mittee of the necessity of suggesting some mode of arrangement by which the 
Craft may be protected from the admission of unworthy members. And who are 
more capable of judging of the worth and character of applicants, than the Breth- 
ren, residing in the vicinity of the applicant^ who are his neighbors and acquain- 
tances ? 

Your committee observe in the proceedings above referred to, a rigid system 
of economy, and a strict accountability is being adopted in the administration of 
the fiscal department of the Craft, with a view to enlarge their charity fund, and 
extend farther and broader the great work of benevolence. 

MASONS SHOULD BE MEMBERS OF LODGES. 

Resolved , That it is the duty of every Mason in good standing to be a member 
of some Lodge or Chapter ; and that each subordinate Lodge under the jurisdic- 
tion of this 6. Lodge, make and send up here, as a part of their annual returns, 
a register of all Brethren within their respective jurisdictions: distinguishing 
those who are, from those who are not, members — the grade of each, with a regis- 
ter of deaths, removals, demissions, suspensions and expulsions. 

FUNERAL HONORS. 

Thursday , January 2, 1845. At a special meeting of the G. Lodge convened 
this morning, at the Masonic Hall, &c. — present — Grand Officers, and a large 
number of members and visiting Brethren, the M. W. G. M. announced in a feel- 
ing and appropriate manner, the very sudden decease of our excellent Brother, 
Gen. John Clark, of Golden Square Lodge , No. 8; whereupon 

On motion of R. W. Richard P. Pulliam, 

Resolved , That this Grand Lodge deeply deplore the loss of our worthy Brother. 

Resolved, That the members of this Lodge and Brethren of the Fraternity, 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


215 


attend his funeral, to-morrow morning, at 9 o’clock, for the purpose of paying the 
last tribute of respect to his memory — and that we wear the usual badge of 
mourning, for thirty days. 

Called from labor, till to-morrow. 

Friday , January 2, 1845. Met pursuant to adjournment, when a grand proces- 
sion consisting of a very large number of the Fraternity, was formed under the di- 
rection of Br. Thomas D. Merrick, G. Marshal for the occasion, and proceeded with 
the corpse in due form, to the Chamber of the State Senate, of which body our 
deceased Brother was a member, where a funeral oration was delivered ; after 
which his remains were deposited in the grave prepared for them in Mount Holly 
Cemetery, in ample form. The grand procession then returned to the Hall, and 
called from labor, &c. 

GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 

Resolved, That the G. Secretary furnish to each of the subordinate Lodges, 
certificates of good standing, signed by the M. W. G. M., G. Secretary, and G. 
Treasurer, attested by the seal of the G. Lodge, to be given to members of said 
Lodges, who may wish to travel beyond the limits of this State, in the ratio of 
one for every eight members, of said Lodges, which certificate shall be delivered 
on the full return of their respective number of members, with the request to 
receive the same. 

MONUMENT TO THE LATE GRAND MASTER. 

Resolved , That a committee of three be appointed to receive contributions 
from subordinate Lodges and Brethren throughout the State, for the purpose of 
erecting a suitable monument in memory of our late G. M. Wm. Gilchrist, and 
when sufficient funds are raised, that the committee begin the work, and report 
to the next Grand Annual communication in November next Brs. McVicar, 
Baldwin, and Bingham were appointed the committee. 

. ILLINOIS. 

The Grand Lodge of Illinois held its annual communication at Jacksonville, 
in October. The session continued several days, and seems to have been a 
business and interesting one. The work of the Convention was adopted. The 
following was also adopted : — 

Whereas, the M. W. Grand Lodge of Illinois, at their last communication, 
thought proper to withdraw from Nauvoo, Helm and Nye Lodges, the dispensa- 
tions which had been granted them, for gross unmasonic conduct, and whereas 
the M. W. Grand Master did during vacation send a special Messenger to Nau- 
voo and demand the dispensations aforesaid, which demand was treated with 
contempt, and not only a positive refusal given by said Lodges, but a determina- 
tion expressed to continue their work ; Now resolved, by this Grand Lodge, that 
all fellowship with said Lodges, and the number thereof be withdrawn, and the 
Association of Masons working these Lodges, are hereby declared clandestine ; 
and all the members hailing therefrom, suspended from all the privileges of Ma- 
sonry within the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, and that our sister Grand 
Lodges be requested to deny them the same privileges. 

Resolved , That the Grand Secretary be directed to address a circular on the 
subject to all the Grand Lodges in correspondence with this Grand Lodge ; 
.and request the same to be published in all the Masonic periodicals. 

OHIO. 

Proceedings of Ohio, October, 1844, in continuation from our last : — 

GRAND LODGE CERTIFICATES. 

Resolved, That any of the subordinate Lodges in good standing in this State 
may on the application of the Secretary of such Lodge or by their representative 



316 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


at the annual Communication of this Grand Lodge, be entitled to receive on the 
payment of twentyfive cents for each certificate, a reasonable number of Grand 
Lodge certificates in blanks, fully attested by the Grand Lodge, and to be used 
and granted at the discretion of the Master, by and with the consent of the Lodge 
obtaining the same. 

MASONIC CONVOCATIONS. 

The Select Committee to whom was referred so much of the Most W. G. Mas- 
ter’s annual Communication as relates to Masonic Convocations, made the fol- 
lowing report, which was agreed to, viz: 

The select committee to whom was referred so much of the Most W. G. Mas- 
ter’s annual Communication as relates to Masonic Convocations, have had the 
same under consideration, and report, 

That in the opinion of your Committee there is no means better calculated to 
cherish the kindly feelings of our nature, or to diffuse correct Masonic intelli- 
gence among the Fraternity, than frequent meetings of the kind alluded to, 
among neighboring Lodges. There is perhaps no section of our jurisdiction 
where it would be inconvenient to hold one or two such Convocations every 
year ; and we are fully persuaded that a fair trial of the plan suggested by the 
M. W. Grand Master, has only to be made to prove its great utility. Some of 
your Committee have, within the past year, witnessed some of the happy influen- 
ces attending such Masonic Convocations, and heartily join in the recommenda- 
tion of the adoption of some general system that will produce the end desired. 

Without entering into any lengthy argument showing the usefulness of the 
proposed Masonic Convocations, or the adoption of any permanent plan, your 
Committee recommend the adoption of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the .Lodges in each Congressional District within this State, 
where two or more Lodges exist, be requested to hold, in each ensuing year, at 
least one Convocation at some convenient central point ; and that the time and 
place of such meeting be designated by the oldest Lodge in such district 

J. S. Bergman, 'j 
Wm. R. KerR, I ~ ... 

Samuel Glennt, f Comm,ttec * 
Marvin Tract, J 

TENNESSEE. 

The Grand Lodge of Tennessee held its annual communication at Nashville, 
in October. The proceedings indicate a high degree of Masonic prosperity in 
the State, though they contain but little of general interest We subjoin a few 
extracts : — 

CONFERRING DEGREES. 

On motion of Br. Wheeler, it was Resolved , That no subordinate Lodge work- 
ing under the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge, shall be allowed to initiate, pass 
or raise more than one candidate at the same time. 

Resolved , That all resolutions, rules and regulations heretofore adopted by this 
Grand Lodge, bearing upon this subject, be and are hereby repealed. 

On motion of Br. E. Howard, J. G. W., it was 

Resolved, That all examinations of candidates in the different degrees shall be 
made at stated meetings. 

Resolved , That one stated meeting shall elapse between the conferring of the 
degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, and Master Mason. 

Resolved , That the election of candidates to the different degrees, shall be a 
stated meeting. 

Resolved, That the Grand Secretary issue certificates to any Brother wishing 
the same, providing such Brother Wishing, exhibit sufficient evidence of his 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


217 


good standing in the Lodge to which he belongs ; and for issuing such certifi- 
cate the Grand Secretary shall charge the following fees, to wit: for certificate 
on parchment, one dollar and twentyfive cents ; for certificate on paper, one dol- 
lar — one half of said fees to be appropriated to the expense of engraving and 
printing. 

On motion of Br. Reavis, it was Resolved, That subsequent Grand Lodges of 
the State of Tennessee, on the second day after the same shall be opened, at 
each Communication, shall cause to be delivered in open Lodge, the entire Lec- 
tures on the Three first Degrees of Masonry, for the good of the Craft throughout 
the State, and that the Grand Master now appoint Brethren to deliver said Lec- 
tures at the next meeting of this Grand Lodge. 

EDUCATION. 

The following is from the report of the Committee on foreign correspondence : 

Throughout the proceedings exhibited to us, we see an increased interest man- 
ifested in the cause of Education, and by several of the Grand Lodges incipient 
steps have been taken for founding Masonic Orphan Asylums, for the education 
of the orphan children of Masons, who are unable to obtain the same by their 
own unassisted efforts. It would be an interesting inquiry, to ascertain how far 
this Grand Lodge is performing its duty in this respect Something should be 
done, either by this Grand Lodge or by the subordinate Lodges themselves, and 
until something is effected by us, we are neglecting a very important duty to- 
wards those who have a right to look to us for fatherly care and protection. 

ALABAMA. 

The Grand Chapter of Alabama, held its annual communication at Tuscaloosa, 
in Dec. last We make the following extracts from its proceedings : — 

ADMISSION or CLERGYMEN. 

That any subordinate Chapter may confer the degrees on Ministers of the 
Gospel without charging any tees for the same ; and that this Grand Chapter will 
not require from any subordinate Chapter dues from any member of said Chapter 
who is a Minister of the Gospel, unless such Chapter charges dues to said Minister 
of the Gospel The same was unanimously adopted 

FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Committee on Foreign Correspondence, have had under consideration the 
matters to them referred, and beg leave to Report : 

That they have examined the proceedings of the Grand Chapter of the states 
of Virginia, New Hampshire, Tennessee and Kentucky, which were passed over 
to them, by the Grand Secretary, and are gratified to perceive that in those states, 
Masonry is maintaining the Tank to which it is entitled, from the antiquity and 
purity of the principles which distinguish it. They find in all those proceedings 
much interesting matter; but nothing which calls for action, or the expression of 
an opinion on the part of this Grand Chapter. 

They perceive that at the last meeting of the Grand Chapter of Kentucky, 
that body expressed an opinion on the action of the Chapter of Alabama, regard- 
ing the right claimed by the Grand Chapter of Virginia, to exercise jurisdiction 
over Councils of Royal and Select Masters. This Grand Chapter at their meeting 
in 1842, denied the existence of such right, andjin this denial, their Companions 
in Kentucky sustain them. 

Your Committee regard a correspondence or interchange of Minutes with the 
Grand Chapters throughout the United States as highly important — and therefore 
recommend that the Grand Secretary take especial care to forward to all such, 
copies of the proceedings of this Chapter — requesting that they will reciprocate. 

All which is respectfully submitted. E. V. Levert, 

Thos. Chilton. 


28 



218 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


NORTH CAROLINA. 

We have been obligingly favored with a copy of the proceedings of the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina, had at its annual communication, at Raleigh, in Dec. 
last We give below such extracts as we can find room for 

REPORT ON FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE. 

To the Most Worshipful Grand Master and Grand Lodge of North Carolina : 

The Committee on Foreign Communications and Miscellaneous Subjects, to 
whom were referred the Reports from the Grand Lodges of the States of Maine, 
New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, Virginia, 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, 
the Territories of Iowa and Florida, and the Republic of Texas ; the Communi- 
cations from the Grand Lodges of Virginia, and Pennsylvania, on the subject of 
the publication of the “Trestle-Board,” and the Circular from Comp. C. W. 
Moore, of Boston, on the same subject; the Communication from the Grand 
Lodge of Mississippi, on the “ Representative System and the Correspondence 
between the Grand Lodges of New York and Michigan, in relation to the irregular 
revival of the Grand Lodge of the latter State, have had the same under their 
most attentive consideration, and beg leave to 

report : 

That the examination of these interesting documents has given them the 
liveliest satisfaction, arising from the evidences they display of the prosperity of 
the Craft generally, and the increasing attachment of the members of the Frater- 
nity to the holy and ennobling principles which it enjoins upon them. Wherever 
these principles are most strictly adhered to ; wherever the obligations imposed 
on ns by our venerable Order are most faithfully discharged, and its spirit exem- 
plified and practically carried out in the lives of its professors ; there do we find 
Masonry most flourishing, and the Institution most influential. And how can it 
be otherwise ? It matters not how exalted may be the principles which it pro- 
fesses, or how holy the precepts it inculcates, if its members do not illustrate and 
enforce them by their acts as well as by their professions. The world will always 
judge it by the deportment of its members ; and if they be disorderly in their 
conduct, or dissolute in their habits, as soon would they believe that “an evil tree 
could produce good fruit,” as that a good Institution would allow such unworthy 
persons to surround its altars and participate in its sacred rites. But when the. 
Order practically and tangibly displays the good which it accomplishes ; when its 
members illustrate it by lives of virtuous usefulness ; when Brotherly Love, Belief 
and Truth are practised , as well as professed ; when universal benevolence prompts 
our actions, and disinterested philanthropy inspires our hearts ; when Temperance, 
Fortitude , Prudence , and Justice , are the rules of our practice in all our intercourse 
with our fellow-men, then do we furnish the most unanswerable argument of the 
purity of the principles of Masonry, and constrain even its revilers to acknowledge 
that such results cannot spring from an impure or unholy source. x 

Your Committee have seen with regret the rather tart and petulant correspon- 
dence between the ' Grand Lodge of New York, and a body styling itself the 
Grahd Lodge of Michigan. From a careful examination of the papers laid before 
them, they discover that the Grand Lodge of Michigan, in consequence of the 
storm of Anti- Masonry, which swept over that State in 1829, suspended their 
labors “ for the time being,” as did every subordinate Lodge in the State but one, 
until 1840, when it was revived again. But its revival was effected in such a 
manner that it was not recognized as a Grand Lodge by the Grand Lodges of 
Massachusetts, Illinois, Virginia, Alabama, Missouri, or indeed any Grand Lodge 
that they can learn but those of Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Your Committee con- 
cur in the opinion that the whole proceeding was irregular, and they are pleased 
to learn that that body has been convinced of its error, and before this time has 
probably taken the proper steps to repair it, and duly constitute hej-self a Grand 
Lodge. 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


219 


The u Representative system ” has met with the approval of nearly all the 
Grand Lodges which have taken any action in relation to that subject, and your 
Committee would recommend its adoption by your Body. It is attended by no 
expense, and by its instrumentality you will be kept advised of whatever of in- 
terest may occur in other Grand Lodges, and also keep up a fraternal correspon- 
dence between those Bodies, as well as an interchange of friendly offices and 
greetings. 

By a communication addressed to your Body by the Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of Georgia, your Committee are informed that Bro. Philip T. Schley 
was unanimously recommended to be your Representative near the former Body. 
We cannot but be highly gratified at this honor conferred on this Body, by the 
appointment of so distinguished a Brother to represent this Body in the Grand 
Lodge of Georgia ; and they cordially recommend him to be recognized as such ; 
and that your Secretary be directed to furnish him a description of the jewels 
and regalia used by your Body. Your Committee also recommend that you re- 
ciprocate the honor conferred on you by the Grand Lodge of Georgia, by recom- 
mending Bro. Thomas Loring, as their Representative near this Body ; and that 
the Secretary be directed to communicate the same to that Body. 

The Grand Lodge of Mississippi, warmly approves of and recommends the 
8U gg[estion of the appointment of a Delegate to visit the English Lodges, where 
Ancient York Masonry probably exists in greater purity than any other part of 
the globe. Your Committee deem it unnecessary to recite the numerous advan- 
tages likely to result from this mission, or the cogent reasons for instituting it. 
It has their hearty approval, and they know it has yours, as the matter was favor- 
ably acted on at the last Annual Communication of your Body. Bro. John 
Delafield, Jr. of Memphis, Tenn. is recommended by the Grand Lodge of 
Mississippi, as a suitable person to be appointed ; and your Committee would take 
the liberty of recommending Comp. C. W. Moore, of Boston, for this appoint- 
ment 

The appointment will be made, (if made at all) by the Convention which 
assembles in Virginia in May next ; and though we prefer Bro. Moore, yet relying 
on the wisdom and judgment of the Convention, we will cheerfully acquiesce in 
its decision on this subject. 

It appears from some of the papers laid before your Committee, that the execu- 
tion of the Text-book, ordered to be prepared by the Baltimore Convention, and 
which was prepared by Bros. Camegy and Moore, the majority of the Committee 
appointed for that purpose, has been rejected by the Grand Lodges of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania,* and denounced in highly indecorous terms by Bro. Dove, 
the President of that Convention. Your Committee deem it unnecessary to go 
into a discussion of the merits and demerits of this work — the * Trestle-Board.” 
It is, like all other human productions, not perfect ; yet, in the opinion of your 
Committee, it is decidedly superior to any work known to them for the illustration 
and explanation of the first Three Degrees of Masonry. It has received the 
sanction and approval of your Body ; and your Committee regret that Bro. Dove 
and the Grand Lodges of Virginia and Pennsylvania, did not await, before 
denouncing it in such acrimonious terms, the assembling of the Convention at 
Winchester, where its alleged errors and defects might have been pointed out and 
rectified. 

Your Committee do not assume to have given an abstract of the interesting 
and valuable matter contained in the important papers laid before them. To have 
given even a brief synopsis of their contents would have occupied a greater time 
than their other engagements, or the limited period they have had for digesting 
and preparing their Report allowed. They regret this the more, because they 


"The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania never had a copy of the work before it, nor 
was that G. Lodge a party to the Convention. It knew nothing of the matter. It was 
opposed to the Convention from the beginning, and it seized upon the difference in 
the committee, to justify its opposition.— [Ed. Mag. 




220 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


would like much to see the information contained in those papers, disseminated 
generally among the Fraternity, and that part of it, specially, which is under the 
jurisdiction of your Body. And they would further like that the suggestions 
thrown out in them might be thought over, scrutinized and digested, so that at 
your next annual communication, you might derive all the aid which reflection 
on these subjects might have called forth. Yet, though they cannot condense 
into this hasty and imperfect Report, all the valuable information contained in 
those pages, they deem it of too much importance to be lost ; and therefore re- 
commend that all the Reports from sister Grand Lodges, received since your last 
annual communication, be bound and preserved for the use of your Body. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Thomas S. Clark, 

John H. Drake, Jr. 

P. W. Fanning, 

Raleigh, 6th Dec ., A. 1 L. 5644. 

The following excellent address to the Lodges by the Grand Master, P. W. 
Fanning, Esq., (appended to the printed proceedings,) will answer for other 
meridians than that for which it was written : — 

The Grand Master would remind the Subordinate Lodges of the great impor- 
tance of punctuality and accuracy in rendering their Annual Returns ; and of 
the no less importance of a seasonable appointment in the prescribed form, of 
Representatives to the Grand Lodge. It is well known, that the regulations of 
the Grand Lodge are controlled principally by the Representatives — from these 
are the Officers chosen, and from these are to be learnt the condition, views, 
feelings, and wants of the Craft in general, and of each individual Lodge in 
particular ; and as a forfeiture of Charter is consequent upon certain delinquencies, 
it should therefore be the pride, as it is unquestionably the duty of every Lodge, 
to take prompt action in the premises, that the influence of each and every one 
may be duly felt and appreciated in the Grand Councils. 

A frequent reference to the Constitution and Regulations of the Grand Lodge, 
will prove beneficial in determining the proper course of action, in all matters 
pertaining to the duties incumbent on such as acknowledge its authority. On all 
questionable points, not otherwise readily determined, it would be well to appeal 
at once to the highest sources for advice, or to consult authorities already 
sanctioned by the Craft. 

A very commendable practice prevails with some of the Grand Lodges, of 
embodying in their printed proceedings the names of all, coming to their know- 
ledge, who have been suspended, expelled or rejected — thereby spreading 
information essential to be known. Should a similar course be adopted by this 
Grand Lodge, it may not be amiss in the Subordinate Lodges to accompany their 
Annual Returns with a complete list, as far as practicable, of all cases under their 
immediate control. 

As all expulsions, to be effectual, require confirmation of the Grand Lodge, it 
is hardly necessary to urge the propriety of communicating promptly all such 
cases as may occur, together with a statement of the grounds of expulsion. 

Those Institutions best flourish, it is believed, who hold to the strictest accoun- 
tability in every department of their government, all who may be responsible for 
the performance of particular duties; this truth i9 so apparent, that no one 
interested, it is hoped, need have it pressed farther upon their consideration. 

An early and full attendance of the Members of the Grand Lodge would tend 
greatly to expedite the business of its Annual Communications. Owing to 
tardiness in this respect, -it not unfrequently happens that many who are present * 
at the commencement of the session, are compelled to leave before the transaction 
of the most important business, without an opportunity of participating therein. 

A reformation in this particular is loudly called for — which may easily be effected 
by the manifestation of a little more zeal, and the hearty co-operation of all who 
have duties to perform. 


► Committee. 



OBITUARY. 


221 


<©&ftuar£. 

Died in Charlestown, Mass, on the 11th ult Col. Abijah Goodridge, aged 49. 
He was for many years a member of King Solomon’s Lod£e, in which he had sus- 
tained various offices. He was a firm and faithful Mason, and a useful and en- 
terprising citizen. The members of the Lodge attended his funeral in token of 
their respect for his memory. 

In Mobile, Ala. (March 20,) where he had gone for the benefit of his health, — 
Mr. Ezekiel L. Snow, formerly of Charlestown, Mass., aged 30. Br. Snow was 
an officer in King Solomon’s Lodge, much beloved by his Brethren, and highly 
respected as an exemplary citizen. We understand that during his illness he 
received the kind attentions of his Brethren in Mobile, and that his last request 
was that his remains might be transmitted to his friends at the North, and there 
buried by his Masonic Brethren ; which request was promptly complied with. 
His funeral took place at Charlestown, last week, under the direction of King 
Solomon’s Lodge. The services were read by the Rev. Br. Addison Searl, of 
the Episcopal Church. 

At Wilmington, N. C. on the 27th Jhne last, Major George W. Glover, for- 
merly of Concord, N. H. 

Br. Glover had resided in Charleston, S. C., for a few years, and was made a 
Mason in “St Andrew’s Lodge, No. 10.” He was soon exalted to the degree of 
a Royal Arch Mason in “ Union Chapter, No. 3,” and retained his membership in 
both till his decease. He was devotedly attached to Masonry, faithful as a mem- 
ber and officer of the Lodge and Chapter, and beloved by his Brothers and Com- 
panions, who mourn his early death. 

In the summer of 1843, he visited his native State, and married Miss Mary M. 
Davis, and returned in the fall to Wilmington. His lady accompanied him, to 
enjoy his society for a short time, and then to know him no more on earth. He 
was attacked with billious fever, and lingered twelve days. Conscious that the 
time of his departure was at hand, he calmly arranged his business — prepared for 
the removal of her he loved, to the home of her youth, and consoled her with the 
thought that they “ would meet again in heaven” — said he — “ I have a precious 
hope in the merits of my Saviour,” — he believed he should be raised, and received 
into the “ Temple not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.” 

He had been instructed “how to live,” apd “how to die,” and that instruction 
had been sealed to his heart He departed in hope and peace. 

He was our Brother, he has gone at the call of our Father. Although we 
lament his early departure from the terrestrial Lodge, we trust we shall meet 
him in the celestial Grand Lodge, where our work shall be perfect — our refresh- 
ments divine. 

Shortly after his decease, his lone widow returned to New Hampshire, and 
wrote to inform me of her bereavement. She says — “ never, never, shall I forget 
while reason lasts, the kindness of the Brethren at Wilmington” — among whom 
she mentions the Rev. Br. Reperton, Brs. M ears, Burr, and several others, and 
says “ they will be cherished in my heart’s heart” I have no doubt from my 
knowledge of those Brethren, that their conduct was truly Masonic. The Lodge 
and Chapter in Charleston, on learning the sad tidings, passed the usual resolu- 
tions of sorrow, and condolence, and were clothed in the badge of mourning. 

I have subsequently received from Mrs. Glover the following lines, which tear- 
fully and truly speak the gratitude and trust of the lacerated heart. 1 offer them 
for publication in the Magazine. A. C. 

Worcester , Mass . 



222 


THE 


widow’s PRATER. 


THE WIDOW’S PRAYER 

BY MRS. GEO. W. GLOVER. 

Father of light, of love divine, 

O heed a suppliant’s prayer ! 

Thou who gave thy much loved Son 
Our infirmities to bear ; — 

Vouchsafe thine aid, let it be given } 

The mourner’s tear to dry, 

To lift the contrite soul to neaven. 

And check each murmuring sigh. 

Hast thou not said, thy grace shall prove 
Sufficient for thy .rod, 

Hope gives to Faith a view of love, 

Mid chastenings of a God ! 

And light ineffable will pierce 
The darkness of the tomb ; 

When matchless love, transcendent grace, 
Are portals to its gloom. 

For man. was drank a bitter cup ; 

Behold 1 what love divine ! 

O, " spare if possible this draught” — 

Yet not my will, but “ thine 
Father be done,” on earth, that I 
May plead in heaven for those, 

Who shrink from thine omniscient eye, 
’Meath weight of human woes. 

Then, O forgive my frailties, Lord, 

That I should dare repine, 

Though lone, amid a stranger land, — 

At dealings such as thine ! 

The idol of iny heart Thou knew, 

’T were meet that I should mourn, 

And thou wilt temper winds that blow, 

For the helpless and the shorn. 

The widow’s sigh, and orphan’s tear 
Plead not in vain to Heaven 1 
Angels of love a mission bear 
To hearts with anguish riven j — 

The couch of death when hovering o’er, 

A pang from grief is driven, — 

And to a look of lone despair, 

A smile from God is given. 

From South to North, the widow’s heart 
One grateful memory owns 
Tho’ oft the burning tear drops start 
And reason near dethrones. 

This spell was thine, sweet “ Charity,” 

Thou primal gift of God ; — 

In a Mason’s heart no rarity; — 

There, love is shed abroad. 

For trials past I would not grieve, 

But count my mercies o’er ; 

And teach the heart Thou hast bereaved, 

Thy goodness to adore. 

Thou gavest me friends, in my distress, 

Like manna from above ; 

Thy mercy ever 1 ’ll confess, 

And own a Father’s love. 



REGISTER OF OFFICERS, 


REGISTER OF OFFICERS. 


GRAND LODGE OF MISSISSIPPI. 


GRAND ROTAL ARCH CHAP. OF OHIO. 


M. W. John A. Quitman, G. Master. 

R. W. Benj. J. Tappan, D. G. M. 

11 Harvey W. Walter, S. G. W. 

“ Thomas J. Johnson, J. G. W. 

W. Rev. N. W. Camp, G. Chaplain. 
R.W. J. A. Wilcox, G. O. 

“ C. A. Lacoste, G. T. 

" Wm, P Mellen, G. Sec. 

“ R* N. Deming, G. S. D. 

“ William Cooper, G. J. D. 

** William W. Wilkins. G. Marshal. 
" T. C. Finney, G. a B. 

“ J. E. Watts, G. P. 

Brother D. H. Lane, G. a and T. 


ZANESVILLE, O., ROTAL ARCH CHAP- 

TEE. 

Thomas Bell, H. P. 

John T. Arthur, K. 

Geo, L. Shinnick, S. 

Daniel Hatton, C. H. 

C. Pike, P. S. 

G. D Palmer, R. A. C. 

J. Redmond, 

W. Sellebridge, 

C. W. Spaulding, 

Israel Hoge, Secretary. 

David Maginis, Treasurer. 

James Caldwell, G. D. 


■ M. Veils. 


COUNCIL ROYAL AND SELECT MASTERS, 

ZANESVILLE, OHIO. 

George L, Shinnick, T. G Master. 

D. Applegate, D. J. G. M. 

John T. Arthur, P. C. of W. 

C. W. Spaulding, C. of G. 

E. Pike, Recorder. 

G. J. Palmer, Treasurer. 

Jas Caldwell, Stew, and Sentinel. 

GRAND COUNCIL OF PRINCES OF 
JERUSALEM, BOSTON. 

Edward A. Raymond, M. E. S. G. S. 

John J. Loring, E. S. G. S. 

Enoch Hobart, M. E. G. W. 

Ruel Baker, G. C. 

Ferdinand E. White, G. C. 

Abraham A. Dame, G P. 

Elias Haskell, G. Treasurer. 

George I.. Oakes, G. Recorder. 

William Eaton, G. H. 

William C. Martin, G. Guard. 


M. E William B. Hubbard, G. H. P. 

“ Kimball Porter, D. G. H. P. 

“ Geo Keiffer, G. K. 

“ Gilbert D. Palmer, G. S. 

“ Isaac C. Copeland, G. T. 

“ B. F. Smith, G. S 
“ Leander Ransom, G. M. 

Rev. J. T. Donahoo, G. C. 

E. John Barney, G. L. 

“ A. Death, G. C. H. 

“ Isaac Davis, G. P. S. 

“ Geo. C. Gephart, G. R. A. C. 

“ M. M. Laughlin, ) 

" Geo. Johnson, > G. M. Veils. 
w Thomas Jay, S 
“ Geo. W. Claspill, G. G. 

CLARKSVILLE CHAPTER, CLARKSVILLB 

TENN. 

H. F. Beaumont, H. P. 

E. Howard, King. 

R. S. Moore, Scribe. 

T. W. Barksdale, Secretary. 

H. L. Bailey, Treasurer. * 

John Ballard, C. H. 

Thomas McCullock, R. A. C. 

A. H. Kerr, P. S. 

C. Williams, ) 

J. A. Thomas, > M. Veils. 

P. Pruslley, ) 

Rev A. H. Kerr, Chaplain. 

Jacob Baird, Tyler. 

ST. John’s lodge, Kingston, u. c. 
Sir Richard Brurycastle. Master. 

Henry Joseph Morris, S. W. 

William Gunn, J. W. 

James A. Henderson, S. D. 

Joseph B. Hall, J. D. 

Henry Smith, jr. f I. G. 

William J. Gooderer, Treasurer. 

Thomas Phillips, Secretary. 

William Kearn, Tyler. 

AMITY LODGE, ZANESVILE, OHIO. 
George L. Shinnick, Master. 

Warren Lillebridge, S. W. 

R. M. Crow, J. W. 

Israel Hoge, Secretary. 

David Maginis, Treasurer. 

William M. Shinnick, S. D. 

Valentine Bert, J. D. 

George W. Harris, Tyler. 


CLARKSVILLB LODGE, CLARKSVILLE. 
TENN. 

E. Howard, Master. 

Thomas McCullock, S W. 

T. A. Thomas, J. W. 

Johri S. Hart, Secretary. 

Samuel Simpson, Treasurer. 

C. R. Cooper, S D. 

J. P Wendel, J. D. 

J. Baird, Tyler. 


LAFAYETTE LODGE, ZANESVILLE. 
OHIO. 

John T. Arthur, Master. 

Daniel Hatton, S. W. 

G. D. Palmer, J. W. 

Imri Richards, Secretary. 

Austin Bury, Treasurer. 

George M. Cummings, S. D. 

J. Clayton, J. D. 

Thomas Launder, Tyler. 



1 


224 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


MASONIC C 

Twentyfourth June. Our Brethren will 
bear in mind that the approaching anniver- 
sary of St. John the Baptist, will be celebra- 
ted by King Solomon's Lodge, on Bunker 
Hill. The Brethren will assemble at the 
Town Hall, in Charlestown Square, on the 
morning of the day, form in procession, and 
under escort of the Boston Encampment, 
proceed to the Hill, where the ceremony of 
dedicating a model of the original Monument 
erected by King Solomon's Lodge, will be 
performed, and several addresses delivered. 
Arrangements will be made for the accom- 
modation of Brethren who may wish to dine 
together on the occasion. 

Companion to Br. Power’s Masonio 
Melodies. We are happy to learn that Br. 
Power, at the urgent solicitations of many 
of the Brethren, has consented to prepare a 
Companion to the Masonic Melodies, to con- 
tain all the Music named in his original 
work , as well as the words. The title will 
be the “ Masonic Melodists’ Companion.” 
As it will, of course, be more voluminous 
and expensive, and as a much less number 
of copies will be required, than of the Melo- 
dies, we understand that it will not be pub- 
lished unless a sufficient number of copies 
shall be subscribed for by the Lodges and 
Brethren, to cover a considerable part of the 
expenses of publication* We shall be happy 
to receive subscriptions, and will cheerfully 
attend to the orders of our friends. 

fj^The Tables in the present number, 
will give the reader a correct data from 
which to trace the first introduction of Ma- 
sonry into various parts of the American 
continent and adjacent islands. They have 
been compiled at great labor, in the belief 
that they will be interesting to the curious 
in Masonic history, and valuable for future 
reference. They will be followed by others 
of perhaps more general interest. 

JJrBr. J. Worthington Smith, President of 
the Masonie College of Missouri, is an au- 
thorized agent for the Magazine at Marion, 
in that State. 


HIT CHAT. 

An Impostor. A person has recently visi- 
ted this city, and applied for relief as a 
Mason, who, we have reason to believe, is 
an impostor. He calls himself Abraham 
Frendenburg t and has a Certificate from 
Pythagorean Lodge, No 21 .Charleston, S. C. 
The Certificate is probably genuiue, but is 
supposed to belong to another person. He 
represents himself as having been employed 
as an engiueer on one of the Southern Rail- 
roads, where he lost a leg'. We learn from 
the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of 
South Carolina, that the Br. Frendenburg to 
whom the Certificate was granted, was an 
Israelite and a pedlar, not an engineer, and 
that he never received any injury while in 
Charleston, nor was he in a condition to 
need relief. As the individual referred to 
is wandering about the country, soliciting 
charity, and as we believe him to be wholly 
unworthy of Masonic consideration, we give 
this notice that the Lodges and Brethren 
may act understandingly in reference to any 
application he. may hereafter make. The 
country is full of impostors and the Lodges 
are in continual danger of being imposed up- 
on by them. They cannot, therefore, be too 
cautious in their examinations, and when 
they detect an impostor, they should lose no 
time in exposing him. 

J^rThe payment mentioned by our cor- 
respondent at Marion, Mo., was made at the 
proper time, and duly acknowledged in the 
Magazine. He will see that we nave avail* 
ed ourself of his kind offer. We shall also 
be most happy to hear from him at all times 
in relation to the important and interesting 
Institution under his charge, the success of 
which we have deeply at heart. 

%~VOur agent at Kingston, N. C. is in- 
formed that after great delay, occasioned by 
their being no vessel up for Newbern, we 
have foi warded him a package, (per sch. 
Diamond,) as directed. 

(TTWe have not yet found an opportunity 
to send to our Agent at Bloomington, Iowa, 
by private conveyance, but will avail our- 
selves of the first that offers. 

0*The crowded state pf our pages has 
excluded a variety of matter, local and for- 
eign, prepared for the present number. 

OChBr. J. Ramsey, Secretary Perseverance 
Lodge, Plymouth, N. C., is an authorized 
agent for the Magazine. 

JjTWe acknowledge the receipt of two 
communications from our correspondent at 
Pepperell. 








THE 


Hi SON S' 

MAGAZINE. 

Vol. IV.l BOSTON, JUNE 1, 1845. [No. 8. 


ARE MEMBERS OF LODGES REQUIRED TO 

VOTE ON THE ADMISSION O F C A N D ID A TE S ? 

A Georgia correspondent proposes the following inquiry : 

“ Can a member of a Lodge, and an officer, being present at a balloting for a 
candidate for the mysteries of Freemasonry, refuse to cast his vote, when the 
petition has been regularly received, and the person refusing to vote having no 
constitutional scruples as to the proceedings, and no objection to the candidate ?” 

The admission of members into the Fraternity, is not only one of the , 
most important, but it is one of the most responsible duties with which 
the Lodges are charged. This power was originally invested in the Fra* • 
ternity at large, or rather in a specified number of Master Masons infor- 
mally assembled. But the looseness of the regulation exposed it to abuse. . 
Sufficient caution was not exercised,, and unworthy persons were admit- 
ted. It *was, therefore, as early as 1663, wisely determined to restrict the . 
power to regularly constituted Lodges, — to make them the guardians of 
the Fraternity, — to commit to their care and keeping, its reputation and 
welfare. It was a great ?nd sacred trust, and for the manner in which 
it shall be discharged, each and every member of a Lodge, is responsi- 
ble, to the extent of his influence,, not only to his own particular Lodge, 
but to the whole Fraternity ; for all are interested in his acts, when those 
acts are of a character to affect the whole, either in reputation or inter- 
est 

A candidate, on entering the Fraternity, engages to do and perform cer- 
tain acts. If he fail in either of these, he so far fails in the discharge of 
his duties as a Mason. But he advances one step farther, and affiliates - 
himself, as every Brother should do, with a particular Lodge. He hare 
enters into new engagements, and assumes new responsibilities and trusts. 
He engages to exert his talents and energies in the advancement of the 
interests, and in the attainment of the various objects for which the Lodge 
29 


- “A » 


. 


y F B E E 

MONTHLY 



Off THE ADMISSION Of CANDIDATES. 


226 

has been established. Among the moet important of these is the admis- 
sion of candidates. So essential to the welfare of the Institution has a 
careful and rigid discharge of this duty been considered, that, as a gene- 
ral rule, it has been deemed wise and prudent to invest every individual 
member of a Lodge, with the despotic power to reject whom he will, 
without question as to his reasons or his motives, — his honor and con- 
science being presumed to be a sufficient guaranty for the propriety of 
both. Let us inquire then, whether the inference is sound and logical, 
that this {peat posver has been given to an individual member, to be exer- 
cised by him or not, as he may deem expedient? On the contrary, has 
he not been clothed with it expressly for the preservation of the charac- 
ter and welfare of the Institution ? If so, does he discharge his duty to 
the Fraternity, when he refuses or neglects, through fear or partiality, or 
other secret motive, to exercise it ? And if he may defer the perform- 
ance of this duty, may he not, with equal or greater propriety, refuse to 
perform any of his Masonic engagements ? If one member may do this, 
why may not all > The By-Laws of the Lodge may not, in terms, re- 
quire that each member shall ballot, but they do provide that candidates 
shall not he admitted except by ballot. These ballots must be cast by 
the members. This is a constructive 8r incidental duty, arising from a 
positive provision of the By-Laws ; the performance of which is made ob- 
ligatory on the Lodge by the regulations of the Grand Lodge. Now, 
whatever is the duty of a Lodge, it Is the duty of every member to see 
performed ; and whatever is required to be done by die members in their 
aggregate capacity, each individual member is required to assist in doing. 
There is not usually any provision in the By-Laws which, in terms, re- 
quires a member to vote agaipst an unworthy applicant for admission ; 
yet he is under a constructive obligation to do so, and his refusal or wil- 
ful neglect to discharge this obligation, would subject him to the disci- 
pline of his Lodge. A Brother is charged on his first admission into the 
Fraternity, not to recommend an unworthy person for its privileges. This 
is made a positive duty ; but it carries with it the constructive duty, not 
less important or obligatory, to vote against such a person, if recom- 
mended by another. His whole duty is not done until he has used all his 
influence and power to preserve the Institution against the admission of 
the unworthy. It is not therefore to be inferred, that because the By- 
Laws or foe Constitutions do not expressly provide for a particular duty, 
that, foe discharge of that duty is left to the option of the members of foe 
Lodge. There are many collateral, or constructive duties, like foe 
one under consideration, which are necessary to a full and proper dis- 
charge of the positive duties, enjoined by foe established regulations. 
And tins class of duties cannot with propriety be neglected. When a 



KNIGHJ? T£JIP£AAS GCQI.GIII^Tt^AIf i**»»£ZfQEltS, 89? 

Brother joins a Lodgp, bo dope it with the understanding unfit uqdepi apt 
obligation to support the regulations* and to render his best services in 
performing the duties of the Lodge. One of these duties is ths balloting 
for candidates for initiation . We are aware that this duty is frequently 
avoided in the Lodge, and so are many other Masonic duties, Or we shOOM 
all be better Masons. But it is the principle^ not the pratties, we are 
discussing. A bad practice cannot vidate or impair the validity of a gOod 
principle. 

In legislative matters, the rule in voting is, that “ every member who 
shall be in the house when the question is put, shall give his vote> unless 
the house, for special reasons , shall excuse him. 1 ’* And this is found 
to be a correct and wholesome regulation, and frequently obliges mem* 
hers to perform their duty to their constituents, when they would other? 
wise avoid it. As it is, they sometimes, to use a political phrase, “ dodge 
the question." But the discredit which attaches to a manoeuvre of this 
kind, operates as a powerful restraint, and prevents its frequent occur- 
rence. The Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, contain 
a corresponding regulation. They declare that “ every member present 
shall vote on the application, (of a candidate for initiation,) unless excused 
by the Lodge” And this we hold to be a conservate and correct Masonic 
rule. 

We know nothing of the circumstances under which the Brother rer 
ferred to, declined to cast his ballot, further than what appears in tba 
statement given by our correspondent. 


KNIGHTS TEMPLARS FORMERLY EMPLOYED 
AS ECCLESIASTICAL MESSENGERS. 

Ire the 15th year of the reign of king John, A D. 1214, “ There arrived t*rei 
Brethren of the Temple at Dover, which came to the lung, and in friendly man- 
ner said unto him : — we be sent unto thee, most mighty king, in the behalf of 
Pandolph,f who for the commodity of you and of your realm, deeireth to have 
talk with you, for he hath to propound unto you a certain form of peace, whereby, 
you may be reconciled to God, and to the Church, notwithstanding that you be 
condemned by sixteen in the court of Rome to be deposed from the title of your 
realm. 

“ When the king had considered well the message of those Templar^ he. gave 
them commandment to cause Pandolph to come over unto him. And not long 
after Pandolph came to the king at Dover .” — Stouts jfamals Bog* 

*J effort on’s Manual, rale 2$, p. 76. 

^Pandolph was Legate of Pope Innocent td, te John, King of England and Phillip 2d, king. 
of France. 




MASONRY HELD SACRED BY A PIRATE. 


THE TIES OF MASONRY HELD SACRED BY A 

PIRATE. 

The following interesting particulars were communicated by Br. Glen, of the 
Phtmir Lodge, Sunderland, England, At a meeting of the Lodge of Instruction, 
held at the Gorge and Vulture tavern, Comhill, London, and published in the 
Freemasons’ Quarterly Review for March last • 

Fifteen years ago, Br. Glen, who had not been initiated into Masonry, was 
mate of a merchant vessel,* which was filled with a general cargo, and bound for 
the Island of Cuba. The crew, besides the captain and mate, consisted of seven 
seamen ; when, within about three days sail of their port of destination, they 
discovered a suspicious looking schooner, apparently hovering, in their course, 
and which, from her appearance and motions, they were fearful was a pirate. 
Being almost in a defenceless state, they were naturally much alarmed, and en- 
deavored by altering their course to avoid the schooner, but she, crowding all 
sail, bore down quickly upon them, and brought them to. The piratical character 
of the schooner was now but too clearly apparent The merchantman was 
boarded by twentyfive desperadoes, all armed with pistols and cutlasses ; against 
such a numerous and well-armed force resistance was out of the question. The 
captain of the pirate was a Spaniard, he was accompanied by his lieutenant, who 
was dressed in a peculiar manner, with tight red pantaloons, and Br. Glen con- 
jectured from his appearance that he was a Maltese. The captain, mate, and 
crew of the merchantman were immediately seized, pistols were presented to 
their heads, and they were threatened with instant death unless they immediately 
gave up all the money on board. They had scarcely any specie, and the pirate 
captain, being dissatisfied, proceeded to plunder the vessel of every thing which 
was valuable and portable, and then vowed, with the most horrid imprecations, 
that he would burn the vessel and destroy all her crew. This ruffian spoke bro- 
ken English, the other pirates spoke in Spanish. The unfortunate crew of the 
merchantman were now bound and secured in the forC part of the vessel. The 
captain and Br. Glen were also tied to two pillars in the cabin. The work 
of plunder was finished, and the pirate captain had given directions for the de- 
struction of the vessel by fire ; gunpowder, tar-barrels, and other combustible 
materials were brought from the schooner, and placed on board the fated vessel 
in a manner best calculated to insure her speedy destruction. Whilst these hor- 
rible proceedings- were in progress, the cries and lamentations of the unfortunate 
crow were piteous in the extreme, their supplications for mercy were, however, 
entirely disregarded, and the train actually laid. At this awful juncture, the 
lieutenant of the pirates, who has before been noticed, went aft and entered the 
cabin where Br. Glen and his captain were secured, his purpose being appar- 
ently to make a further search before leaving the vessel, for any thing valuable 
which might previously have escaped observation. Br. Glen and the captain 
were, As may well be imagined, in a most dreadful state of terror and alarm, ex- 
pecting nothing less than instant death, and that in its most horrible shape. The 
captain happened fortunately for himself and crew to be a Mason. As a last 
resource, he attracted the pirate’s attention, and made the sign of an E. A. P., the 
latter regarded him stedfastly for an instant, and replied by making the sign oft 



MASONRY HELD SACRED BY A PIRATE. 


229 


F. C. Br. Glen was at that time ignorant of the meaning of these proceedings ; 
but he did not fail to perceive that the countenance of his captain, before so anxious 
and terror-stricken, was instantly lighted up with joy and hope, whilst a glance 
of mutual intelligence passed between him and the pirate* Some further com* 
munication then passed between them ; neither could understand the other’s lan* 
guage ; but in this short interval they had made themselves understood by the 
universal medium of Masonry. The lieutenant then returned to the deck, where, 
as it subsequently appeared, he dissuaded the captain of the pirates from his in- 
tention of burniug the vessel, and induced him to abandon her and the crew 
without further injury. Shortly afterwards, the captain and greater part of the 
pirates left, the lieutenant and five others remaining on board. The lieutenant 
went again into the cabin, and wrote a short note in the Spanish language, which 
he carefully folded up and left upon the cabin table ; he then with a knife cut 
the cords with which Br. Glen had been bound, and making a gesture of caution, 
left the ship with the remaining portion of the pirate’s crew. Br. Glen speedily 
released his captain, who then informed him that he had made himself known to 
the pirate as a Mason, and to that circumstance their deliverance must be attri- 
buted. After waiting as they deemed a sufficient time to allow the schooner to 
get out of sight, they cautiously proceeded to the deck, and released the. crew. 
Their vessel had been completely ransacked, and was in a state of the utmost 
confusion ; they could see the train which had been laid for their destruction ; 
they then carefully removed the combustibles, and returning thanks for their de- 
liverance again proceeded on their course. Nothing particular occurred until 
the second day following, when to their utter consternation they again espied 
the piratical schooner, which bore down upon them as before. They hoisted 
their English colors, when the pirate recognizing the vessel as the same which 
had been recently pillaged, merely displayed his black flag, the terrible ensign 
of his dreadful calling, which he almost immediately lowered, and then'altering 
his course, stood off without offering the merchantman any further molestation, 
and was seen by them no more. On the following day they arrived in port, when 
Br. Glen and the captain made a protest of the circumstances, and it was found 
that the letter which had been left on the cabin table was couched in the follow- 
ing terms a Brother — Having recognized you as a Mason, I have induced the 
captain to spare the lives of yourself and crew — but for this you would all have 
perished.” It was subsequently discovered that two American vessels had been 
destroyed by fire in those seas, the crews of both perished, and no doubt under 
similar circumstances. Br. Glen on his return to England lost no time in asking 
admission into our Order, which, under Providence, had been the means of pre- 
serving his life. 

In this narrative we* have a remarkable instance of a man who, though he dis- 
regarded every law both human and divine, had yet remained faithful to his Ma- 
sonic obligation — Masonry, in fact, forming the only link which bound him to 
humanity ; but cases like these, and there are numerous others of a similar char- 
acter, recorded in the annals of our Institution, require no comment to show the 
great value and vast importance of a knowledge of Masonic secrets, indepen- 
dently of the other beneficial results, social as well as moral, which the practice 
of Freemasonry is calculated to produce. December 10, 1844. 



230 


MASONIC MUNIFICENCE AT PABIS. 


MASONIC MUNIFICENCE AT PARIS. 

A iociktt has been established at Paris, for the relief and employment, for a 
time, of the aged or distressed of the Masonic Fraternity in that city. Money 
relief is seldom granted. The Grand Orient contributes yearly 1900 francs, the 
remainder is collected by voluntary gifts, and each Lodge pays a portion of the 
initiation fee of every new member. A dinner in favor of the charity has been 
held. In future the sums of five, six, ten, or fifteen francs will be demanded in 
behalf of this institution of each Brother on taking the various degrees, and five 
fVanos on rejoining a Lodge. The committee meets at No. 10, Rue Saint Gilles 
au Marais, Paris. In 1842, sixteen Freemasons received at this institution board 
and lodging, one lodging only, six board only ; fortyseven others received neces- 
saries ; and thirtyfive widows, or wives of Masons, ten Freemasons, and fifteen 
women, had firing for the winter sent to them ; sixteen men were completely and 
respectably clothed ; sixteen men and six women had boots and stockings given 
them ; one old woman had tools purchased for her ; several Brethren bad their 
tools, dec., redeemed from pawn (mont de piete ;) three who had been discharged 
from the hospitals were further relieved at their homes with medical attendance, 
&c. : thirteen Masons and two widows received sundry sums of money ; two Ma- 
sons and three widows had their rent paid ; thirteen more forwarded to their na- 
tive places — and yet this charity expended only 5038 francs during the year. 

The G. O. of France distributes annually three jewels to such Brethren as may 
have during the year performed some act by which mankind had been benefitted; 
the last were sent to Br. Brune, of Rouen; Xavier Venissat, at Avignon ; and the 
third went to the Lodge of Nature and Philanthropie, at Larieut The former of 
these Brethren was a seaman, and had succeeded at various times in saving the 
lives of fortyfowr persons. The city has honored itself by erecting a house near 
the river for this Brother’s residence ; he was known in Rouen as “the Saver f 
and declared that those who tried to end their lives in the river, had better take 
care of themselves, for he would save them whether .they liked it or not; he died 
Dec. 25, 1843. 

Xavier Venissat distinguished himself during the dreadful inundation in the 
south of France, while the inhabitants of Avignon were paralized by the over- 
flowing of the Rhone. Br. Venissat made a raft of the floating timbers with 
which he was surrounded, and on this precarious vessel succeeded in saving a 
whole family from the horrible fate that awaited them ; he took them to his home, 
and divided with them his house, his clothes, and his meals ; a few minutes after 
placing this family in safety, their dwelling sank beneath the waters. Soon 
after, being apprised that the Lodge room was in danger, he proceeded there, 
against the remonstrances and persuasions of his relatives and friends, on his 
perilous craft, and returned with the warrant, books, &c. 

The Lodge of Nature and Philanthropie received the jewel for the great exer- 
tions they had used to relieve the sufferers by the inundation ; apprenticing the 
orphans, and many other acts of Masonic charity. 



HISTORY OF INITIATOR. 


231 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMFRlRINe A brief account of tbb rites and ceremonies, doctrines 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

or 

THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER VIU. 

METHOD USED IN THE PREPARATION AND INITIATION OF CAN- 
DIDATES IN PERSIA. 

To prepare the candidate for initiation, numerous lustrations were performed 
with water, fire, and honey. It is said by some that he went through forty de- 
grees of probation, by others eighty, which ended with a fast of fifty days contin- 
uance. These intense and protracted trials were endured in the gloomy reces- 
ses of a subterranean cavern, where be was condemned to perpetual silence, 
wholly secluded from society, and confined amidst cold and nakedness, hunger 
and stripes, accompanied with an extreme degree of refined and brutal torture. 
The unbending severity of this stern noviciate, was in some instances attended 
with fatal effects ; in others, the candidate suffered a partial derangement of in- 
tellect; but the few, whose robust nerves enabled them tx> rise superior to the 
most extreme suffering of a fully extended probation, were eligible to the highest 
honors and dignities ; and received a degree of veneration equal to that which 
was paid to the supernal deities. But the unhappy novice, who suffered his cour- 
age to forsake him through excess of fatigue or torture, was rejected with the 
strongest marks of infamy and contempt, and for ever accounted profane and 
excluded from society. 

The successful probationer, at the expiration of his noviciate, was brought 
forth into the cavern of initiation, where he entered on the point of a sword pre- 
sented to his naked left breast, by which he was slightly wounded,* and then he 
was ritually prepared for the approaching ceremony. He was crowned with 
dive,t anointed with oil of ban,t and armed with enchanted armour by his guide 
who was the representative of Simorgh, a monstrous griffin,§ and an important 


♦Tertull. apud Maur. Ind. Ant. vol. ▼. p. 991. 

tThe olive in (he mysteries was commemorative of the olive branch brought back to 
Noah by the Dove j and it was the propitious omen that the patriarch and bis family would 
speedily emerge from the gloom of the Ark to the light of day; that they would each soon 
be able to exclaim, I have escaped an evil ; I have found a better lot. With a similar allu- 
sion to the history of the deluge, the priests of Mithras wore styled Hierocoraces, or sacred 
Ravenii and the oracular priestesses of Hamm on, Peleiades. or Doves ; while in conse- 
quence of the close connection of the dove and the olive , a particular species of that tree was 
denominated Columbas.” (Fab Mys. Cab. c. 10. with authorities.) 
tBerhant Kattei. The oil of ban is the balsam of Bezoin. (Wait. Orient. Ant. p 194.) 
f “The Simorgh,” says Wait, (Orient. Ant. p 165.) 11 whose name implies that it is of 
the size of thirty birds, appears to have been a species of Eagle.” • 




232 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


agent in the machinery of Persian mythology, and furnished with talismans that 
he might be ready to encounter all the hideous monsters raised up by the Dives 
to impede his progress to perfection. Introduced into an inner apartment he was 
purified with fire and water, and solemnly put through tbe Seven Stases of ini- 
tiation. First he beheld a deep and dangerous vault from the precipice where 
he stood, into which a single false step might precipitate him down to the “ throne 
of dreadful Necessity,” which was an emblem of those infernal regions through 
which he was about to pass. Threading the circuitous mazes of the gloomy cav- 
ern, he was soon awakened from his trance of thought, by seeing the sacred fire, 
at intervals, fearfully flash through its recesses and illuminating his path; some- 
times bursting from beneath his feet ; sometimes descending on his head in a 
broad sheet of white and shadowy flame. Amidst the terror thus inspired, bis 
admiration was excited by the distant yelling of ravenous beasts ; the roaring of 
lions, the howling of wolves, the fierce and threatening bark of dogs. Enveloped 
in blackest darkness, he was at loss where to turn for safety ; but was impelled 
rapidly forward by his attendant, who maintained an unbroken silence, towards 
the quarter from whence the appalling sounds proceeded ; and at the sudden 
opening of a door he found himself in a den of wild beasts, dimly enlightened 
with a single lamp. His conductor exhorted him to courage, and' he was imme- 
diately attacked, amidst the most tremendous uproar, by the initiated in the 
forms of lions, tigers, wolves, griffins, and other monstrous beasts ; fierce dogs 
appeared to rise from the earth, and with dreadful howlings endeavored to over- 
whelm the aspirant with alaam ; and how bravely soever his courage might sus- 
tain him in this unequal conflict, he seldom escaped unhurt 

Being hurried through this cavern into another, he was once more shrouded in 
darkness. A dead silence succeeded, and he was obliged to proceed with delib- 
erate step, meditating on the danger he had just escaped, and smarting under the 
wounds he had receivedt His attention, however, was soon roused from these 
reflections and directed to other dangers which appeared to threaten. Art unde- 
fined rumbling noise was heard in a distant range of caverns, which became 
louder and louder as he advanced, until the pealing thunder seemed to rend the 
solid rocks and burst the caverns around him ; and the vivid and continued flashes 
of lightning, in streaming sheets of fire, rendered visible the flitting shades of 
avenging genii, who, frowning displeasure, appeared to threaten with summaiy 
destruction these daring intruders into the privacy of their chosen abodes. 
Scenes like these were multiplied with increasing horror, until nature could no 
longer endure the trial ; and when the aspirant was ready to sink under the 
effects of exhaustion and mental agony, he was conveyed into another apartment 
to recruit his strength. Here, a vivid illumination was suddenly introduced, and 
his outraged feelings were soothed by the sound of melodious music, and the 
flavor of gratefnl perfumes. Seated at rest in this apartment, his guide explain- 
ed the elements of those invaluable Secrets which were more fully developed 
when his initiation was complete. 

Having pronounced himself disposed to proceed through the remaining cere- 
monies, a signal was given by his conductor, and three priests immediately made 
their appearance ; one of whom cast a living Serpent into his bosom as a token of 



HISTORY OF INITIATION. 


233 


regeneration ; and opening a private door, there issued forth such howlings and 
cries of lamentation and dismay, as struck him with new and indescribable emo- 
tions of terror. He turned his eyes with an involuntary motion to the place from 
whence these miserable bewailings appeared to proceed, and beheld exhibited, in 
• every appalling form, the torments of the wicked in Hades. Turning with dis- 
gust from this scene of woe, he was passed through some other dark caverns and 
passages ; until, having successfully penetrated through this devious labrinth,. 
consisting of seven* spacious vaults, connected by winding galleries, each open- 
ing with a narrow stone portal, the scene of some perilous adventure ; and hav- 
ing* by the exercise of fortitude and perseverance, been triumphantly borne 
through this accumulated mass of difficulty and danger, the doors of the Sacel- 
lum were thrown open, and his darkness was changed into light. He was ad- 
mitted into the spacious and lofty cavern already described, w'hich was denomi- 
nated the sacred grotto of Elysium. This consecrated place was brilliantly illu- 
minated, and sparkled with gold and precious stones. A splendid Sun, and 
starry system emitted their dazzling radiance, and moved in order to the sympho- 
nies of heavenly music. Here sat the Archimagus in the East, high elevated on 
a throne of burnished gold, crowned with a rich diadem decorated with myrtle 
boughs, and habited in a flowing tunic of a bright cerulean tincture ; round him 
were arranged in solemn order the Presules, and dispensers of the mysteries ; 
forming altogether a reverend assembly, which covered the awe-struck aspirant 
with a profound feeling of veneration ; and by an involuntary impulse, frequently 
produced an act of worship. Here he was received with congratulations ; and 
after having entered into the usual engagements for keeping secret the solemn 
rites of Mithras, the sacred Words were entrusted to him, of which the ineffable 
Tetractys, or Name of God, was the chief. 


*In conformity with these seven subterraneous caverns, the Persians held the doctrine bf 
seven classes of demons. First, Ahriman their chief 3 second, the spirits who inhabit the 
most distant regions of the air 3 third, those who traverse the dense and stormy regions 
which are nearer the earth, but still at an immeasurable distance 3 fourth, the malignant and 
unclean spirits who hover over the surface of the earth j fifth, the splits of the “ vasty deep,’* 
which they agitate with storms and tempests; sixth, the subterranean demons who dwell 
iu charnel vaults and caverns, termed Ghools, who devour the corrupted tenants of the 
grave, and excite earthquakes and convulsions in the globe; and seventh, the spirits who 
hold a solemn reign of darkness in the centre of the earth. (Vid. Maur. Ind. Ant. vol. iv. 
p. 642.) From this doctrine probably emanated the Mahometan belief of seven hells, or sta- 
ges of punishment iu the infernal regions; (Vid. Signs and Symbols, p. 163,) and seven 
heavens, in the highest of which the Table of Fate is suspended, and guarded from demons, 
lest they should change or corrupt any thing thereon. Its length is so great, as is the space 
between heaven and earth ; its breadth equal to the distance from the east to the west; and 
it is made of one pearl. The divine pen was created by the finger of God : that is also of 
pearls, and of such length and breadth that a swift horse could scarcely gallop round it in 
five hundred years! It is so endowed, that self-moved it writes all things, past, present, 
and to come. Light is its ink ; and the language which it uses, only the angels can under- 
derstand.” (Maracci, in Southey’s Thalaba, vol. ii. p. 247.) The seven hells of the Jewish 
Rabbies were founded ou the seven names of hell contained in their Scriptures. (Basnage. 
Hist. Jews, p. 389.) 


30 



234 


MASONIC CHARGES. 


xMASONIC CHARGES. 

BY COM. VM. J. BIMI, KSQ. 

Delivered at the Installation of the officers of Zanesville R. Arch Chapter, at Zanesville, 

Ohio. 

TO THE M. K. HIGH PRIEST. 

Moat Excellent Companion : — Did not the ceremony of Installation require that 
a specific address should be made to you, I would feel sensible that it were & task 
of supererogation to make any suggestions in reference to the duties of the sta- 
tion, you will now be called upon to discharge. But in order that those here 
present, craftsmen and others, may learn the nature and extent of the require- 
ments of your position, it may not be improper for me to say that you bare en- 
tered upon the discharge of very responsible and I may add serious engage- 
ments you have expressed your determination to abide by certain principles 
of action, that are as enduring as virtue and benevolence, — as immutable as are 
the pillars of the Temple of God. You have bound yourself in a solemn cove- 
nant, to be a good man and true ; and strictly to obey the moral law ; to be loyal 
to your country, guarded in your doings, courteous to your Companions, and 
faithful to your trust. You have agreed to promote the general welfare of so- 
ciety, to cultivate every social virtue, and upon all occasions to propogate the 
pure precepts of our art It will be expected then in an especial manner, that 
there will be witnessed in you, an exemplification of the various virtues of the 
Order, — Temperance, — Fortitude, — Prudence, - J ustice, — Brotherly Love, —Re- 
lief, — the exercise of Charity, — and the maintenance of Truth. But the duties 
involved in your high office do not stop here : they enter minutely into every 
ramification of the association of which you are the Head. The Masonic use- 
fulness of your Chapter, — its social prosperity, — its influence, — its welfare, nay, 
its very existence, must now in a great measure depend upon you. If at any 
time, you should become formal and lukewarm in the discharge of the duties of 
your station; the light which should blaze from the mysterious East, in brilliant 
and burning radiance, will become dim and lustreless. If you should become 
careless and indifferent as the Overseer of the Work, those who labor in the 
Temple will become careless too ;• they have confided to your keeping a great 
trust, and they will be active, if you are active,— zealous, if you are zealous, — 
faithful and vigilant as you shall set them the example. 

It will be particularly your province to counsel against every breach of regu- 
larity, — to reprehend every transgression against the rules of your Chapter, and 
to see that the laws for its government are at all times strictly enforced, and 
rigidly adhered to. You are now to be regarded as the responsible source from 
whence is to emanate knowledge and information to your Crafts,— in every time 
of difficulty they will require your assistance “to make the darkness light before 
them, and the crooked things straight,”— in the day of their prosperity, the re- 
straining influence of your station may be necessary to guard them against self- 
confidence and apathy, to take care that no unhallowed hand pollutes the “ Ark 
of the Covenant” of our mysteries ; — and that “ Holiness to the Lord” be inscri- 
bed upon every ceremonial observance of the Order. You will now be called 
upon to administer in the most sacred rites of the Temple;— to enter within the 
vail, — to stand at the holy altar and take its pure vessels in your hands ; — and as 
you shall discharge these solemn duties, they will tell either upon the immediate 
prosperity, or the rapid deterioration of the moral beauty of your Chapter. You 
have then accepted a most honorable and dignified trust ; which will demand the 
exercise of constant care, and the most watchful solicitude. That yon will dis- 
charge every duty incumbent upon you with zealous fidelity, I do not entertain 
the shadow of a doubt, and that the various Masonic interests committed to your 
keeping, will be properly cared for, this Chapter have the surest pledge, in your 
administration of the past year. But, and you will properly appreciate the mo- 
tive, when I barely imagine the deplorable consequences that might result from 



MASONIC CHARGES* 


235 

an opposite course of conduct, in the occupant of your Chair ; — for it is only 
From such a hypothetical illustration, that the sad picture can at all be realised, 
to the mind’s eye. If by a train of disastrous circumstances, there should at 
any time be elevated to this exalted seat, a Companion of known profligacy and 
profanity,— if the Sceptic, or contemner of Sacred things, should get possession 
of this chair ; — if the Mitre should be placed upon a brow, which is raised against 
the Majesty of that awful Name, around which there is gathered, the holiest of 
Mystenes, — if the Breastplate should cover a bosom, the seat of disloyalty to 
professed obligations ; — and the pure and spotless vesture of the Priesthood, robe 
a . person of decayed reputation ; — then will be a time for witnessing the speedy 
demolition of our Moral Temple, — and among its fallen ruins, the wayfaring 
sojourner, though sent upon the embassy, might not be able to find a relic wor- 
thy of preservation. The fatal influence of such an example can be much better 
imagined than described. Like the deadly storm- wind of the desert ; careering 
over barrenness and sand,— it would wither and desolate, wherever its influence 
extended. 

To you, Most Excellent Companion— I feel that any specific advice, in refer- 
ence to the distinctive duties of your station are entirely unnecessary, and 
therefore I will not attempt it ; but in general phraseology suffer me to recom- 
mend, that you be punctual at all lawful meetings, — have a special care, that 
strangers be not improperly introduced among the workmen ; guard the ballot- 
box with jealous apprehension,— stimulate the lukewarm, — encourage the diffi- 
dent, restrain the rash, and set a perfect example to all. You will now resume 
this Chair, under an expression or increased confidence on the part of your Chap- 
ter; and I will only add my sincere desire, that your zeal and usefulness may 
long be spared to them ; and that at last, when your journey of life shall be at 
an end ; — when “the silver cord shall be loosed, and the golden bowl be broken,” 
you may be enabled to “ work an entrance” into that far better, and most glo- 
rious Chapter above, whose Builder and Pounder is God. 

Companions in Office : — I need scarcely say, that most of the duties which de- 
volve upon the High Priest, also attach themselves to you ; — the same prudential 
care, — the same cautious zeal, — the same Masonic virtues ; and indeed all the 
moral requirements enjoined upon him, are equally obligatory upon you ; and as 
you are required to practise them by ties the most sacred and indissoluble ; so it 
is also your bounden duty to teach them faithfully unto others. You are aware 
that every department and chamber of the Temple, has its allotted and peculiar 
ministry ; involving it is true different and varied duties, — but all of them impor- 
tant , — all of them essential, all tending to produce „an aggregate of moral beauty 
and order. 

If then a single link in the mystic chain be displaced, — if a solitary workman 
be absent from his post, — if the implements of your labor be unskilfully used ; 
there must needs be shame and confusion of face, among the craftsmen. 

Let such, never be the case with you, my Companions, — but be ye always ac- 
tive and vigilant in the discharge of your several trusts ; attentive and ready at 
all times to assist your Chief Officer in maintaining the usefulness and respecta- 
bility of his Chapter ; without your efficient and cordial support, I need not tell 
you, that his labors will be paralysed, if not rendered useless. You will have 
placed in his hands the baton of a barren authority ; to be wielded without profit 
to his craft, — with discredit to you, — with pain and humiliation to himself. 

I cannot suppose for a moment, that there exists in this Chapter, any feeling, 
other than the most perfect harmony ; — I hope there does not, — I trust there does 
not. But knowing the unhappy consequences, resulting from an opposite condi- 
tion of things ; — knowing how they have operated to destroy our peace and mnr- 
der our social happiness how often they have conspired to put censure upon 
abstract Masonry ; and bring reproach upon the purity of its character ; I would 
on this occasion in an especial manner, warn you of the imminent danger and 
heresy of such a course ; and give it to you strictly in charge, always to main- 
tain peace and harmoriy within your Chapter. Let it be done under all circum- 



236 INSTITUTION OF THE ORDER OF KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. 

stances and at every hazard. See to it, that its members always meet upon the 
level, — act upon the plumb, — and part upon the square. 

Suffer no uncharitable, contentious, angry spirit to find a resting-place, within 
your walls, — but let the foundation of your work be laid, upon that mystic “cor- 
ner-stone,” against which, the rains may descend, and the storm beat, and the 
winds blow ; — and descend and beat in vain, — for it is an everlasting rock . Put 
on the whole panoply of your distinctive stations ; — be prudent, — be wary, — be 
circumspect ; and so live and conduct, my Companions, as to persuade mankind 
of the great excellency of our Institution. 

The annals of our Order, furnish many illustrious examples,— imitate such ; 
and they will not only exercise upon you a happy and virtuous influence ; but 
through your actions, it will gather in blessings upon the whole community 
around you. And for your best and most efficient counsellor; in the time of 
trial, and in the day of prosperity ; at all seasons, and under all circumstances ; 
allow me to recommend affectionately, to the serious consideration of each one of 
you, that Great Masonic Light, the Scriptures of Eternal Truth ! Take them, 
read them — study them, and make them the Man of your choice. In. them will 
be found “the way” that leads to a life of unmeasured happiness, and “they are 
they” which testify of brighter, holier, and more glorious mysteries, than the hu- 
man eye has seen, or the human heart has ever conceived of. I would to 
Heaven, my Companions, that it were in my power to persuade every raejnber of 
our Order to give this Holy Miraculous Volume that legitimate place in his affec- 
tions, which it has the right, Masonically, to command. I speak to you the senti- 
ments of conviction and soberness, when I express the settled opinion, that no 
Lodge or Chapter can permanently prosper, where it is not held in vital rever- 
ence and respect. 

Receive it then, I beg you, as the boon of priceless — inestimable value. Prize 
it as rational beings ; seeing that it imparts strength to the understanding, and 
stability to the intellect. Especially prize it as Masons, as you know that with- 
out it, your organization cannot for one moment exist. 

The Charge to the Companions of the Chapter will appear next month, if we 
can possibly find room for it. These Charges, with the excellent address deliv- 
ered on the occasion, would have been published sometime since, had we not been 
overburthened with a press of other matter. — Ed. Mag. 


INSTITUTION OF THE ILLUSTRIOUS ORDER 

OF KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. 

About the year of our Lord 1118, in the 19th year of the reign of Henry the 
First of England, and in the Pontificate of Gelasius the second, “ certain noble 
men of the horsemen, being religiously bent, bound themselves in the hands of 
the Patriarch of Jerusalem, to serve Christ, after the manner of Canons, in chas- 
tity and obedience, and to renounce their own proper will for ever. Of which 
order, the first was the honorable man Hugh Paganus and Gawfride de Ande- 
mare : and where at the first, they had no certain habitation, Bald wine, king of 
Jerusalem, granted them a dwelling place in his palace by the Temple ; and the 
Canons of the same Temple gave them the street thereby, to build their houses of 
office in, and the patriarch, the king, the nobles, and prelates, gave them certain 
revenues out of their lordships. Their first profession was for the safe guard of 
the pilgrims, to keep the ways, against the laying in wait of thieves, &c. 




GRAND MASTERS OF ENGLAND. 


237 


“ About ten years after, they had n rule appointed them, and a white habit, by 
Pope Honorius ; at that time, where they had been nine in number, they began 
to increase into great numbers. 

“ Afterwards, in the time of Pope Eugenius* they had crosses of red cloth 
sewed on their uppermost garments, to be known from others thereby : and, in 
short, they had their first mansion hard by the Temple of our Lord in Jerusalem, 
and were called Knights of the Temple.” — Stoic's Annals of Eng. 


GRAND MASTERS, OR PATRONS, 

OP THE FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS IN ENGLAND, 

from the coming in of the Saxons to the year 1839, with brief references to remarka- 
ble events. Compiled and condensed from the most authoritative records, by 
Br. Thomas Josefh Tennison, President of the Masonic Council of 
Armagh, Ireland. t 

[Continued*from page 211.] 

1422. Henry Cfdchely , Archbishop of Canterbury, was Grand Master Mason 
under Henry V., the renowned conqueror of France. By the King’s direction he 
rebuilt the Palace and Abbey of Sheen, now called Ricbmond-on-Thames. 

William Wanefleet , Bishop of Winchester, Grand Master, built Eton College, 
and King’s College, also founded Christ’s and Queen’s Colleges, Cambridge, at 
the command of Henry VI., whilst Brother Wanefleet, at his own cost, built 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford. In the third year of Henry’s reign, an ignorant and 
illiterate Parliament passed an act u forbidding Freemasons to confederate in 
chapters or congregations ; those so offending to be judged felons; visiting 
Brethren to be punished by fine or imprisonment.” But this grossly tyrannical 
piece of legislative humbug was never enforced, and is fully explained in the 
learned Coke’s Institutes, Part. III. fol. 19. It was repealed by the 5th Elizabeth, 
cap. 4. 

1471. Richard Beachamp y Bishop of Sarum, Grand Master. He repaired the 
Royal Castles, &c. after the depopulating wars between the houses of York and 
Lancaster. 

1485. The Grand Master of the Knights of Malta. 

1493. John blip , Bishop of Winchester. 

1500. Henry VIL, having been chosen Protector by the Grand Master and 
Fellows of the Order of St. John at Rhodes, (afterwards Malta} he selected as his 
Wardens, John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, and Sir Reginald Bray, Knight of 
the Garter, and by them summoned a Lodge of Master Masons in the Palace, 
with whom he marcjxed in procession to the East-end of Westminster Abbey, and 
with his own hand levelled the fooistone of his celebrated chapel, June 24, (St. 
John’s day,) 1502. 

Deputy Grand Master, Sir Reginald Bray, Knight. 

Cardinal Wolsey was, in the following reign, chosen Grand Master. He built 
Hampton Court, Whitehall, Cullege of Christ, Oxford, and several splendid edi- 
fices, which, when he was hurled from 

“ The full meridian of his glory,” 

to merited degradation, were forfeited to his false and fickle monarch, the subtle 
and truculent Henry VIII. 


*Eugeoiu8 the 3d, the 172 Pope, a Pisan, ascended the Papal Chair A. D. 1146, died A. D. 
1163, having filled it eight years and four months. 




238 


GRAND MASTERS IN ENGLAND. 


Thomas CromtseU, Earl of Essex, was the next Grand Master. He built St. 
James’s Palace, Christ’s Hospital, Greenwich Castle. On Cromwell’s fall and 
decollation, 

John Touched Lord Audley, became Grand Master. 

1552. At the death of Henry, Protector Somerset was Grand Master, and built 
Somerset House, which was forfeited to the Crown. When the duke was be- 
headed, John Peynet, Bishop of Winchester, was Grand Patron of Freemasons 
until the demise of Edward VI. 

1561. Sir Thomas SackviUe succeeded, and continued Grand Master, until the 
accession of Elizabeth, who “ finding that Freemasons had certain secrets which 
could not be revealed to her,” she sent an armed force to break up their annual 
Grand Lodge at York, on St John’s day, the 27th of December ; but some of 
the commanding officers having been initiated, returned, and made so favorable 
a report to her Majesty, that she ever afterwards patronized and protected them. 

1567. When Sir Thomas Sackville demitted, the Earl of Bedford was chosen 
in the North ; and, in the South. 

1570. Sir Thomas Gresham, who built the Exchange, and which was burned 
in 1838. 

1588 to 1603. George Hastings , Earl of Huntingdon. 

1602. Charles Howard , Lord of Effingham, (who, when Lord Admiral, took or 
destroyed the celebrated Spanish Armada,) was Grand Master in the South till 
1558, and the Earl of Huntingdon till the Queen died. Sir Walter Raleigh 
(who, without any government assistance, had colonised New England), the Earl 
of Essex, the generous and affable Norfolk, and indeed most of the great men of 
this interesting period, were all Freemasons. 

1607. James /., a Brother Mason, Grand Patron by Prerogative, appointed the 
celebrated Inigo Jones, Grand Master of all England, in which capacity he served 
for eleven years. His Wardens were the Earl of Pembroke, and Nicholas Stone, 
Esq., who, attended by many Brothers attired in Craft clothing, walked to White 
Hall, and laid the first stone of the Banquetting Hall, with knocks, huzzas, and 
sound of trumpets, throwing a purse of gold upon the stone for the operatives to 
drink • 

“ To the King and Crqft P 9 

1618. WiUiam Herbert , Earl of Pembroke, was chosen Grand Master. He ap- 
pointed Inigo Jones his Deputy. 

Charles /., a Royal Mason and Grand Patron by Prerogative ; under him the 
Earl of Damley, Grand Master, who erected the beautiful gate of the Physick 
Gardens, at Oxford. 

1630-1-2. Henry Danvers , Earl of Danby. 

1634. Thomas Howard , Earl of Arundel, was Grand Master. 

1635. The Earl of Bedford , who was succeeded as Grand Master by Inigo 
Jones, died in 1651. 

The proceedings of the Lodges during the Commonwealth are shrouded and 
screened by the scenes which followed the intestine wars. We, however, dis- 
cern through the mist that then obscured Masonry, that its Mysteries were not 
entirely neglected, and that the Order passed unscathed amidst the fluctuations 
of contending factions and civil broils. By an Inscription in St Dunstan’s 
Church, Fleet Street, it appears that Edward Marshall, Esq. had been “ Master 
Mason of England,” probably during the Protectorate, about the year 1658, and 
that Charles II. appointed his son, Joshua Marshall, Esq. Master Mason, at the 
rebuilding of London. In our authenticated records we, however, read that Inigo 
Jones was succeeded in 1660 by 

Charles XT., who had been initiated into the Mysteries of Masonry during his 
exile on the Continent; he appointed as Grand Master, 



JERUSALEM TAKEN BY THE SARACENS. 239 

+cmy Jermyt s, Bari of St Alban’s, who chose as his Deputy, Sir John Denham, 
anight ; to him succeeded 

1666. Thomas Savage , Earl of Rivers. He named Sir Christopher Wren as 
his Deputy. 

1674 The Dvkt of Buckingham , Grand Master. 

1689. Henrv Bennett , Earl of Arlington, on whose demise, in 1685, the Lodges 
met, and re-elected Sir Christopher Wren, under whom William III. was made 
& Mason, when his Majesty devoted the vigor of his mind, and the vigilance of 
his habits to the promotion of the Order. He possessed a high taste in architect- 
ural beauties ana embellishments, as evinced in the erection and alteration of 
several public buildings ; and named Brother Wren again Grand Master. Those 
eminent divines, Thomas Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor Burnett 
and Bishop Stillingfleet, were Freemasons; Gabriel Cibber, Deputy Grand 
Master. 

The Duke of Richmond, Grand Master. To him again succeeded Brother 
Wren, who finished, in 1710, that splendid piece of architectural composition, St 
Paul’s. After Wren’s death tjiere was no Grand Master until the Lodges deter- 
mining 

✓ “ To knit again 

The corn into one mutual shear,” 

0 

assembled at the Goose and Gridiron, St. Paul’s Churchyard, and having, pro 
tempore, constituted a Grand Lodge, saluted Brother Anthony Sayer, gentleman, 
171 7, the oldest Mason present, as Grand Master, until they should nave some 
noble or influential Brother at their head. 

1718. George Payne , Esq . was installed ; to him succeeded 

The Duke of Montague, Under his Grace’s good government, Masonry pros- 
pered, many noblemen and distinguished professional persons were introduced, 
amongst whom was the celebrated Earl of Chesterfield, the Rev. Brother Ander- 
son, D. D. The Book of the Constitutions was approved of. This is an excel- 
lent and learned production, comprising the manifold and multifarious records of 
several centuries, condensed in one convenient sized volume, from which the 
compiler of this article derived much assistance and information. 

[To be continued next month.] 


JERUSALEM TAKENBYTHE SARACENS — 270 
KNIGHTS TEMPLARS SLAIN. 

In the 33d year of the reign of King Henry the Second, A. D. 1187, u Sala- 
dine, chief Prince of the Saracens, won a great battle against the Christians, and 
took Guido, King of Jerusalem, with the Cross that Christ died on, and all the 
Christians were either slain or taken. There escaped, among other, Theodori- 
cus Agastas, of the Knights Templars, notwithstanding two hundred and thirty of 
his Brethren were beheaded, that had been taken prisoners : besides forty that 
were slain. The city of Jerusalem was taken by compositin, every man to give 
ten bezants,* every woman five, every child one. And the rest, to the number of 
fourteen thousand men and women, became subject to perpetual bondage.” — 
Stouts Annals of Eng . 


*Bezant, or Byzant,— an ancient gold coin of the weight of twenty grains. 




240 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 

INDIA. 

GRAND M4SONIC ENTERTAINMENT TO DR. JAMES BURNES, PROVINCIAL GRAND 
MASTER TOR WESTERN INDIA* 

Poona, July 30. The Right Worshipful Br. Burnes proceeded, by special in- 
vitation, to visit the Lodge St. Andrew’s in the East, at Poona, and the Brethren 
assembled at that station. He was accompanied by Br. J. Chalmers, as Deputy 
Provincial Grand Master; Brs. H. Fawcet, F. Arthur, Major Stevens, G. Mun- 
bee, the Rev. Br. C. Jackson, Spencer Compton, J. Don, and Br. W. Wellis. 
The Brethren to the number of sixty or seventy, headed by the Worshipful Mas- 
ter, Br. Horrooks, and accompanied by the band of H. M.’s 22d Foot, met the 
Right Worshipful Provincial Grand Master and his Officers on the road leading 
to the Masonic Lodge, which was very beautifully decorated ; the new Lodge St 
Andrew’s was then consecrated with great formality by the Grand Master and 
the Reverend Chaplain. The Brethren then retired to an elegant supper; and 
an evening of harmony and good fellowship ensued, not likely to be soon forgot- 
ten, and which, we are sure, has rarely been equalled even at Masonic meetings. 
We were glad to observe that several highly respectable non-commissioned offi- 
cers were present 

The chair was taken by the Worshipful Master* who was supported by the 
Right Worshipful Provincial Grand Master and the Reverend Chaplin, &c. 
After the toasts of “The Queen,” and “Grand Masters of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland,” the Worshipful Brother Horrocks gave the health of “The Right 
Worshipful Brother Burnes,” in a very eloquent address, observing that “The 
highly distinguished Mason to whom the toast refers, is so well known and va- 
lued amongst the Craft, that it would be useless, as well as presumptuous, in one 
of my humble station in life, to try to pass any eulogium upon him ; suffice it to 
say, that he is cordially welcome to every heart here. A more devoted Mason 
never belonged to our ancient Fraternity than Dr. Jarpes Burnes ; and I am 
sure it is the earnest wish and prayer of all present, that the blessings of health, 
happiness, and prosperity, may attend him arid his family through life ; and at 
last, that he and they may find a welcome into the Grand Lodge above !” (En- 
thusiastic applause.) 

Tune — “ Bonnets o’ Blue.” 

The reply of the Right Worshipful was fervid and truthful: — “Next to the 
approval of my own conscience, the approbation of my Brethren has been alike 
the encouragement and the reward at which I have aimed in my Masonic pro- 
ceedings ; and grateful indeed to me is the meed of praise which your brotherly 
love has accorded to me on this interesting occasion. Most sincerely, also, do I 
congratulate myself that I am amongst you to participate in the gratifying inter- 
course that now prevails, and to witness the happy results of the fresh impulse 
which has recently been given to Masonry at this important station. Let those 
who would pronounce Freemasonry to be but a speculative and dreamy system, 
unattended with practical advantage (for such sceptics there still are,) bat be 
allowed to contemplate the scene that is now passing around us, or, as that 
cannot be, to ascertain who and what those are that are here assembled 
side by side for purposes of reciprocal improvement and happiness. Justly was 
Masonry declared, by a late noble dignitary of the Craft, to be a system to 
exclude civil and religious feud, — to mitigate within and annihilate without the 
bitterness of all controversy. With equal truth, perhaps, but certainly with infe- 
rior eloquence, it has also been described by a less worthy individual — one who 
has spoken so much on the subject that he can scarcely avoid a reiteration of his 
ideas — as an institution based on that never-failing charity which upholds uni- 
versal love, calms the troubled sea of our evil passions, and leaves a smooth sur- 


*From the Freemasons 1 Review. 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


Ml 

face, in which all men, who are sincere and conscientious worshippers of God,, 
and unexceptionable in moral conduct, may unite, bless each other, and rejoice, 
in practically realizing the sublime sentiment, that 

God hath made mankind one mighty brotherhood — 

Himself their Master, and the world their Lodge. 

w Thus has Masonry been defined ; but it is in a somewhat altered aspect — vet 
still, as always, carrying with it its lessons for good — that it presents itself witnin 
this hall. We do not indeed see here the crowned monarch and the honest yeo- 
man — the minister of state and the industrious artisan — the Christian, the Mos- 
lem, and the Jew— different and conflicting races of men ; * white, black, and 
tawny, Greek and Goth, Northmen, and offspring of hot Africa,’ drawn within a 
circle by the magic tie that binds our brotherhood ; but still, even here, there are 
contrasts and combinations which must be sufficiently striking and instructive to 
all, but especially so to the reflecting Mason. For not more wonderful, perhaps, 
is that annihilation of all strife, and the substitution in its stead of a kindred 
sympathy, which Masonry enforces amongst those whose creeds, customs, climes, 
aid languages, are essentially discordant, than is that beautiful application of 
our system here exemplified ; by which the iron chain of one of the strongest 
bonds that restrain men is deprived, not indeed of its strength, but of its weight, 
and under whose genial influence the military superior and his more humble, 
though not less exemplary follower, mingle together in fraternal communion on 
the broad footing of a moral level, alike gratifying to both, but which can be mis- 
understood by neither, since all enlightened men know that, as in the I^odge, 60 
in the world, gradations must inevitably exist, and that Masonry ever upholds 
legitimate authority, and represses inordinate pretensions; and, teaching every 
man his place and duties within his sphere, is equally the enemy of tyranny on 
the one hand, and insubordination on the other : and can that institution be mo- 
tiveless and unproductive, which, while its fundamental principle is reverence for 
God, thus breaks down conventional barriers and usages to bring together in har- 
monious intercourse, for purposes of pure benevolence to His creatures.” 

The R. W. Br. then proposed the health of M Brs. (Rev.) Jackson, Horrocks, 
Buchanan, and Brett, and the other Officers and Brethren of the Lodge St An- 
drew’s in the East f requesting all present, whether members of that Lodge or 
not, to assist him in giving the honors. 

The Rev. Br. Jackson, in a highly eloquent address, which we regret has not 
reached ns, returned thanks on behalf of the new Lodge ; he proposed the Pro- 
vincial Grand Lodge of Western India. 

Br. H. Fawcett rose to reply, and said — M W. Master and Brethren, I feel much 
satisfaction in having been deputed to return thanks on behalf of the Right Wor- 
shipful Master and Brethren of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Western India, 
for the manner in which you have received the toast of our worthy Brother. 

“ It is impossible to look upon the establishment of this Prov. Grand Lodge, 
without the coqviction that it will form an epoch of no ordinary importance in 
the future Masonic history of India; but, whatever credit may be attributed to 
the Brethren composing the Lodge, it will be but the reflection from the high 
character of our first Provincial Grand Master, under whose auspices it was 
founded, and by whose exertions its usefulness has been already extended — the 
flame, which never, indeed can entirely die, was smouldering on its embers, and 
the spirit of Masonry seemed to sleep amongst us. For, though in the hearts of 
the Brethren the mystic tie it can never lose its influence, it seemed in a state of 
inanimation, when our Right Worshipful Master returned from England, and in- 
stilled a new life ipto the Graft ; his energetic spirit roused the s lumberers, con- 
firmed the wavering, established the sincere; the Proniothean spark was applied, 
and Masonry once more raised its venerable institutions amongst us, and spread 
its beneficent influence over the length and breadth of the land. But the spirit 

31 



242 


• MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


which called forth the dormant energies of the Craft, has not rested content with 
this triumph alone — his zeal has not failed in the work he understood, wherever 
his presence could advance the cause — wherever by his labors he could assist the 
Brethren, our Provincial Grand Master has been always conspicuous. 

“ I have now another pleasing task to perform, as Shakespeare says, ‘ the la- 
bor we delight in, physics pain ;’ it is to call on you to fill a full bumper to the 
health of our respected Governor. Seeing that his son is amongst us in his place 
as a Brother, you will pardon me that I do not preface the toast with any length- 
ened eulogium. Sir George Arthur came but recently amongst us, a total stran- 
ger. Yet we have already seen sufficient of him to appreciate his character — 
to admit that amenity of manner which charms in the social circle, and to ap- 
plaud that impartiality and uprightness which mark the discharge of his public 
duties. Brethren, rise, and with full honors drink to Sir George Arthur, Gover- 
nor of Bombay.” 

Br. Captain Arthur returned thanks for his father’s health in a speech which 
was received with great satisfaction by the Brethren. He avowed his own stea- 
dy attachment to Masonry, and his admiration of its tenets, and his regret that 
his father was not a member of the Craft, although a Mason in principle and con- 
duct; he concluded by proposing, in a pleasing manner, Mrs. Buraes and the 
wives of Freemasons. 

Br. Burnes returned thanks, and observed that, notwithstanding our exclusion 
of the fair, many of them were devoted to the Craft, and amongst these was the 
unobtrusive person whose name was coupled with the toast. He hoped the day 
would arrive, when the ladies, retaining all the charms and amiability they , at 
present possess, would also acquire the power to keep a secret, and thus become 
entitled to share in Masonic gratifications ! He concluded by proposing the Ma- 
sonic Lodges of Western India, entering particularly into the reasons which in- 
duced him to sanction the recent establishment of the Lodge, Rising Star of Wes - „• 
tern India, for the admission of native gentlemen into the Craft. 

Brs. Well is, Don, and Boileau returned thanks respectively for the Lodges 
Orion in the West, Perseverance of Bombay, and Hope of Kurrachee. 

Br. H. Fawcett returned thanks on behalf of Lodge Rising Sun of Western 
India. 

Br. Buchanan, Senior Warden, then proposed, in a very suitable manner, all 
poor and distressed Masons, wherever dispersed and however distressed, through- 
out the globe. 

Br. Blake, Senior Deacon, proposed the visiting Brethren, and 12 o’clock hav- 
ing arrived, the meeting dispersed, every Brother highly delighted with the pro- 
ceedings of the evening. We should have stated that a suitable song followed 
each toast. 

Jhurust 29. The Bombay Courier gives a very elaborate account of a splen- 
did fancy ball given by Lady McMahon, in the Masonic Hall, which was fitted 
up with much taste and elegance for the occasion. The various characters 
were sustained with much humor, and were dressed with the utmost correctness. 
The road from the church to the Maspnic Hall, nearly a mile long, was lighted 
up a la Vauxhall of the olden time. The supper rooms were thrown open at one; 
after refreshment, dancing was resumed until four o’clock. 

The Brethren of the Lodge St. Andrew’s in the East, have testified their re- 
gard for the Right Worshipful Provincial Grand Master of Western India, by 
the offering of an appropriate jewelled cross, accompanied by an address and 
resolutions. We have now the additional gratification of receiving a copy of the 
reply of Dr. Burnes, dated the 5th instant, which will be found below, and will 
be, we doubt not, perused with much pleasure by the Brethren. The presenta- 
tion of a Bible to the new Lodge is no bad answer to certain objections, lately 
raised to the Craft in the local press. 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


'248 


To the Right Worshipful Br, James Burnes, K, H. fyc. Provincial Grand Mas- 
ter of Western India, Right Worshipful Sir and Brother, — We, the Worshipful 
Master, and Senior and Junior Wardens, of Lodge St Andrew’s in the Easjt, 
have the honor to forward to you three resolutions, unanimously passed in open 
Lodge on Wednesday, the 21st ultima Admiration of your character, and grat- 
itude for your support of the Craft, are feelings common to the Brethren at large, 
and need not, on the present occasion, be adverted to by us. As a testimony, 
however, of our thanks for the honor you did us at the recent consecration of our 
Lodge, we now beg your permission to carry out the resolutions which the Breth- 
ren have deputed us to present to you. 

(Signed) R. Horrocks, W, M., 

R. B. Brett, J. W. 

D. Buchanan, S. W. 

Poonah, 3rd Sept. 1844. A. Ramsay, Sec. 

Resolved unanimously — First, That, in order to indicate our feelings of Broth- 
erly love and respect for the Right Worshipful Brother James Burnes, K. H., 
Provincial Grand Master of Western India, and to commemorate his late visit to 
Poonah, as well as the recent consecration of the Lodge St. Andrew’s in the 
East, at which he presided, we present him with an appropriate badge or jewel. 

Second, — That such badge or jewel shall be a Knight’s Cross of the Guelphic 
Order, handsomely set, and enriched with brilliants; and that it be presented to 
our Right Worshipful P. G. M. and Brother, in the name of the Worshipful Mas- 
ter, Senior and Junior Wardens, and all the Brethren of the Lodge St Andrew’s 
in the East, by a Brother hereafter to be appointed. 

Third— That a letter be immediately addressed to our Right Worshipful P. 
G. M. and Brother, to be signed by the Worshipful Master, and Senior and Ju- 
nior Wardens of the Lodge, accompanied by copies of these resolutions, and 
requesting his acceptance of such badge or jewel ; and that on the receipt of our 
R. W. Brother’s reply, Brother Spencer Compton be asked to obtain the same 
from Calcutta. 

(True copy.) (Signed) R. Horrocks, W. M. 

Reply. — Worshipful Sir, and Worthy Brethren, — I have had the gratification, 
to receive your communication of the first instant, announcing that, at a meeting 
held on the 21st ultimo, your Lodge was pleased unanimously to vote to me, as a 
token of brotherly love, a Knight’s Cross of the Guelphic Order, enriched with 
brilliants, and deeply indeed do I value this generous and splendid testimony of 
your fraternal affection and regard towards me. 

You are kind enough to say that the gift is intended to commemorate our re- 
cent happy meeting at Poonah ; but believe me, dear Brethren, no token was 
necessary to keep for ever alive within my breast the emotions excited by your 
kindness on that occasion, and that my heart will be cold indeed when it does 
not warm at the recollection of that kindness, or at the sight of those worthy 
Brethren, who, not content with having then welcomed me with the most liberal 
hospitality, arc now overpowering me with further munificent proofs of their re- 
spect and attachment 

I accept with pride and gratitude your handsome and appropriate gift, request- 
ing only to name one condition, which I enjoin you as good Masons to comply 
with, namely, that you will, in return, permit me to make a suitable present to 
your Lodge. I shall then wear your cross not only as a valued gift from beloved 
Brethren, but likewise with the gratification of feeling that, by accepting it, I 
have not impaired your means of contributing to the true and legitimate objects 
of Masonry. 

It is my purpose, accordingly, to obtain fro m home your Charter from the G. 
Lodge, and to present it to you. This, and a Bible for your Lodge, you will ac- 
cept as my tokens of love, and on this understanding I have consented to Mr. 
Spencer Compton’s obtaining the cross from Calcutta, and shall gladly receive it 
from the hands of that esteemed Brother, as your representative, when it arrives. 



344 


MiSORIC INTELLIGENCE. 


Again assuring you of my gratitude and brotherly love, and praying the 1 Great 
Architect of the Universe to bless and prosper you, dear Brethren, in all your 
lawful undertakings, 

I ever am, your affectionate friend, and faithful Brother, 

(Signed) James Burkes, P. G. M. 

To the Worshipful Brother R. Horrocks, Master; the worthy Brothers D. Bucha- 
nan and R. Brett, Wardens; and the Brethren of the Lodge St Andrew’s in 

the East, at Poonah. 

Bombay , Sept 5, 1844. 

Agra. A new Lodge, called the "Star of Hope,” was regularly constituted 
at Agra, in September last, on which occasion a grand Masonic festival was held. 

G E R M ANY. 

Chemnitz. A number of the members of the Lodge, held in this town, 
meet together with some of the subscribers to the Lodge of Harmony in Hohen- 
stein, for the purpose of mutual instruction in Freemasonry ; from a small fund 
collected on these occasions, the Brethren have been enabled to pay for the edu- 
cation of fourteen children, two of whom are always of the Catholic faith ; at 
Christmas the entire number are clothed ; this charity has existed some years. 

Dippoldiswaldc. Although no Lodge exists at this place, yet a number of 
inhabitants, being Freemasons, have formed a reading club, the trifling subscrip- 
tion to which having exceeded the expenditure, the members purchased Bibles 
with the amount, and presented them as prizes to the best informed and well be- 
haved children of the schools. 

Eisleren. The evening preceding the opening of the new Masonic building, 
one hundred and fifty poor persons were regaled with a good dinner, on which 
occasion the Chairman explained to the assembly that the purposes to which the 
hall would be devoted were not feasting, but the spread of philanthropic feelings 
among mankind. 

Leipsic. The Lodge of Apollo held its public meeting on the 24th May, at 
which all the members, their ladies, and friends attended ; Upwards ot five hun- 
dred visitors were present. The W. M., Br. Meissner, presided with great eclat; 
his address to the orphans was marked by great feeling. Presents were liberally 
bestowed. 

Posen. A subscription has been very successfully opened for the purpose of 
building a Masonic temple ; it has been eminently successful ; in order to obtain 
the required amount quickly, a loan was effected at 2 per cent 

WrRZBN. The last warrant granted in Saxony is possessed by the Frederick 
Angustus Lodge of Union here. On the 7th June it was visited by Brethren 
from Dresden, Leipsic, &c. &c., to commemorate the twentyfifth anniversafy of 
its formation. All the chairs wete filled by Masters of various Lodges, and seve- 
ral Grand Officers of the Grand Lodge of Saxony attended. Some very hand- 
some gifts were forwarded, including a silver charity-box. 

ENGLAND. 

Staffordshire. The annual Provincial Grand Lodge for Staffordshire, was 
held at Wolverhampton. None but subscribing members of Lodges, were allow- 
ed to be present, it being considered but feir that those who refuse to share in 
bearing the heat and burden of the day, as it were, in supporting tho Craft and 
its various charities, though resident in the province and contiguous to its differ- 
ent private Lodges, should not be permitted to partake of its grand gala and fes- 
tivities. The business of the Provincial Grand Lodge being terminated, the 
Brethren adjoutaed to the Star and Garter Hotel, where mine best,Br. Paul Law, 



MASONIC 1NTELLIQENCE . 


S45 


had prepared the banquet About seventy Brethren eat down to dinner, which 
was considered a goodly number, there being on the same day two other meet- 
ings at opposite ends of the county. The Hon. Chairman, (Col. Anson, M. P.) 
in proposing her Majesty’s health, remarked that loyalty was a distinguishing 
characteristic of the Fraternity, and that the illustrions lady who now occupied 
the throne drew the homage of Masons to her crown and person by peculiar ties 
of attachment and reverence, being the descendant of royal Brothers. (The 'toast 
was received with enthusiastic cheers.) The other loyal toasts followed, and 
were each warmly greeted. 

In proposing the health of the Grand Master of England, the gallant Chair- 
man observed that, since their last meeting, the election of that eminent chief 
had taken place, and be never knew an election where the feeling of approbation 
was so unanimous or the choice more approved. It was impossible to replace, 
out of the entire kingdom, an illustrions individual to fill that most important post 
so fit as their late lamented G. M. the Duke of Sussex, by every qualification of 
princely birth, royal blood, great courtesy of manner, and high literary and scien- 
tific attainments; but if one distinguished nobleman was more suited than 
another by his personal intimacy with the eminent Masonic qualifications of the 
late illustrious G. M., it was the Earl of Zetland, upon whom the mantle of the 
Duke’s Masonic abilities had descended. (This toast was drank with Masonic 
honors.) 

In rising to propose the health of the Provincial Grand Master, the Grand 
Chaplain spoke as follows : — Brethren, upon this the first occasion of our meet- 
ing since the memorable installation of our R. W. Provincial Grand Master last 
year at Stafford, I have charged myself with the very pleasing duty of proposing 
his very good health in an overflowing bumper. If there were any difficulty in 
submitting this toast to your Fraternal reception, it would very soon be removed 
by the cordial and enthusiastic warmth with which I am quite sure you will one 
and all respond to it I apprehend the only difficulty that can arise will be the 
very imperfect manner in which I necessarily must present it to your notice. To 
our honorable and gallant chief, Masonry in this province is indebted for an im- 
petus, which I trust to-day’s proceedings may tend to preserve and perpetnate 
amongst us. None of us who enjoyed the privilege of being present at the In- 
stallation of our R. W. Brother, can forget the finished craftsmanship with which 
he entered upon the labors of his Masonic station in this provinca Nor did we 
fail to augur, from that maiden performance in the working of our mystic rites, 
that maturity of perfect mastership in the royal art which the observances of this 
day have abundantly confirmed, and which the steady progress of a reviving spir- 
it among the private Lodges of the province, substantially testify is fully appre- 
ciated by their various members. Bright days, I trust, are yet in the womb of 
futurity for our ancient and honorable Craft. Not only may we congratulate our- 
selves on having a leader so well qualified, both by social and Masonic attri- 
butes, to preside over our province, but, since our last meeting, the election and 
the appointment of the M. W. G. M. of all England and his officers, has proved 
so judicious, that the most favorable hopes of a more extended spread of our 
Order may justly be indulged. Its principles for good are undeniable. Its anti- 

S 'ty makes it venerable. The articles of its creed are universal. In the Bom- 
Tints of July last, I read an illustration of Masonry, that I venture to assert 
no other society of a religious character on earth can produce. In a Lodge held 
at Bombay — the celebrated and distinguished Brother, Dr. Burnes, P. G. M. for 
Western India, in the chair — there were present ntne native Brethren , three of 
whom were followers of Zoroaster, two of Confucius, and four of Mahomet ; but 
they all assembled together with the followers of Christ in brotherly love to wor- 
ship the Masons’ God. The researches lately of the Archeological Society into 
the marks made in the stone works in different parts of Canterbury cathedral, and 
other similar stately edifices in the kingdom, by their original builders, and which 
correspond with the symbols used by Freemasons at the present day, prove — if 
proof were necessary— its ancient usefulness and date in this country ; and if so 



246 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


ancient, more ancient still, because such shill and science were not intuitively 
acquired in those days, but had been handed down from a remoter period. In 
Rossyln castle chapel, near Edinburgh, that most beautiful relic of church archi- 
tecture, 1 myself saw some years ago a mark that strikingly memoralizes a cer- 
tain portion of the peculiar ceremony in the third degree, if by some of us the 
' operative part of Masonry is not so exclusively pursued as in days of yore, we do 
not yield to our predecessors in inculcating that peculiar system of morality 
which their tools of mAuual labor and geometrical precision also allegorically 
illustrate : and, if we fall short of their eminence in raising up huge piles of cor- 
ruptible material, I trust we equal them in aiming at that exalted character which 
shall make the name of the society incorruptible, and fit its members for those 
mansions, not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. 

West Lancashire. The last annual meeting of the Prov. Grand Lodge for 
West Lancashire, was held at the Adel phi Hotel, in Liverpool. After the busi- 
ness of the Grand Lodge had been completed, the Brethren sat down to an ele- 
gant banquet. We make the following extract from the speech of the D. P. 
Grand Master, Br. John Drinkwater. He said — 

The Brethren must have all noticed in the newspapers, what had been said of 
Freemasonry by a gentleman lecturing in Liverpool, at the Polytechnic Institu- 
tion. That gentleman had declared Freemasonry to be the most beautiful theory 
that could be imagined, and then expressed a wish that something might be 
grafted upon it more suitable to the present day. Now it was quite clear to all 
who knew any thing of the principles of Masonry, that were its seeds planted in 
every heart, all the world might take refuge under its branches. It was well 
known that in the middle ages it did extend over the whole of Europe, but they 
could look back much further. The Eastern magi were in possession of its se- 
crets ; and Professor Taylor, one of the most learned men of the present day, 
was of opinion that the signs of the zodiac were Masonic, proving its connection 
with the astronomy of ancient times, as well as geometry and other sciences. The 
immense pile of buildings which marked the architecture of by-gone ages were 
believed to have been raised by the influence of Freemasons, (for the ancients 
were excellent practical Masons, while, in these days, attention was only paid to 
the philosophy of Freemasonry,) and in every age, and in every part of the globe, 
traces of its operations had been discovered. Its principles burned in the bo- 
soms of every people and nation in the present day, and by its beautiful order 
and institutions, jealousy, envy, hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness, were 
banished, and kindness, charity, and brotherly love, reigned in their stead. (Ap- 
plause.) There were many societies which cultivated a spurious sort of Mason- 
ry — persons meeting in what they called “Lodges” and so forth, with very good 
intentions, no doubt ; and he considered it a high compliment paid to true Ma- 
sonry that it should have imitators. He trusted they would also imitate its prin- 
ciples, and then they would never hear of persons belonging to these so-called 
w Lodges” bringing their cases before the magistrates, as was frequently done. 
Such a thing was totally unknown in true Masonry.” (Applause.) 

The English papers mention a recent lecture delivered in London by Mr. W. 
Mackie on the “ Antiquity of Freemasonry” — a lecture abounding in historical 
facts, anecdotes, and witticisms. In the course of his lecture, Mr. Mackie took 
occasion to state the reason why women were not admitted at Masons t remarking 
that the fair sex were excluded from associating with the male in their mystic 
profession, not because they were deemed unworthy of the secret, not for the 
want of mechanical or scientific genius, not from their being the weaker sex, but 
from a consciousness in the men of their own weakness. Should they be per- 
mitted to enter the Lodge, Cupid, he said, would jump through the key-hole ; jea- 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


247 


lousy would sometimes rankle in the hearts of the Brethren, and fraternal affec- 
tion be metamorphosed into rivalship. There would be a second confusion of 
languages among Masons— the hand of fellowship would become clenched, and 
duels might ensue ! But, he continued, “ although the most amiable and lovely 
part of Nature’s works are not admitted into our meetings, yet our knightly Order 
protects them from the attacks of vicious and unprincipled men; and we are so- 
lemnly bound never to sacrifice the ease and peace of families for momentary 
gratification, nor to undermine and take away the transcendant happiness from 
those whose hearts are united by the dearest ties of love and affection.” 

UNITED STATES. 

WISCONSIN. 

We have been furnished with a copy of the proceedings of the Grand Lodge 
of Wisconsin, at its annual communication, held at Madison in January last, and 
have marked several extracts for publication, but want of room, and the great 
length of the excellent and interesting address of the Grand Master, which we 
are desirous of presenting to our readers unrautilated, compel us to defer them 
until next month. 

We have also been furnished with the new Constitution of the Grand Lodge, 
which, we are pleased to perceive, is substantially a copy of the Constitutions of 
the Grand Lodge of this State. 

THE GRAND MASTER’S ADDRESS. 

To the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Wisconsin : 

Brethren : — Your having committed to my hands the management and su- 
perintendency of the interests and concerns of the Grand Lodge for the past 

f ear ; and the Grand Lodge having convened to attend to its appropriate duties ; 

esteem it as a duty I owe to you, as well as a pleasure to myself, to present you 
a statement of the progress and present condition of the cause of Masonry within 
the limits of your jurisdiction. 

In performing this duty, I should feel that I had done violence to one of the 
first great lessons taught in Masonry, were I not to acknowledge, with gratitude 
and devotion, the superintending care and gracious protection bestowed upon our 
labors, during the year past, by our Supreme Grand Master above ; to whom, 
as a body, we owe our existence, and the grace and dignity which the weight of 
centuries has conferred upon our time-honored Institution. 

It is a source of unspeakable pleasure to the devout Mason to survey the ample 
fields over which our Ancient Order has extended its toilsome care, from age to 
age, over the habitations of men, in every land and clime ; and wherever his eye 
is turned, to witness strong and convincing proofs, that Masonry has ever enjoy- 
ed the approving smiles and favored providence of God. And it is equally plea- 
sing to the goof Mason, while he contemplates the future, to behold the steady 
and unwavering footsteps of this hoary Giant of Antiquity, as ever, supported by 
u Wisdom, Strength and Beauty? descending along the tide of time, and to coming 
ages, administer, as to those gone by, the healthful cordials of “ Friendship , Mo- 
rality and Brotherly Love ? to the disordered generations of men, down to the end 
of time. 

Having again assembled, Brethren, beneath the “ M-seeing Eye? to attend to 
the business of your Annual Communication, aided by the great lights before us, 
let us be carefbl, in the use of the “ Level , Plumb and Square? so to perform our 
labors, that our work may u pa$s the square? and be approved by the u Grand 
Overseer” above. 



248 


MA80NI0 INTELLIGENCE* 


Since the organization of the Grand Lodge, on the 18tfr of December last, it* 
proceedings have been laid before the Chartered Lodges "upon whose authority it 
was organized, embracing the proceedings of the Primary Convention, Organiza- 
tion, and the called communication held on the 17th of January last; all of which 
have been cordially approved by them, and the charters emanating from this 
Grand Lodge accepted, under which they have been most pleasantly and success- 
fully pursuing their labors up to this time. 

Your proceedings have also been forwarded to the Secretaries of as many 
Grand Lodges of Die United States, as the Grand Master and Grand Secretary 
were able to ascertain the addresses of; and, in return, your Grand Secretary 
has received the published proceedings of the Grapd Lodges of Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, New Hampshire, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, and Iowa. The 
interchange of the published proceedings of the Grand Lodges, through the pro- 
per officers, forms the most common mode of correspondence and public acknow- 
ledgment of the mutual good feelings and respect of any other: by which cor- 
respondence, also, each Grand Lodge is enabled to scrutinize the proceedings of 
the other, and see that due regard is had by all to the great landmarks of the 
Order, in which all have a common interest 

In addition to the above, and as a further evidence of our being recognized by 
the Masonic world as a legally constituted Grand Lodge, and entitled to univer- 
sal respect as such, I have to remark, that a copy of your proceedings has also 
been sent to the Editors of the various Masonic periodicals known in our coun- 
try, in the most prominent of which, parts of our proceedings have been publish- 
ed, with an expression of approbation, and asking for our young and promising 
Institution, the fraternal regards and respectful interchange of other and older 
Grand Lodges. And while we have received these flattering proofs of being 
cordially recognized and received as a legitimate member of the great Masonic 
family, none have manifested the slightest objection to our just claims to the high 
stand to which we aspire, among the sovereign and independent Grand Lodges 
of the world, within our proper and undisputed sphere of jurisdiction. 

I am therefore happy in congratulating the “ Grand Lodge of Wisconsin,” in 
attaining its present high and commanding attitude. 

At the organization of the Grand Lodge, Melody Lodge No. 2, and Milwau- 
kee Lodge No. 3, were in a most happy and prosperous condition ; in which con- 
dition they have continued through the year. Mineral Point Lodge No. 1, had, 
for a time, been laboring under some difficulties : but it affords me much plea- 
sure in being able to say, that it has greatly improved, and at this time may be 
considered as in a prosperous and happy condition. All of our chartered Lodges, 
therefore, are now in a very healthy and sound condition, as I have no doubt an 
examination of their work will show. 

Dispensations have been issued by the Grand Master for the organization of 
three new Lodges within the Territory during the year, as follows, to wit: 

Warren Lodge , Potosi , W. T. Dispensated April 27th, A, L. 5844. E. P. 
Wood, W. M. ; Marcus Wainwright,S. W. ; Simon E. Lewis, J. W. 

Madison Lodge, Madison, JV. T, Dispensated June 4th, A. L. 5844. John 
Catlin, W. M. ; David Holt, S. W. ; Augustus A. Bird, J, W. 

Olive Branch Lodge , New Diggings , W. T. Dispensed October 25th, A. L. 
5844. Charles Gear, W. M. ; Ephraim Ogden, S. W. ; Arthur A. Carrington, j. 
W. 

On the 4th day of December last, I received a petition from Warren Lodge at 
Potosi, stating, that owing to the continued absence of the W. Master and S. 
Warden, and not expecting further services from either, and the great want of 
officers to conduct their work, they requested the removal of those officers, and 
the appointment of the following to take their places, as well as to fill all the 
stations of the Lodge; which petition was granted, and officers appointed, viz: 

% George W. Bicknell, W. M. ; Hugh R. Colter, S. W. ; George Madeira, J. W. 
These are therefore the present principal officers of Warren Lod^Q. 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


249 


It has been extremely difficult, in organizing new Lodges, to find skilful and 
r experienced Brethren to take charge of them, and to go through with the work 
1 and lectures in a becoming manner. Several of the new Lodges have felt them- 

j selves so embarrassed on this account, that they have hesitated to take the re- 

t 8ponsibi]ity of doing the work that has been urged upon them by the many peti- 
i tioners who have made application for the rights, lights, and benefits of our Mys- 
tic Order. 

i The difficulty here found so seriously to retard the progress of Masonry would 

, have been greatly diminished, if not entirely overcome, could we have had the 

services of our Grand Lecturer. I would not, however, be understood by this 
remark to censure the worthy Brother who holds that important office. But it is 
due to the Grand Lodge here to remark, that upon being informed by an officer 
of the Grand Lodge that our worthy Brother, the Grand Lecturer, had refused to 
conform his work and lectures to the system adopted by the Grand Lodge, that I 
felt it to be my duty to request him, that, if he could not conform to the order of 
the Grand Lodge on the subject, that “I hoped he would cease to lecture any of 
the subordinate Lodges until the meeting of the Grand Lodge.” He readily 
complied with my wishes, and has not, I believe, officiated during the year. 

Had it been in my power to have appointed any other person to fill the office 
for the year, I should have done so : but I did not consider the power conferred 
by the Constitution. To obviate the difficulty, however, as far as was in my 
power to do so, I have, in person, visited all the Lodges throughout the Territo- 
ry, and, with the aid of a few other Brethren, all our Lodges have so far progress- 
ed in the acquisition of knowledge and numbers, as to be at least respectable in 
both. 

In view of the labors of the past year, notwithstanding the many disadvantages 
and discouragements under which we have labored, we may rejoice in having 
laid the great Comer Stone of our “ future Moral and Masonic Edifice in the 
wilderness of the Northwest Upon it, our names have been recorded. In rear- 
ing the great living Temple thereon, our sons and generations to come will labor, 
until the time appointed, when the cap-stone shall be brought forth with songs 
and shouting of M Grace, grace unto it !” 

But while I perform the duty of reporting to you the past history and present 
condition of the several Lodges under your jurisdiction, since your organization, 
I feel h also a duty to improve this occasion by suggesting to the Grand Lodge 
such measures as, m my opinion, are necessary for the future prosperity and pro- 
gress of our venerable Institution. 

It is said that u self-preservation is the first great law of nature .” This truth 
is as sacredly connected with societies as with individuals. It well becomes 
every society to look carefully to the bearings and provisions of its own Constitu- 
tion, and if the various parts are not promotive of permanency, peace, and harmo- 
ny, it is wise to apply a timely remedy, before disorder and consequent disasters 
follow as a result. 

After a careful examination of the provisions of the Constitution of this Grand 
Lodge, I am clearly of the opinion, that in many respects it is defective, and in 
some points radically so. 

1st The Constitution, section 1, provides for sixteen (present) Grand Officers, 
besides “ all Past Grand Officers of this Lodge, all Past Masters of regular Lodges 
under the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge who continue members of any regular 
Lodge, and all Past Masters citizens of this Territory ,” as members of this Grand 
Lodge, who are not representatives of any subordinate Lodge ; while the work- 
ing Lodges, whose interests, more than all others, are involved, are only repre- 
sented by the present Master and Wardens of each Lodge, which class of mem- 
bers will form but a meagre minority in the Grand Lodge. 

I consider this section defective, therefore, 1st. In not discriminating as to 
wbat class of Past Grand Officers shall remain members of the Grand Lodge. 
2dly. In taking from the working Lodges, upon which it depends for existence 
and future prosperity, the balance of power, and conferring it upon irresponsible 

S2 




260 


MASONIC IJffTEItLMKHlfiQfi# 


members; and, 3dly. Because it gives to u ail Past Masters, dtizaaoftkis Terri- 
tory? membership in the Grand Lodge and control over subordinate Lodges* 
without even becoming members of atoy Lodge under our jurisdiction 1 

Should all these provisions remain unmodified, or unlimited in their bearings* 
the number of honorary or ex-officio members of the Grand Lodge would so in- 
crease in a few years that the power of subordinate Lodges would be compara- 
tively lost The ancient Constitutions of Masonry wisely provide, that Past 
Grand Masters, Past Deputy Grand Masters, Past Grand Wardens, Past Grand 
Treasurers, and Past Grand Secretaries, should be retained as members of the 
Grand Lodge, for the reason that they are supposed to possess age, and are re- 
garded as skilfbl workmen of the Craft Their wisdom and experience would 
therefore be valuable in the councils of the Grand Lodge. More recently, Past 
Masters of subordinate Lodges have been allowed the same privilege : but never 
to my knowledge were such honors conferred upon the inferior officers of the 
Grand Lodge. 

2d. 1 regard the Constitution, as a whole, entirely too brief in all its provisions. 
The Books of ancient Constitutions in this country are few and very difficult U> 
obtain, and without more light being communicated than is contained in our Con- 
stitution and By-Laws, it will be impossible for Lodges composed of young and 
inexperienced officers and members to obtain the necessary information for the 
proper and intelligent discharge of their duty. 

In view of the whole subject, I would most respectfully recommend* to the G. 
Lodge to revise its Constitution and By-Laws, and so enlarge the Constitution as 
to embrace all of what is properly denominated “ Ancient Constitutions,” or so 
much thereof as is not embraced in the “ Masonic Trestle-Board.” 

I have, at considerable expense and pains, procured such models and data, as 
will enable a committee of this Lodge, with comparative ease, to* accomplish the 
objects contemplated in the above recommendation, which will be at the service 
of the Grand Lodge, should they desire them. Should the suggestion meet with 
the approbation of the Grand Lodge, and a full and complete Constitution be 
adopted and published, it would, in the cheapest possible form, furnish all neces- 
sary information to our subordinate Lodges, as well as the fraternity at large. 

I am disposed to attach to this subject, considerations which go far beyond the 
mere matter of making Masons correctly, and of keeping up a pure and uniform 
government over the Royal-Craft. I regard the sources of information, to the 
studious Mason, as far too scant, and esteem, the proposed measure, as one indis- 
pensable to the pure and permanent existence of our Order in our wide-spread 
jurisdiction. If we were within reach of proper books, andcould boast of learned 
and experienced men in all our Lodges who could train up our Brethren in a 
knowledge of our Mystic Science, it would be. widely different But we have 
neither, and unless some measures are adopted to spread abroad the “ true tight? 
the interest of our sublime Institution will suffer materially. 

The present is a most interesting period in the history of Masonry in the U. 
States. There never was a time when the cause enjoyed greater prosperity ; 
and I may justly say, there never was a time when, greater card and circumspec- 
tion should be exercised in guarding the purity of the Order, both in its work 
and high moral character. But on this subject, we have but little cause of fear. 
The whole Fraternity are fully alive, to their interest, for, having learned wisdom 
from the things they have suffered, they have been, for the last three years, taking 
such steps as are calculated to establish and maintain uniformity in their work, 
and place the Institution upon such a basis in all respects, that its future course 
will be one of great usefulness and stability. 

In the month of March, 1842, a General Masonic Convention was held in the 
city of Washington, having the general interests of Masonry in view, which, 
among other things, recommended to the Grand Lodges of the United States the 
holding of a delegated Convention in the city of Baltimore, in the month of May, 
1843, to determine upon a uniform system of work and lectures, with some other 
interests. That Convention was held at the time, in which sixteen of the Grand 



MASONIC INTELLIGENCE • 


251 


Lodges were represented, winch accomplished much towards the objects for 
which it was convened. Bat still feeling that more remained to be accomplish- 
ed, they again recommended to all the Grand Lodges of the United States to 
organize and establish a permanent triennial Convention, with delegated and 
defined powers, intended, in the main, to keep up Masonic intercourse, regulate 
the system of work and lectures, and to form a kind of umpire between Grand 
Lodges. Their proceedings have been published, a copy of which is herewith 
furnished. 

I would most respectfully recommend, therefore, to the Grand Lodge, that the 
plan of such organization be examined, as contained in their published proceed- 
ings, and, if approved, that snch action be had, as will give to such Convention 
the sanction and co-operation of this Grand Lodge. 

There is another subject on which many of the Grand Lodges of the United 
States are now taking action, as a general measure of safety, which has been 
recommended to all, at the late Masonic Convention, and which, in my opinion, 
is of snch a nature, as to require the consideration and action of this Grand 
Lodge. It is that of requiring of all visiting Brethren, who visit the Lodges un- 
der your jurisdiction, from abroad, to produce a certificate of membership from 
the Grand Lodge from under whose jurisdiction they may hail, before they will 
be received into the Lodges under your jurisdiction. This measure would seem 
to be the more necessary in a country like ours, where a great number of stran- 
gers are entering, who claim to be Masons, and without some such measure, we 
are greatly liable to be imposed upon by suspended or expelled Masons. Some 
of our Lodges and Members have suffered serious injury from such' impos- 
tures already. 

I respectfully suggest, therefore, to the Grand Lodge the propriety of requiring 
ouch certificates from visiting Brethren from other Grand Lodges, unless they 
are properly avouched for by some member of our Lodges as regular members of 
good standing in the Lodge from whence they may hail. Ana further, that this 
Grand Lodge should provide such certificates, under its own seal, for the benefit 
of Brethren who may desire to travel abroad. The Grand Lodge should also 
provide itself with suitable blanks, for charters and diplomas, upon parchment, 
for the use of Lodges and Brethren. 

I have protracted this address much beyond its intended limits in the outset ; 
but I do not see how I could do justice to my feelings and the great interests in- 
volved, with saying less. I will conclude wkh the further suggestion, that much 
of the attention of the Grand Lodge should be given to the management of the 
internal concerns of subordinate Lodges. No Lodge should be allowed to con- 
fer the degrees of Masonry before the fees are paid on such degrees, nor tg be 
advanced without “ making suitable proficiency in the preceding degrees 

With these remarks, I am happy in having the honor of returning to the G. 
Lodge the high and responsible office they were pleased to confer upon me, At 
its organization, while I enjoy an inward pleasure in the consciousness that I 
have done all that was in my power to promote, the best interest of our most ex- 
cellent Institution. 

With grateful consideration, I am, Fraternally, &c. 

B. T. Kavanaugh, G. M. 


IOWA. 

By the favor of our attentive correspondent at Bloomington, we were enabled 
to lay before our readers in March, an abstract of the annual proceedings of the 
Grand Lodge of Iowa, together with a copy of the Grand Master’s address. We 
have since received an official copy from the Grand Secretary, from which we 
make a few extracts, and shall in oar next give the excellent “ Annual Circular” 
to the Lodges 


252 


MASONIC INTELLIGENCE. 


QUALIFICATION OF PRESIDING MASTERS* 

Resolved , That the Grand Lodge will require a Brother to have the Past Mas- 
tort Degree before he can be Installed as Master of a subordinate Lodge under 
the jurisdiction of this Grand Lodge. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION OF ORPHANS. 

Your Committee to whom was referred so much of our M. W. G. Master's 
Communication as relates to the establishment of an Institution for the educa- 
tion of the Orphan Children of, deceased Brother Masons, ask leave to report as 
follows : 

We hail with unfeigned pleasure this call of our M. W. G. M. in behalf of 
our infant G. Lodge, to this interesting and important subject 

Your Committee are fully of the opinion that the iunds which this Grand 
Lodge now have or may hereafter have under its control, can in no way be so 
economically and judiciously vested in order to carry out the great principles of 
our Order, as to vest them in such a manner as will most directly secure the in- 
tellectual and moral advancement and health of those whom we feel most bound 
to protect, and over whose well being we should watch with such tender care. 
We are well assured that the Fraternity will meet this subject, as it deserves to 
be met, and we feel earnestly to recommend that preliminary steps be taken for 
the final attainment of this great object. 

To this end, therefore, your Committee beg leave to recommend that a Com- 
mittee of at least five be appointed to investigate the subject and that they have 
discretionary powers to solicit funds and make such preliminary arrangements as 
they may deem expedient: carefully avoiding involving the honor or interests of 
individuals or of this Grand Lodge. And finally, that said Committee.be re- 
quested to report their doings in writing to this Grand Lodge at its next annua! 
session, accompanied with such suggestions for future operations as their matured 
reflection may point out as best. 

All of which is most respectfully submitted by your Committee. 

W. Reynolds, 

W. R. Talbott, 
John Hawkins. 


the trestle-board. 

From the report of the committee on Foreign Correspondence : — 

The second and last topic we would now notice, is that of the Trestle- 
Board, published by order of and under the direction of the Convention. Your 
committee believe from a thorougli examination of this * Book, that it will prove 
a valuable text book in the hands of the Master of every subordinate Lodge, pos- 
sessing fewer defects and more advantages than any other book of a similar char- 
acter, and it having received the sanction of a majority of the Grand Lodges 
composing said Convention, and as tending to secure a more perfect uniformity 
in the work of the Lodge, your committee recommend the adoption of the Trks- 
tle-Board as the text book of this Grand Lodge and of the Lodges under this 
jurisdiction, and further recommend that the Grand Secretary be instructed to 
procure one dozen copies thereof and furnish one to each subordinate Lodge (not 
already possessing one) and charge the same to the Lodges in their annual dues 
for the succeeding year. 

The committee close their report as follows : — 

Your committee fiud upon the hasty examination they hive been enabled to 
give the proceedings of the several Grand Lodges laid before them much, very 
much of interest and universal importance to the Fraternity are contained there- 
in, exhibiting the Institution in a prosperous condition throughout their several 
jurisdictions, and most of them contain discussions of many points of Masonic 
polity and jurisdiction proper to be presented to this Grand Lodge for its action. 
But your committee owing to the press of other business, and being unwilling 



EXPULSIONS. 


253 


to make a report doing such manifest injustice to the Grand Lodges aforesaid, 
this Grand Lodge and themselves, would therefore ask and recommend that the 
proceedings aforesaid be either recommitted or referred to a new committee with 
instructions to report to the G. Lodge at its next grand annual communication. 

They will not close however, without congratulating the Brethren of our sister 
Territory of Wisconsin, on the successful formation of a Grand Lodge for that 
Territory, which proaiises to be productive of much good in that section of our 
prosperous country. 

Your committee are happy to learn that the difficulties attending the formation 
of a Grand Lodge in Michigan are entirely removed, and that the Grand Lodge 
of that State bias fair to take a high stand among her sister Lodges. 

REPORT ON MASONIC LIBRARY. 

The committee to whom was referred so much of the Grand Master’s Address 
as relates to the subject of a Masonic Library , for the use of the Grand Lodge, 
have had the Bame under consideration and beg leave to submit the following 
report: 

Your committee feel the subject to be one of very great importance to the in- 
terest of Masonry, more so perhaps to us in the far west, where the means of ob- 
taining Masonic information are much more limited, than in older settled coun- 
tries. We also believe that the only true method of obtaining Masonic Light 
and knowledge and of having the principles of our Order properly appreciated 
and practised, is to create an interest in the study of the same, as laid down in 
the Constitutions of Masonry. Your committee do not believe, however, that the 
state of the finances of this Grand Lodge will admit of making an appropriation 
sufficient to procure an extensive collection of Masonic information ; still we be- 
lieve something should be done— a commencement should be made, and additions 
made from time to time as the G. Lodge shall be able, so that in time we may 
have a collection of Masonic information, that will be an honor to us. In fur- 
therance of this object, your committee would recommend the adoption of the 
following resolution : — 

Resolved, That an appropriation of $5 be made, to be expended under the direc- 
tion of the G. Secretary, for procuring such information as he may see proper. 


EXPULSIONS BYTHE GRAND LODGE OF WIS- 

CONSIN. 

We cheerfully comply with the request of the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin, in 
giving the earliest publicity to tbe following report and expulsions : 

Report w The committee to whom was referred the communication of the 
W. M. of Warren Lodge, in regard to the case of Marcus Wainwright, who had 
been appointed Senior Warden of said Lodge, under the Dispensation of the G. 
Lodge of Wisconsin, having given to the subject serious consideration, report : 

“ That from Masonic information in the possession of the Grand Lodge of Wis- 
consin, at this time, it appears that a certain Marcus Wainwright arrived in this 
Territory in the year 1844, and estalished his residence in Grant county as a 
practitioner of medicine. 

“That shortly after his arrival, he made himself known as a Master Mason, 
and, as such, among others, signed a petition for a Dispensation to be granted by 
the Grand Lodge to open a new Lodge at Potosi, in Grant county, Wisconsin. 

w That he was named and appointed Senior Warden of the new Lodge, called 
Warren Lodge. 

u That in consequence of inquiries into his real character in November last, 
the following facts appeared to be established, on the rumor of which facts be 
fled from Wisconsin. 

“The same Marcus Wainwright came in 1843 from the State of Illinois, be- 
lieved from St Clair, into Fayette in the State of Missouri, on a call to take 



254 


EXPULSIONS. 


charge of a Baptist congregation at that place, and that he then bore the name of 
A. B. Hardy. That he was then married, and had a wife with him, said to be 
his third wife. That he was made a Mason at that place, and received several 
high degrees in Masonry. 

“ That a few months after his residence at Fayette, he was accused and be- 
lieved to be guilty of the crime of forgery, and fled the country, leaving his fam- 
ily in Missouri, leaving also a letter, stating that his grave would be found that 
night in the Mississippi. It is supposed he immediately came into Wisconsin 
Territory. 

“ The identification of A. B. Hardy with Marcos Wainwright, is, in the opin- 
ion of your committee, folly apparent, from the testimonials in possession of this 
Grand Lodge. 

“ A. B. Hardy was expelled the Fayette Lodge, Missouri, and advertised, by 
order of his church, in the “ Missouri and Illinois Baptist” 

“In regard to the action of this Grand Lodge on this most painful subject, 
your committee have come to this conclusion : 

“That Marcus Wainwright, alias A. B. Hardy, never was a legal member of 
Warren Lodge, as he was an expelled member Of a foreign Lodge at the time be 
imposed himself on the members of the Lodge at Potosi, when he signed their 
petition for a Dispensation, and accepted the appointment of Senior Warden of 
Warren Lodge. 

“Therefore, not being a member of a Lodge under this jurisdiction, the Grand 
Lodge does not consider its power to extend in this particular case to expulsion, 
or to any other action in the matter, at this time, than to guard the Fraternity, 
wherever distributed, against the Impostor, by the exposition herein made of the 
character of Marcus Wainwright, alias A. B. Hardy.* 

“ Respectfully submitted. 

“W. R. Smith, Chairman ” 

Br. Burnett offered the following resolution : 

“ Resolved, That the said Marcus T. Wainwright, alias A- B. Hardy, be ex- 
cluded from all Masonic privileges and associations throughout the world ; and 
to guard the Crafl against the impositions, the Grand Secretary be directed to 
forward a copy of the foregoing Report, and of this resolution, to the Editor of 
the “ Freemasons’ Magazine,” for publication ; to which shall be appended, as 
correct a description of his person as can be obtained 

Marcus T. Wainwright, alias A. B. Hardy ; aged about 40 ; hither below com- 
mon stature, stout and well formed, broad and square shoulders ; brown hair, 
curls at extremities ; light blue-grey eyes, round and marked expression ; full 
round forehead ; top of head flat; rather large and projecting chin; large month, 
and when speaking often closed on one side ; sometimes stammers or hesitates 
in his speech ; is skilful in Blue Lodge and R. A. Chapter ; has a peculiar faculty 
of ingratiating himself into favor among strangers : has been a Baptist preacher; 
is a saddler by trade; and pretends to practice as a physician. Was expelled 
from Fayette Lodge in the State of Missouri, where he lived under the name of 
Hardy, and preached. Deserted his wife, leaving her no means of support, and 
came and settled in Lancaster, in Grant county ; became a member of Warren 
Lodge No. 4, and left clandestinely. 

The Grand Lodge also confirmed the following expulsion : 

William M. Card, M. M., Milwaukee Lodge, No. 3, March 08, 1844. Aged 
about 48; 5 feet 10 inches high; thick set; fair complexion; residence now 
unknown; occupation, a carpenter; offence, desertion of wife and family, and 
unraasonic conduct. 


*In this conclusion the committee are in error. The power of tho Grand Lodge to expel 
for cause, any Mason residing within its jurisdiction, whether he be a member of a Lodge 
or not, (under that or any other jurisdiction,) is clear and indisputable. — Editor Maoa- 
zwe. 


REGISTER Or. OFVICBES, 


255 


REGISTER OF OFFICERS. 


GRAND LODGE OF IOWA. 

M. W. Oliver Cock, G. Master. 

R. W, C. H. Booth, D. G. M. 

" Ansel Humphreys, S. G. W. 

“ John Hawkins, J. G. W. 

44 Was. K. Talbot, G Chaplain. 

11 B. S. Olds, G. Treasurer. 

” T. S. Parvin, G. Secretary. 

W. James R. Hartsock, S. G. D. 

41 S. C. Trowbridge, J. G. D. 

14 J. H. M’Kenny, G Marshal. 

44 P. O. Beckett, G. S. Bearer. 

** Wm. Abbe, G. Pursuivant. , 

Brother J. P. Hanby, G. Tyler. 

CONVENTION OF PRIESTHOOD IN OHIO. 

M. E. William B. Thrall, President. 

“ W. B. Hubbard, Vice President. 
u M. Z. Kreider, Chaplain. 

44 Samuel Reed, Lecturer. 

“ I. C. Copeland, Treasurer. 

“ B. Latham, Recorder. 

" George Keiffer, Mast. of Ceremonies. 

“ John Sayre, Conductor. 
a M. M. Laughlin, Herald. 

41 Absalom Death, Steward. 

MAINS ENCAMPMENT, PORTLAND. 

Sir Samuel Fessenden, M. E. G. Com. 

44 Charles B. Smith, Generalissimo. 

44 Nelson Racklyft, Capt. Gen. 

44 Cyrus Cummings, Prelate. 

44 Eleazer Wyer, Senior Warden. 

44 Seth Clark, Junior Warden. 

44 William Lord, Treasurer. 

44 Arthur Shirley, Recorder. 

44 Stephen Swett, Sword Bearer. 

44 Arthur Shirley, 3d Guard. 

44 William Lord, 2d 44 
44 Stephen Swett, 1st 44 

GRAND CHAPTER, SOUTH CAROLINA. 

M. E- John H. Honour, G. H. P. 

E. F. C. Barber, Dep. G. H. P. 

44 Charles Clapp, G. King. 

4< A. G. Mackey, G. Scribe. 

44 James S. Burgess, G. Treasurer. 

44 & J. Hull, G> Secretary. 

44 John E. Odena, G. Marshal. 

44 Samuel Seyle, G. Seutinel. 


CONCORD CHAPTER, WILMINGTON, N.O. 
Alexander McRae, High Priest. 

A. P. Repiton, King. 

L. H. Marsteller, Scribe. 

T. W. Brown, Treasurer. 

D. McMillan, Secretary. 

A. Martin, R. A. C. 

W. A. Burr, C. H. 

J. Northrop, P. S. 

John A. Taylor, ) 

R.G. Rankin, VM. of Veils. 

T. F. Peck, ) 

John Smith, Tyler. 


DE WITT CLINTON ENCAMPMENT, AT 
PORTSMOUTH, H. H. 

Sir John Christie, M. E. G. Commander. 

14 Jonathan Barker, Generalissimo. 

“ John Knowlton, Capt. Gen. 

“ John Bennett, Prelate 
“ Thomas Clapham, Senior Warden. 

44 Samuel S. Stacy, Junior Warden. 

44 Jefferson Mclntire, Treasurer. 

“ Ammi R. H. Fernald, Recorder. 

14 Josiah G. Hadley, Standard Bearer. 

14 Ephraim Otis ; Sword Bearer. 

44 Thomas L. Pickering, Warder. 

44 John Somerby, 3d Guard. 

“ Henry S. Rand, 2d *• 

44 John W. Abbott, 1st 44 
44 John Nutter, Commissary. 

44 Isaac Maxwell, Sentinel 

BENTON LODGE, BENTON, ALABAMA. 

I. M. Gunn, Master. 

Robert Rives, & W. 

Reuben Mundy, J. W. 

I. R. Gilbert, Treasurer. 

J. R. Sommerville, Secretary. 

John Adams, S. D. 

R. R. Harrison, J. D. 

John C. Hill, Tyler. 


st. John’s lodge, wilmington, n. c. 

S. D. Wallace, Master. 

J. A. Shepherd, S. W. 

R. G. Rankin, J W. 

B. Baxter, Treasurer. 

W. A. Burr, Secretary. 

A. Martin, S. D. 

W. D. Smith, J. D. 

J. T. Morris, Tyler. 

Solomon’s temple lodge, uxbridge, 

MASS. 

Hiram Clark, Master. 

George Willard, S. W. 

Royal Cummings, J. W. 

Joseph Thayer, Treasurer. 

Josiah Commings, Secretary. 

Robert L. Almy, S. D. 

James A. Whipple, J. D. 

William C. Capen, Marshal. 

Salmon Brown, > Stewards. 

Joseph Jefferson, \ St * wara# ' 

Jesse Aldrich, Tyler. 

SPARTA LODGE, SPARTA, TENN. 

N. Ocohara, Master. 

J. W. Beil, S. W. 

J. L. Goodall, J. W. 

J. K. Farmer, Treasurer. 

B. S. Rhea, Secretary. 

J. A. Lane, S. D. 

J. Young, J. D. 

fwJsmp**., | 3 ‘ ew4nU - 

R. Nelson, Tyler. 



256 


MASONIC CHIT CHAT. 


MASONIC C 

We have devoted a large portion of 
the present number to “ Masonic Intelli- 
gence,” this species of matter having accu- 
mulated on our hands to an unusual extent. 
We have still a large quantity in French and 
in German, waiting to be put into an Eng- 
lish dress. That given in the present num- 
ber, both foreign and domestic, will be found 
interesting and instructive. We would par- 
ticularly invite the attention of our readers 
to the excellent address by Br. Kavanaugh, 
to the Grand Lodge of Wisconsin. It is a 
business like paper, and presents a practical 
and gratifying view of the state of the Insti- 
tution in that young and extreme portion of 
our country, where the peaceful sound of the 
Masonic gavel is just following the echo of 
the wild war-whoop of the savage. 

Our foreign matter will also be found to 
possess some interesting points. 

0*The Celebration at Bunker-Hill, 
on the 24th inst., by King Solomon’s Lodge, 
will probably be one of the most interesling 
Masonic festivals which has been held in 
this State for many years. The indications 
are that the attendance of the Brethren will 
be large. Arrangements will be made to 
accommodate all who may wish to dine on 
the Hill. The committee are desirous, how- 
ever, that the Brethren, particularly those 
attached to Lodges, should furnish them- 
selves with tickets at as early a day as con- 
venient, in order that they may make some 
estimation as to the probable number which 
will be required. [See advertisement.] 

The miniature monument, being an exact 
model of the original structure erected by 
King Solomon’s Lodge in 1794, has been 
completed and placed in the inside of the 
present Obelisk. It is of white marble, about 
nine feet in height, and is beautifully execu- 
ted. The original inscription on the old 
monument is engraved on a plate of brass, 
and inserted in its proper place. There is 
also an inscripion stating the history and ob- 
ject of the present monument. 

TTBr. R. E. Frazier, Georgetown, S. C. 
and Br. James M. Pigott, Marion, Mississip- 
pi, are authorized agents for the Magazine. 


HIT CHAT. 

f~lrWe have received two copies of the 
second volume of the Magazine, sent in con- 
sequence of our advertising for the first and 
second volumes. We thank the Brethren 
who have sent them, inasmuch as the inten- 
tion was to oblige us, and enable us to exe- 
cute a foreign order, but unfortunately, they 
are of no use to us. We expressly slated in 
our advertisement that we had more of the 
2d than of the first volume on hand, and 
that. we did not wish the second unless the 
first came with it. The volumes sent tfill 
he returned when called for, unless an op- 
portunity offers to dispose of them, at the 
subscription price. 

{JtJ-We understand that at the late anni- 
versary examination of the students of the 
Masonic College of Missouri, the result 
was highly satisfactory to the friends of the 
Institution, and honorable to the Professors. 
We hope to receive a more particular ac- 
count of it in season for our next number. 
The establishment of this College is an 
experiment, in the success of which the 
whole Masonic Fraternity feel a deep inter- 
est, and we are desirous to keep them accu- 
rately and fully informed of its progress. 
That we may do this, we shall frequently be 
obliged to tax the kindness of our corres- 
pondent at Marion. 

drOne of the best religious papers in the 
country is edited by Rev. Br. Hiram Cham- 
berlain, and published at St. Lonis, Mo. 

It is called the “ Herald of Religions Liber- 
ty,” and we regret to learn from a late num- 
ber that it is not well patronized. We hope 
the friends of religious liberty” in the 
“ great ^valley of the west,” will look to it. 
They cannot well spare so important and 
valuable an auxiliary. 

HiTThe long pending Masonie differences 
in Iteiand, have been amicably, and, it is be- 
lieved, satisfactorily adjusted. 

JIT We have not yet received the proceed- 
ings of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi. 
Have they been sent 1 







258 


THE TESSERA H0SPITAL1S, OR 


most care and secrecy. None knew the name or word inscribed on it, 
but the possessor. It was the white stone , on which was written, “ a new 
name,” “ which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it.” 

The Hon. Francis Bay lies, in an address delivered by him some years 
since, in speaking of the rights of hospitality among the ancients, holds 
the following language : 

The savage regards the stranger as an enemy. He does not hesitate 
to seize bis property, and to take his life. In the transition from savage 
to civilized life, the first step is the establishment of usages, by which the 
stranger may be protected. This is the first evidence of the amelioration 
of the savage, and his first approach to the cultivation of the social princi- 
ple. If the shelter of the roof was sought and the threshold crossed, the 
right to protection became a sacred obligation, and the host who failed in the 
duty, was accounted infamous. In the law as prescribed to Moses, the 
practice of hospitality is enjoined : “ Also thou shalt not oppress a stran- 
ger ; for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the 
land of Egypt.”* 

It was in this first stage of moral refinement, that the Illiad of Homer 
was written, and probably the books of Moses. In every part of Homer, 
the right of the guest and suppliant, to kind treatment, is inculcated as a 
sacred obligation, established by the Gods : the suppliant was to be “ as a 
near relation.” The “ stranger and the poor are from Jove,” says the 
bardt. From this general obligation, sprung particular obligations and 
more sacred rights, not terminating with individuals, but hereditary and 
descending to posterity. The custom extended, and communities became 
bound by it. Nations acknowledged it, not only with nations but with 
individuals { Alcibiades, expelled from his native Athens, sought and re- 


♦The author of the essay on the original genius of Homer, who was perfectly acquainted 
with the manners of the Oriental nations, says : — “ In Arabia, the rights of hospitality, so 
properly called the point of honor of the East, are the happy substitute of positive law; 
which in some degree supplies the place of justice ; connecting by a voluntary intercourse 
of good offices, those vagabond tribes who despise legislation, deny the perfect rights of 
mankind, and set the qivil magistrate at defiance. A strong instance of that sympathizing 
principle in the social constitution of our own nature, which the wisest government will en- 
courage, and which the most depraved cannot suppress.'* 

t “ How necessary this generous point of honor was to alleviate the miseries to which 
.mankind in that unsettled state of law and government, were liable, we may gather from 
many lively and affecting pictures scattered through Homer’s poems.*' [Mitford’s History 
of Greece.] 

iThis usage, of the rights of hospitality, is noticed by Heroditos, the father of history. 
“Among the ancients, it was ratified by particular ceremonies, and considered as the most 
sacred of all engagements : nor dissolved, exc-’pt with certain solemn forms and for weighty 
reasons.” Heroditos says, “ when Sybaris was taken by the Crotoniati, the Milesians shaved 
their heads, and discovered every mark of sorrow $ for, betwixt theee two eUiet a most 




RIGHTS OF HOSPITAL ITT. 


259 


ceftred the hospitality of Sparta, as between him and the Spartans this 
usage existed. To the existence of this'usage, we owe the beautiful nar- 
rative of the retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, by Xenophon. Xenophon says, 
“ that having been long attached to Proxenus, by the rights of hospitality, 
the latter sent for him from home, with a promise if he came, to recom- 
mend him to Cyrus.” His attachment to Proxenus was so strong, ah 
though he was not his countryman, Proxenus being a Beotian, that he 
left Athens and* joined him at the camp of Cyrus. 

From this statement of Xenophon, it appears, that if any advantage was 
in prospect, the Xenos, or guest, was invited to share it. Each was under 
a peculiar obligation to attend to the other's interest, as if it was his own. 

Amongst the Greeks, signs were used, which conveyed the assurance 
of favor, friendship and protection : so when Achilles yielded to the sup- 
plications of King Priam, who sought his tent to obtain the body of Hec- 
tor, 

“ To dispel from Priam's mind 
All secret terror, as a friend be seized 
On his right hand, and grasp’d it at the wrist.” 

The fight between Glaucus and Diomed was suspended, upon their 

strict and uncommon hospitality prevailed.” The translator of Heroditus says ; “ The Bar< 
barous disposition to consider all strangers as enemies, gave way to the very first efforts to- 
wards civilization ; and, as early as the time of Homer, provision was made for the recep- 
tion of travellers into those families by which they were connected by the ties of hospitality. 
This connection was esteemed sacred, and was under the particular sanction of the hospita- 
ble Jupiter, Zeus Xenius. The same word Xenos t which had originally denoted a barba- 
rian and an enemy, then became the term to express either a host or his guest. When 
persons were united by the tie of hospitality, each was Xenos to the other, though, when 
they were together, he who received the other was properly distinguished as the Xenodicus. 
In the Alcestis of Euripides, and in Plato, we find mention of Xenon , or an apartment ap- 
propriated to the reception of such visitors.” 

“The bond of hospitality might subsist 

1/ Between private individuals. 

2. Between private persons and states. 

3. Between different states. 

“ Private hospitality was called Xenia ; public, Proxenia . Persons who, like Glaucus 
and Diomed. ratified their hospitality in war, were called Doryxeni. This connection was 
in all cases hereditary, aud was confirmed by gifts mutually interchanged, which were at 
first called symbols (as in the Medea of Euripides,) and which were afterwards redu- 
ced to a kind of tickets, instead of presents, astragaloi or tesserea .” “ Hospitality might 
be renounced by a solemn form of abjuration, and yet after that, might be renewed by a de- 
scendant. Thus between the city ol Sparta and the family of Alcihiades, a public 
hospitality had subsisted ; his grandfather had solemnly renounced it, hut he, by acts of 
kindness, revived it again. Heroditus says, that when Alexander the Macedonian, was dis- 
patched to Athens, by Mardonius the Persian General, with overtures from Xerxes for an 
alliance and a requisition of earth and water, after addressing the people, bis propositions 
were rejected with indignation, and the Athenians, in closing their reply say, “ Hereafter do 
not you presume to enter an Athenian Assembly with overtures of this kind, lest while you 
appear to mean us well, you prompt us to do what is abominable : — We are unwilling that 
you should receive any injury from us, having been our guest and friend.” 



860 THE TESSERA HOSPITAL IS, OltRIEHTfl 0¥ HOSPITALITY. 

inutuftl recognition of the symbols of the hereditary hospitality of tfaeir 
ancestors.* 

The books of the Old Testament contain matiy allusions to this usage— 
such as the hospitality of Lot to the Angels, on the night previous to the 
destruction of Sodom, and the dangers which he incurred in protecting 
them from the rage of the Sodomites, “ because they came under the 
shadow of his roof,”t. and the covenants between Abraham and Isaac and 
the King of the Philistines, solemnized by oaths end * the erection of 
altars.^ 

Jonathan made a covenant with David, his lather’s enemy, and with 
his house, a and Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved 
him : for he loved him as he loved his own soul, and saved his life when 
it was sought by his father Saul.” And then Jonathan said to David, “ go 


•The manner in which thie generous principle operated in softening the ferocious spirit 
of the warriors of the Illiad, is forcibly delineated in the description of the meeting of Dio- 
med and Glaucns on the field of battle— their mutual recognition while the fight was raging ; 
their mutual acknowledgment of the tics of hospitality by which they were connected, and 
by which their ancestors had been connected. 

“ He spoke, and transport fill’d Tydides’ heart, 

In earth the generous warrior fix r d his dart, 

Then friendly thus the Lycian prince addrast, 

Welcome my brave hereditary guefct, 

Thus ever let us meet with kind embrace, 

Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race .’ 9 

He then recounts the friendship and the mutual gifts, (still preserved,) of their fathers. 
He continues — 

“ Mindful of this, in friendship let us join j 
If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline, 

My guest in Argos, thou, and I in Lycia thine. 

Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield 
In the full harvest of year ample field ; 

Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore 5 
But thou and Diomed be foes no more. 

Now change we arms and prove to either boat, 

We guard the friendship of the line we boast.” 

tGenesis, ch. xix. 

t Abimilech addressing Abraham, says : “ Now, therefore, swear unto me here by God, 
that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son’s son : but ac- 
cording to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land 
wherein thou hast sojourned.” And Abraham said, I will swear. The same king of the 
Philistines and his friends, [Genesis, xxi. 23, 24,] addressed Isaac : “ Let there now be an 
oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee ; that thon 
wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done onto thee nothing but 
good, and have sent thee away in peace s thou art now the blessed of the Lord. And he 
made them a feast, and they did eat and drink. And they rose up betimes in the morning, 
and sware one to another } And Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in 
peace.” [Genesis xxvi. 29, 29, 99, 3!.] 


KNIGHTS TEMPLARS SftmtOTID IN PARLIAMENT. 261 

in peace, forasmuch as we have sworn both of us in the . name of the 
Lord, saying, the Lord be between me and thee, and between my seed 
and thy seed forever.”* When David became the anointed King of 
Israel, the obligation was fresh in his remembrance. “ And David said, is 
there yet any that is led of the house of Saul, that I may shew him kind* 
ness for Jonathan’s sake ?” When Mephibosheth was brought before 
him, and had prostrated himself, “ David said unto him, fear not, for I 
will shew thee kindness, fox Jonathan thy father’s sake, and will restore 
thee all the land of Saul, and thou shalt eat bread at my table cfcntin* 
ually.” 44 As for Mephibosheth (said the King,) he Shall eat at my table 
as one of the King’s sons.” The royal heritage of Saul was restored to 
him ; he dwelt in Jerusalem, “ and did eat continually at the King’s table.” 
When the descendants of Saul were given up to the Gibeonites, the King 
spared Mephibosheth, 44 because of the Lord’s oath, that was between 
them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul.t 

This usage or obligation, in times of rapaoious violence, of barbarism 
and lawless power, seems to have been the preserving principle of the 
moral world — the germ of all the higher virtues — disclosing the stamp of 
the Creator on fallen man. It is the electric fire of the moral world, neu- 
tralizing the venom of the heart, and melting the ice of the soul — the liv- 
ing fire, burning forever, and kindled by a spark from heaven 1 It is not 
an apron, or jewel, or ceremony, or formula, which constitutes men Free- 
masons. The marble or the wax may be fashioned into the form ; but it 
is the living soul, which constitutes the man. JSo it is with Freemason* 
ry — Its externals are nothing — its home is in the heart. 


THE KNIGHTS T E M P L A R S RE P RE S E NT E D IN 
THE ENGLISH PARLIAMENT. 

Kino Edward the first, in the 35th year of his reign, in the month of January, 
A. D. 1307, M called a great Parliament, to be bolden at Carlisle upon the octaves 
of St. Killary, to treat of matter* concerning the state of Scotland, whereunto 
were summoned many Lords both of the spiritualty and temporalty, who either 
appeared in person or else by proxy. Myself have seen and read an ancient reg- 
ister of good authority, containing the names of eightyseven Earls and Barons, 
twenty Bishops, sixtyone Abbots, and eight Priors, besides many Deans, Arch- 
deacons, and other inferior Clerks of the Convocation, the Master of the Knights 
of the Temple, of every shire two Knights, of every city two citizens, and of every 
Borough two Burgesses, &c.’’—£Wr Jbmab of England, Regutrum FraUum 
Mtoonm. Parliament Record*. 


*1 Samuel xx. 17, 42. 


t2 Samuel ix. 1, 6, 7, 10, 11. xxi. 7. 



tea 


HI STOUT OF INITIATION. 


HISTORY OF INITIATION. 

COMPRISING A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE RITES AND CEREMONIES, DOCTRINE* 
AND DISCIPLINE, OF ALL THE 

SECRET AND MYSTERIOUS INSTITUTIONS 

OF 

, THE ANCIENT WORLD. 

NUMBER IX. 

INVESTITURE, AND PHILOSOPHY OF THE PERSIAN MYSTERIES. 

The splendor and importance of the heathen mysteries gave them such a 
vast and overwhelming influence, even with the principal nobility of every an- 
cient nation, that the high born youth displayed the utmost anxiety to endure the 
fatigue and danger of initiation, that they might be assimilated with that distin- 
guished society, into which no other formula could introduce them. For this 
purpose every peril was braved, and every risk cheerfully encountered ; and loss 
of life in the process was preferred to the dishonor of remaining voluntarily 
amongst the uninitiated and profane. Nothing but this unconquerable principle 
could have induced men to. press forward through such a series of opposing diffi- 
culties, as we have enumerated. The aspirant, however, having gloriously sur- 
mounted them, now claimed Investiture and Instruction. An abundance of amu- 
lets and talismans was delivered to him after his investiture ; and he was even 
taught the secret of constructing them, that he might be exempt from all assail- 
ing dangers, both in his person and property. Every Emblem displayed to his 
view by the Divine Lights in this vast and diversified cavern ;* every incident 
which excited his astonishment during the tedious process of initiation, was now 
converted to a moral purpose, and explained in a series of disquisitions, calcula- 
ted to inspire an irrevocable attachment, alike to the mysteries, and to the per- 
sons of their administrators. 

The candidate was taught that the benign influence of the superior light de- 
rived from initiation, irradiates the mind with some rays of tie div nity ; and in- 
spires it with a degree of knowledge which is unattainable without this distin- 
guished privilege. He was instructed to adore the consecrated fire, the gift of 
the deity, as his visible residence/)* He was taught the existence of two inde- 


*He was taught the hieroglyphical character , or sacred cipher, in which their mysterious 
dogmata were perpetuated $ specimens of which, according to Sir W. Jonas. (Asiai. Res. 
vol. ii. p. 67,) still remain. . 

tThe throne of tbe deity was believed to be in the Sun, (Hyde ut supr v p. 1 6 1.) which 
was the Persian paradise ; but he was equually supposed to he reMdeui in the Fire. Ia 
the Bhagvat Greets, (p. 64.) Krishna says, “ God is in the Jire of the a'tar ; and some of the 
devout, with their offerings, direct their worship .unto God in the Jire.” The priest nloi e 
was allowed to appear in the presence of this Shekinah j and he was obliged fir«i to purify 
himself, by washing from head to foot, and being c'othed in a white garment as an emblem 
of ceremonial cleanness. He then approached the sacred element with the utmost venera- 
tion $ was careful not to pollute it by the use ofany metal but used an instrument made 
of the purest wood divested of its bark. Even his breuth was supposed to coove} pollu- 
tion ; (Vallancey. Anc. Hist. Irei. p. 2o3.) and therefore while offering up his petitions for 




BISTORT OF INITIATION* 


pendent and equally powerful principles, the one essentially Good, the other tare* 
daimably Evil ; and the cosmogony was this : Ormisda, the supreote source of 
Light and Truth created the world at six different periods. First, he made th* 
heavens; second, the waters; third, the earth; fourth, trees and plants; fifth, 
animals; and sixth, man/ or rather a being compounded of a man and a hull* 
This newly created being lived in a state of purity and happiness for many ages, 
but was at last poisoned by the temptations of a subtle serpent genius, named 
Ahriman, who inhabited the regions of darkness, and was the author of evil 
land his ascendency upon earth became at length so great as to create an al- 
most general rebellion against the creator Ormisda ; tyr whom, however, he was 
at length subdued. To counteract the effects of this renunciation of virtue, 
another pure being was crested, compounded, as before, of a man and a bull, 
called Taschter, or Mithras, by whose intervention, with the assistance of three 
associates, a flood of waters was produced to purify the earth, by prodigious 
showers of rain, each drop as large as an head of an ox, which produced a gene- 
ral lustration. A tempestuous wind which blew for three successive days from 
the same quarter, dried the waters from the face of the earth ; and when they 
were completely subsided, a new germ was introduced, from which sprang the 
present race of mankind. 

This Theogony was also inculcated. Ormisda created six benevolent gods, 
and Ahriman formed the same number of malignant spirits, who were always en- 
gaged in a violent contention for pre-eminence. The evil spirits at length suc- 
ceeded in gaining the dominion over one half of the year, which the celestial 
deities were contented to resign to their superintendence. A fable which bears 
an undoubted reference to the change and variety of the seasons ; and repre- 
sented the manner in which the year was governed by the successive recurrence • 
of Summer and Winter, or Light and Darkness ; the six summer, and the like 
number of winter months, pointing also to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, which 
were emblazoned on the roof of the Mithratic cavern. The mysterious emblem 1 


the public good, he covered his mouth with a linen cloth to prevent the possibility of profa- 
nation. The veneration of the Persians’ for Fire was so unbounded, that its pollution was 
strictly forbidden, even in private dwellings ; the richest noble, equally with the meanest 
slave, woald uot dare so much as to spit in the fire ; and if his dwelling, and every thing it 
contained, were perishing by this devouring element, he was prohibited from controlling its 
progress by the, use of water, which was also held sacred by the people, and was allowed 
merely to smother it by throwing earth, stones, or any similar anticombustible substance on 
it. The Parsis of Guzerat still practise the same superstition. (Strabo, l. 15. Perron’s 
Zendavesta, vol. ii. p. 667. Notes on Richardson’s Dissertation, p. 277.) 

* “ Mezdam,” says the prophet, “ separated man from the other animals by the distinc- 
tion of a soul, which is a free and independent substance, without a body or any thing ma- 
terial, indivisible and without position, by which he aUaineth the glory of the angels. The 
Lord of Being created bis servant free ; \f he doeth good he obtaineth heaven ; if evil he 
becomethan inhabitant of hell. (Desatir. Book of Abad.) 

tThis Persian doctrine was the foundation of the Manichean heresy, which vexed the 
Christian Church from the fifth to the ninth century. (Vid. Bower. Hist, of Popes, vol. ii. 
p. 19.) 




384 


HISTORY os* imrunoR 


which served to typify these perpetual contests for superiority was* two Serpent** 
contending for an Egg , the former bring symbolical of the powers of Light and' 
Darkness, and the latter of the World. 

On these legends many Wild and improbable fictions were engrafted*, The 
Arehimagus related to the initiated, how the world had been seven times created 
and destroyed ; how Simorgh, the omniscient griffin, who had existed through all 
those revolutions of ages, revealed to a hero, called Cahertnan, that the first in- 
habitants were the Peris, or good beings, and the Dives, or wicked ones, who 
waged eternal war with each other, and though the former were the most pow- 
erful, their contests for superiority were sometimes so violent as to throw nature 
into convulsions, and cover the universe with disroay.f Then succeeded an ani- 
mated account of the valor and prowess of certain Persian heroes, who dissolved 
enchantments, vanquished giants, destroyed the power of magicians, and made 
hostile fairies obedient to their will. And at the conclusion of the ceremony, 
as a last great secret, the initiated were taught that important prophecy of Zo- 
roaster, which his early instruction had taught him ; that in future times, a great 
prophet should appear in the world, the desire of all nations, who should be the 
son of a pure virgin, and whose advent should be proclaimed to the world by a 
new and brilliant star in the heavens, shining with celestial brightness at mid- 
day. The newly initiated candidate was strictly enjoined to follow the direc- 
tion of this supernatural appearance, if it should happen in his day, until he had 
found the new born babe, to whom he was commanded to offer rich gifts and. 
sacrifices, and to fall prostrate before him with devout humility as the Creator of 
the world. 

This celebrated System, like all others which have not the revealed Word of 
God for their basis, branched out into numerous abominable rites, to sanction 
the vicious practices of potent individuals, whose countenance was found neces- 
sary or useful to aid the extension of its schemes ; and thus^the initiations, grad* 
ually became so corrupt, as to serve as a cloak for licentious indulgences. 


♦The deity was frequently represented as involved in the folds of a Serpent, (Mont, Ant. 
Supplem. p. 211,) in reference to the solar superstition, for the Serpent was a symbol of the 
San, and hence it was often depicted in the form ot a ring with its tail in the month, as a 
striking emblem of the immortality of the deity, for whom this reptile was often substitu- 
ted, Much may be seen on this subject in Oliver’s Signs and Symbols, lect. ii, 
t “ Tbe Peris are described as beantifnl and benevolent, and tbongh guilty of errors which 
had offended omnipotence, they are supposed, in consequenoe of their penitenee, still to 
enjoy distinguished marks of divine favor. The Dives, on the contrary, are depicted as hid- 
eous in form, and malignant in mind ; differing only from the infernal demons in not being 
confined to hell ; but roaming for ever around the world to scatter discord and wretchedness 
among the sons of Adam. In the Peris we find a wonderful resemblance to tbe fairies of 
the European nations ; and the Dives or Genies differ little from the giants and savages of 
the middle ages j the adventures of the eastern heroes breathe all the wildness of achieve- 
ment recorded of the knights in Gothic romance s and the doctrine of enchantments in both, 
seem to claim one common source.” (Rich. Dissert, p. 167.) 



GRJJfD MA9TMS OF 


Ml 


GRAND MASTERS, OR PATRONS, 

OF THE FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS IN ENGLAND) 
from the coming in of the Saxons to the year 1839, with brief references to remarka- 
ble events. Compiled and condensed from the most authoritative records, by 
Br. Thomas Joseph Tennison, President of the Masonic Council of 
Armagh, Ireland. 

[Continued from page 239.] 

1719. Theophttus Desaguiliers , M. D . 

1790. George Paynt (second time.) 

1729. The Duke of Wharlon was proclaimed Grand Master, but was not inves- 
ted until the following year. Acting Grand Master, Dr. Desaguiliers, Past 
Grand Master. 

* Francis Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, afterwards Duke of Buccleugh ; after him as 
Grand Master, 

1724. Charles , Duke of Richmond, (second time.) At this period Masonry was 
illustrious at home and abroad, Lodges multiplied, and a general charity fund war 4 
established for the relief of distressed and deserving Brethren, which gladdened 

I 1 _ 1 1 . . n 1 _ L JJ U.Ma. J.ii. 




1725 James Hamilton Lord Paisley, afterwards Earl of Abecorn, wns proclaim-' 
ed at the Assembly and Feast, which took place at the Merchant Tailors* Hall 
on St J^n’s Day, in December. Dr. Desaguiliers, Deputy Grand Master. 

1726. O’Brien, Earl of Inchiquin, was saluted as Grand Master, and called 
together at the Devil’s Tavern, Temple Bar. William Cooper, Esq. Depu- 
ty Grand Master. 

Henry Hare, Lord Coleraine, was appointed Grand Master. His successor was 

James King, Earl of Kingston, who presented to the Brethren a curious pedes- 
tal, a rich cushion, a velvet bag, and two golden pens, crossed for the secretary. 
Nathaniel Blacker by, Esq. Deputy Grand Master. 

1729. December, Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was joyfully saluted as 
Grand Master, after which his Grace presented to the assembly the sword of 
Gustavus Adolphus, that was worn by his successor, the Duke of Saxe Weimar, 
with both their names on the blades, the arms of Norfolk adorned richly in silver 
on the scabbard, in order to be the Grand Master’s sword of state in future, (this 
scabbard was splendidly re-embroidered in 1838, and the sword burnished 5 ) and 
a folio volume of the Records splendidly bound and gilt, with the arms of Mason- 
ry and Norfolk, and a list of his titles, amply displayed on a frontispiece of vel- 
lum. 

1731. A magnificent procession of noblemen and gentlemen in Masonic clo- 
thing, proceeded in coaches, with music, from Lord Lovel’s mansion in the west, 
eastward to Mercer’s Hall, when this noble Brother was duly proclaimed and in- 
vested. The Duke of Lorraine (afterwards Grand Duke of Tuscany and Empe- 
ror of Germany! having, at the Hague, been entered as an apprenticeship and 
passed as a Fellow-Craft by virtue of a deputation there, and his Royal Highness 
coming to England this year, Lord Lovel, (afterwards Earl of Leicester,) formed 
a Lodge at Houghton Hall, the residence of Brother Sir Robert Walpole, and 
made the Dukes of Lorraine and Newcastle Master Masons. 

1732. This year, Antony Broum, Lord Viscount Montacnte, was Grand Master. 

Thomas Batson , Esq., Deputy Grand Master. 

1753. James Lyon, Earl of Strathmore. 

1734. John Lindsay, Earl of Crawford, was this year proclaimed with more 
than the usual splendor, and was attended at the feast at Mercer’s Hall, on the 
17th of April, by Brothers the Dnkas of Richmond and Athol, the Marquis of 

34 



m 


GRAKB MASTERS OF ENGLAND. 


Beaumont, the Earle of Wilchelsea, Wemys, Inchiquin, Chesterfield, Loudoun, 
and B&lcarras ; the Lords Cathcart, Southwell, Coleraine, Montague, and Vere 
Bertie ; Sir Edward Mansell, Sir Cecil Wray, Doctors Anderson and Desagu- 
iliers, &c. 

1735. Thomas Thynne , Viscount Weymouth, was elected Grand Master. John 
Ward, Esq., (afterwards Viscount Dudley and Ward,) Deputy Graud Master. 

1736. John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun, was the next 

1737. Edward Bligh, Earl of Darnley, was proclaimed, and afterwards, assisted 
by the Right Hon. C. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, the Hon. Colonel Lumley, and 
the Hon. Major Madan, he introduced, in the usual manner, His Royal Highness 
Frederick Prince of Wales, (father to George III.) who was entered, past, and 
raised in due form. 

1738. Henry Bridges , Marquis of Carnarvon, was installed as Grand Master, at 
the Assembly in Fishmongers’ Hall. The Earl of Kintore, Lord Grey of Groby, 
Lord George Graham, &c., assisted in the ceremonies. The Grand Master pre- 
sented a splendid jewel of gold tor the use of the secretary, and named (at a sub- 
sequent meeting) as his successor, 

1739. Robert Lord Raymond, Baron of Abbots Langley. 

1740. John Keith, Earl of Kintore, was duly and unanimously elected, and was 
attended at Haberdashers’ Hall, by Lieut. General Keith ; the Earls of Loudoun 
and Darley ; the Earls of Perth and Clanricarde ; His Excellency Major General 
Count Trouchers de Walburgh, Minister Plenipotentiary of Prussia, Mons. An- 
drie, Envoy from the King of Prussia; Baron Wassemb erg, Envoy from the 
King of Sweden ; Monsieur Bielfield, Secretary to the Russian Embassy ; Counts 
H arrack and O’Daniel, all in proper clothing. 

1741. Jamts Douglas, Earl of Morton, was placed in Solomon’s Chair. Senior 
Grand Warden Vaughan received the thanks of the Grand Lodge, for his pre- 
sent of a fine cornelian Seal, engraved with the Arms of Masonry, and massively 
set in gold. 

1742. John Viscount Dudley and Ward. 

1743. Thomas Lyon , Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorn. 

1745. James Cranstoun, Lord Cranstoun. 

1746. William Lord Byron, Grand Master. At his installation, his lordship 
was assisted by the Right Hon. R. Shirley, Lord Cranstoun ; Monsieur Hoffman, 
Minister from the King of Poland ; the Baron Reydersal ; Sir R. Lawley, Baro- 
net, Colonel Berrington, and the Masters and Wardens of forty five Lodges. 
Fotberby Baker, Esq. Deputy Grand Master. 

1752. John Proby Lord Carysfoot, Grand Master, Dr. Manningham, Deputy 
Grand Master. The Hon. James Carmichael, and Sir Richard Worttesly, Baro- 
net, Grand Wardens. 

1754. James the Marquis of Carnarvon , (afterwards D. of Chandos,) assisted by 
the Duke of Chandos ; Lords Ward and Carysfort ; Sir R. de Cornwall, Baronet, 
Past Grand Master; Sir Robert Lumley, Baronet; Sir Richard Wrottesly, Baro- 
net ; Alderman Sir Richard Glynn, Knight ; the lion. Captain Proby, and three 
hundred of the Brethren in Craft clothing and insignia. The noble Marquis was 
re-elected in 1755, at which period he presented to the Grand Lodge a splendid 
Jewel in a knot, enamelled in blue, to be worn by the Grand Treasurer. 

1757-62. Sholto Lord Aberdour was Grand Master. During the period his 
lordship held office, measures of value and importance to the Craft were contem- 
plated and carried out, not only at every meeting of the Grand Lodge, but at aU 
private Lodges ; large contributions for general and particular charity funds 
were invariably made, and considerable sums were voteo for the relief of French 
prisoners of war, confined in Great Britain, who, on inquiry, were ascertained to 



GRAND MASTERS OF ENGLAND. 


be deserving Masons, and consequently considered worthy of assistance ; they 
all faithfully promising, when opportunity offered, to perform kind offices toward# 
their British Brethren, prisoners in France. The sum of £50 was also transmit- 
ted to Brother Major Gen. Kinsley, to be distributed by him amongst the soldiers 
of Prince Ferdin ind’s army (being Freemasons,) whether English, Hanoverians, 
or Hessians. General John Salter, Deputy Grand Master. 

1762-3. Washington Shirley , Earl Ferrers, wore the Ribbon and Jewel of 
Grand Master. Jonn Revis, Esq. Deputy Grand Master. 

1764. CadwqUader Lord Blnyney was elected Grand Master, and continued in 
office until 1767. New furniture was this year purchased for the use of the 
Grand Lodge, and amongst the numerous contributions and donations to distress- 
ed Brethren, was £100, sent for the relief of those Masons who suffered by the 
devastating fire at Barbadoes, on the 9th of February, 1767. A Lodge was held 
at the Thatched House Tavern, St James’s, Colonel Salter, Deputy Grand Mas* 
ter, oil the Throne, when His Royal Highness Henry Frederick Duke of Cum- 
berland was, in the customary impressive manner, introduced, entered as an Ap- 
prentice, passed a Fellow-Craft, and raised to the sublime Degree of a Master 
Mason. General John Salter, Deputy Grand Master. 

1767. Henry Duke of Beaufort , at the Assembly at Merchant Tailors’ Hall, 
was proclaimed and placed iu Solomon's Chair as Grand Master, and continued 
in office until 1770. Colonel Salter, and the Hon. Charles Dillon, were Deputy 
Grand Masters during this period. His Grace, the Grand Master, proposed to 
petition his Majesty for V? Charter of Incorporation in favor of Free and Accepted 
Masons under the Constitutions of England . To this application there were sent 
to the Grand Secretary the approbation of 168 Lodges, and dissent of 43 ; the par- 
ticular circumstances under which such Incorporations should be founded not 
being generally known, nor clearly understood, and the Brethren fearing lest any 
innovations should be made in the polity of a society that had for so many ages 
stood distinguished for secresy, morality, benevolence and good fellowship. 
However, when the copy of the Charter was promulgated, all doubts were remov- 
ed, and the Brethren anxiously looked forward to the period when it received 
the Royal assent, as several well intentioned schemes, then in embyro, would be 
carried into immediate execution, and the intentions of many (who only waited 
for such Incorporation) would then shine forth with lustre, and demonstrate to ike 
world, those principles that ever did, and it is to be hoped ever will, produce those 
salutary effects that are pregnant with relieving the distressed, and removing the 
ghastly aspects of misery and want from their abode, by either contributing to 
tneir immediate assistance, and so enable them to amend their circumstances in 
life ; or, if that be impossible, to place them in some comfortable home that may 
sheltor “The Aged and Decayed Mason,” from the dreary horrors of spending 
his latter days in penury and want The Hon. Charles Dillon, Deputy Grand 
Master. 

1772-76. Robert Edward Lord Petre. Rowland Holt, Esq., Deputy Grand 
Master. 

1777-81. George Duke of Manchester . 

1782-89. His Royal Highness Hon. Fred. Duke of Cumberland, Br. of King 
George III., Grand Master to 1788. The Earl of Effingham Acting Grand Mas- 
ter. In 1789, Francis Lord Rawden (afterwards Earl Moira and Marquis of 
Hastings,) A. G. M. ,» 

1790-1812 His Royal Highness George Prince of Wales (afterwards George 
IV.) Grand Master, Marquis of Hastings, Acting Grand Master. Sir Peter Par- 
ker, Baronet, Deputy Grand Master, till his decease, 1811. Afterwards His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, D. G. M., until 1812. 

1813 In this year the union of the two Grand Lodges of London was effected 
to through the exertions of th$ir Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Kent and 

1839. Sussex, Grand Masters. 


/ 



268 


PERSECUTION OP KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. 


His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex elected as Grand Master of the United 
Grand Lodge or England — Lawrence, Lord Dundas (afterwards, in 1838, created 
Earl of Zetland) Deputy Grand Master, until 1835, when his Lordship was ap- 
pointed Pro-Grand Master, and the Earl of Durham succeeded him as Deputy 
Grand Master, which office he shortly after resigned on being appointed Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary to the Court of St Petersburgh. In the same year (1835) 
Lord H. John S. Churchill was appointed the Deputy Grand Master of England. 

The Earl of Zetland, after a long and useful career of Masonic example, died 
on the 19th of February, 

Among the in any prominent features which have distinguished the era of the 
illustrious Mason, who has for so many years presided over the English Craft, 
may be enumerated — 

The Royal Cumberland School (instituted in 1788 by the Chevalier Ruspini,) 
and so named after His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland (uncle to the 
late Grand Master) and Her Royal Highness the Duchess, Patroness. The insti- 
tution is now denominated the Royal Freemasons’ Charity for Female Children. 

It may be remarked, that all the present male branches of the Royal Family (as 
well as most of its deceased members) have been initiated into Freemasonry ; 
that in former times princes of India became Brethren of the Order; and that in 
1836, three Persian princes, and the ambassador from the King of Oude, were 
accepted, passed and raised in the Lodge of Friendship, No. 6, London. 

The Royal Masonic Institution for Boys, founded in 1798. 

The Book of Constitutions, as compiled and digested by the late venerated Br. 
Wm. Williams, Pro-G. M. for Dorset— now out of print 

The establishment of a Master’s and Past Master’s Club, whereat the various 
subjects under contemplation by the Grand Lodge are considered of. 

The Centenary of the Grand Steward’s Lodge in 1836, which was celebrated 
with great splendor and hospitality. 

The addition of Past Masters to the Boards of General Purposes and Finance; 
the consolidation of these two Boards, and many essential improvements in the 
Secretarial departments ; and, lastly, as an imperishable record of the era of this 
exalted Mason and illustrious Brother, His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, 
and which posterity will the most acclaim as the crowning feature of his brilliant 
protectorate of the Order, is the asylum foe the worthy aged and decayed 

FREEMASON. 


KNIGHTS TEMPLARS IN ENGLAND CONDEM- 
NED TO PERPETUAL PENANCE; FIFTY FOUR 
BURNT AT PARIS IN FRANCE. 

In A. D. 1311, being the fourth year of the reign of Edward the 2d of England, 
the twentysixth of Philip the 4th of France, the third of Henry the 7th of Ger- 
many, the sixteenth of Ferdinand the 4th of Spain, and in the fourth of the pon- 
tificate of Clement thfe 5th, “ A Provincial Council was holden at London against 
the Templars in Engldrid, upon heresy an<f other articles whereof they were accu- 
sed, who denied the fact, saving one or two of them : notwithstanding all did con- 
fess that they could not purge themselves, and therefore were condemned to per- 
petual penance in several monasteries, ^vhere they behaved themselves very well. 

* At Paris, in France, fiftyfonr of the Templars were burnt by judgment 
of the French King.” — Slow’* Jhmals. Johannas House. Thomas de la More. 



MASONIC CHARGE. 


269 


MASONIC CHARGE. 

BY COM. WM. J. BSE8E, ESQ. - 

Delivered at the Installation of the officers of Zanesville R. Arch Chapter, at Zanesville, 

Ohio. 

Companions or the Chapter: — The present occasion will designate upon 
t'our records, another epoch measuring the flight of time. Those whom you 
Slave selected to administer the affairs of this Chapter for the coming year, have 
;een installed into office, in accordance with the customary ceremonies of the 
)rder. 

It is natural then that it should to you, be associated with reflections of pecu* 
lar interest ; — and I am free to say, that to my mind, the functions of this station 
an never be more legitimately, and therefore better employed, than in assisting, 
ither to organize, or to resuscitate a Masonic body. 

Because I do honestly believe, that the principles of our profession, when 
ightly understood, will not only meet the approval of the most enlightened rea- 
on, — but will also Btand the test of the severest moral scrutiny ; and so believ- 
ng, I hold it to be the duty of the members of the Order, on all meet and-proper 
ccasions ; both by public ceremonies, and by public demonstrations, to evidence 
n the clearest possible manner, the loyalty of their feelings, and the sincerity of 
.heir attachment I well know, Companions, that these principles have been 
tometimes misapprehended, and therefore denounced, — or at least, regarded with 
suspicion ; and it may so happen, that in some communities, and under some cir- 
cumstances ; — either perhaps for the sake of peace and quiet at home, or for 
tranquility in other social and intimate relations, those who would be among our 
brightest ornaments, are rarely seen in our processions, and but seldom visit in 
our Lodge-rooms ; and while we cannot but deeply lament that such an unnatu- 
ral condition of things, should any where exist ; — we yet feel it is right and pro- 
per, for all permanent duties, to have their legitimate scope ; and that when we 
fail to convince by our actions, and the influence of reason ; we ought calmly 
and quietly to yield our individual predilections to the current of popular opin- 
ion, and wait with resignation the coming in of u better days,” and the domi- 
nancy of & more enlighted reason. Masonry, in my opinion, has suffered, quite 
as much from the unchastened partiality of its friends, as from the open attacks 
>f its enemies. It is a philanthropic Institution of human origin, and as such, is 
>enignant and lovely and most catholic in its conception, — but it loses this beau- 
ifnl simplicity of character, — the very moment you attempt to trace it to a Di- 
line one. You know that it has oftentimes been elevated far beyond the stretch 
of sober reason, and that there have been those who have even dared, to place it 
as a code of ethics side by side with the Holy Revelation of the Saviour. I 
need not surely say to this respectable auditory, that such is the coinage of a 
most distempered fancy, — if not, the evidence of a shocking, — repulsive impiety. 

We do not claim to date our origin, as a distinctive society, at the birth of the 
material universe ; or to go back to those remote ages of the world ; of which 
the very tradition, is borne down under the weight of fabulous inconsistencies. 
But this we can claim, — and we do it with perfect confidence too ; that ours, is 
the most ancient association under Heaven. And of this, my Companions, we 
are equally certain, that the principles of Masonry, are the principles of a pure 
morality ; thus far, they are open for the inspection of all mankind, and he who 
runs may read them ; and it is no valid argument against their existence, that 
they are* not always exemplified in the actions add conduct of our members. 
This is our misfortune as a Fraternity ; and may with strict propriety be urged 
to our shame ; but cannot possibly affect the purity of the character of the Order. 
And you will readily admit, that neither should it be “ anathema maranatha” in 
the mouths of men, because some of its ceremonies are performed in secret, and 
are hidden in mystery. , After the same similitude of reason, might the Geologist, 
planting himself upon a vague hypothesis* deny the Mosaic account of the ere** 



270 


MASONIC CHARGE. 

tion of the World, and blot out every precious record from the Volume of Divine 
Inspiration,— because his limited comprehension cannot grapple with all the do- 
ings of the mighty intellect of God. 

It is fully conceded that there is mystery in Freemasonry, — but is not the 
same, more or less innate, in every handicraft, profession, pursuit and avocation 
of Man ? Is it not written with an iron pen, upon every page of the great Book 
of Nature? 

The eternal stars look down upon the changes of this fitful world, with the 
same fixed and immutable gaze, they did at that ineffable moment, when the 
bright sons of the morning, shouted for joy ; and we know that the giant intellect 
of the “olden time” bowed down in the presence of these solemn watchers of the 
sky ; and reverently regarded them, as influencing for Weal or for woe, — the 
threads in the woof of human destiny ; and although this system of their belief 
has come now to be exploded, — yet it may well be, that stranger things are con- 
nected with it, than are dreamed of in our philosophy. 

The summer breeze, — that steals into the sick man’s room, and fans his fevered 
cheek, — and cools his burning brow ; and scarcely disturbs the light drapery that 
hangs around his couch, — so gentle and bland is its balmy visitation ; — wants 
only the word of power, to become a tremendous minister of wrath. 

Let but the Almighty will it, — and the oak of an hundred years, — the dense 
forest, and the most enduring monuments of human strength and of costly archi- 
tecture, are swept like chaff, into destruction before it You can hear the sound 
thereof, and trace the tracks of its terrible journeying amidst doom, and desola- 
tion, and death, — but ye cannot tell whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth. 

Who can unravel to me, the essential nature of that common element, so indis- 
pensable to the every-day wants of animated life ? It is a perplexing paradox. 
Its home is in the bosom of the flinty rock — it is extracted from ice, — it lives in 
water, — it leaps from the misty cloud, — it flashes over the lowering heavens,— 
and is perpetually burning in the deep bowels of the earth. 

We can only know that it bides its allotted time, to accomplish that superb and 
bewildering destiny, which causes human reason to reel ; and makes the blood 
curdle to think upon. 

Why ! We are mocked and baffled at our own existence. We are a mystery to 
our very selves. This curious framework of mortality, — so intricate in its se- 
veral parts, — so complicated in its noble machinery, — and put together with such 
consummate wisdom and intelligence ; — is after all, but the quintessence of dost 
and of ashes : — of such it was originally framed, — and into such it must again be 
resolved ; — and yet we are taught, — nay we are assured of the fact that this 
very dust, no matter how it may exist, — or where it may be found, — whether 
wantoning upon the winds, burning in the fire, or floating upon the waters, — will 
every jot and tittle thereof, be again gathered together, remoulded, reorganized, 
refashioned, and become an incorruptible, glorious body, the recipient of immor- 
tal life. But it were unnecessary to multiply examples.^ There is mysteiy io 
every object that is around us, animate and inanimate, all of them dependent, 
connected and hanging upon Him, who is the Centre of unapproachable, unfath- 
omable mystery. 

If the public, to whom we stand in the social attitude of fellow-citizens, 
neighbors and friends — will believe we are dangerous, because in part, we are 
a secret society ; — if our families can be taught to regard us with distrust and 
suspicion, — if our wives and our daughters can be persuaded to doubt the purity 
of our attachment, our integrity and our honor; because we cannot carry them 
with us to the active employments of the Lodge-room ; then they would not be- 
lieve that Masonry is aught else, than a cunningly devised fable,— a cheat and 
an imposture, — though our Holy Brother of the Apocalypse, were to speak to 
them from his Isle of Patinos ; and the graves should give up their dead, to plead 
in our behalf. 

But this is idle apprehension. My Companions, when we are arraigned at the 
' bar of public opinion, and its judgment is pronounced against us, it is not be- 



MASONIC C BARGE. 


271 


cauN a pall of secrecy bangs over the rites of the Temple. We are condemned 
if at all, by the things that are known, aad not by those that are concealed. Our 
own conduct-— our own doings, — our own actions are the stern witnesses to rise 
up and testify against us, and I need not surelytell you, that from testimony such 
as this, there can be no appeal. In too many melancholy instances the pure 
spirit of Masonry, has been insulted and disgraced in the household of its friends; 
and it is this reflection which communicatee to the sting, an unwonted sharp- 
ness. We do not fear for the perpetuity of the principles of the Order, — on this 
score there need be no cause for apprehension ; they have stood the test of too 
many ages to be shaken now ; through centuries of changes, they have remained 
changeless and serene ; and they will continue to endure, increasing, extending 
and circulating their rich blessings, until time shall be no more. But it is for 
you, — for ourselves, — for our fraiky as men, and our weakness as Masons ; that 
despondency and glooji will creep across the track of oar feelings, even in the 
brightest moments of triumph. 

The danger,— and it is the only danger, — exists in our own ranks. When the 
leperous spot breaks out upon us, it becomes the “immedicabile vulnus” affect- 
ing with its deadly fatal virus, the very vitality of our Masonic existence. I need 
scarcely advert to the powers that are delegated, and the confidence that is repo- 
sed in you ; and other bodies of kindred organization. In the broad language of 
your charter, you are authorized to induct into our traditional degrees all good 
and worthy candidates, who may apply for the same; and so the standard of 
qualification, must in a great measure' be determined by yourselves. As you 
then shall eie$t, any man, can receive at your hands a letter of credit, which will 
give him the right to claim from me, the moat intimate relations of Brother- 
hood on the presentation of which, I will be expected to receive him to my 
confidence as an associate and a friend. In ju3t this same relation, he will stand 
to the Fraternity around the World. If he be a good man and true, — faithful 
and honest in his attachment to the principles of the Order; yon will have done 
well to cause the beautiful light to shine in upon his path of darkness. But if on 
the other hand, he be an immoral man ; abandoned in his conduct and profligate 
in his habits ; — the sceptic, — the inebriate, — the bold, bad, reckless contemner of 
purity and truth ; — how could you be prepared to answer the startling question, 
when others shall come to you, in the flush of an indignant and outraged sensi- 
bility, and demand, by what right, — you have admitted this man, a Brother and 
Member among them,— their equal and fellow; by ties that can only be sever- 
ed, — when God shall summon him to judgment ? Better do no work at all, than 
such work, as will entail disgrace and dishonor upon the Craft. Better would it 
be, to nail up your Tyler’s door at once, — tear down the mystic border of your 
hall, and give its sacred altar to the mole and to the bats ; than to admit a single 
member here, whose blighted reputation, would be as a mill-stone about your 
necks, to drag you down to the depths of public contumely and scorn. 

I would have Masonry perpetually severed from the pollution of such a con- 
tact 

I would have it to be, what it was first intended to be, a pure and unsuspected 
creation, — administering to the social happiness, and subserving the best inter- 
ests of tho whole family of man. I would also have you to elevate as much as 
possible the standard of Masonic usefulness, — and thus to make it keep company, 
with the onward march of the world of Intellect : — of course, I do not mean to 
suggest any modification pertaining to the initiatory ceremonies of the Order. 
They are susceptible of none, and to modify, would be to impair them. But I 
would have you to do something, for yourselves and your fellows, beyond the 
customary channel of Masonic charity and benevolence. The spirit of the times 
seems to demand at our hands some more enduring demonstration than this; 
something, so to speak, — built upon a broader, wider and rnoro accessible basis. 

The present age, yon are aware, is signalized by wonderful advances, in every 
department of knowledge ; a single day has brought to light, some dazzling dis- 
covery ; that separates it a century, from the day that is past. Mind is every 



MASONIC CHARGE. 


272 

where grappling with mind. Intellect is ranging all over the material Universe ; 
ami in each daring flight, — gathering the materials for a yet loftier stretch of 
wing ; and yet bolder discoveries. 

The power of the movements that are making, is demonstrated upon every 
breeze that comes up from the four quarters of the Earth. In Mechanics, — in 
Government,— in Philanthropy, — in Science, — in the Arts, — in Literature and in 
Morality, there are influences at work, that are destined radically to change the 
social, intellectual and moral condition of man ; and the mighty current, widen- 
ing and increasing in volume and in power, as its bright waters meet and mingle 
together ; is now sweeping by our very doors. It is a time then, of duty, — of 
responsibility, of golden and gracious opportunity ; and it has appeared to me 
that the Lodges and Chapters of our Order, are particularly called upon to do 
their duty also, and assume their responsibility in the great work that is going on 
around us. I would have them if possible, to go hand in hand, and march shoul- 
der to shoulder, with other benevolent societies, and by their means and their ef- 
forts, and their influence, to accelerate the coming in of that palmy period ; when 
pure morality shall prevail upon every hill-top, and in every valley ; and the 
means of knowledge to this Great People, shall be as common as air, as cheap as 
water. 

My Companions ; I can see no valid reason, why Masonry should be fettered 
down, by any sectarian or local feeling whatsoever. I would have it untram- 
melled, — unadulterated, — unstipendiary, — the sphere of its active usefulness only 
circumscribed by the limits of its universality. It would then be godlike within 
the range of its glorious latitude. You have heard what it is, often eloquently 
sketched in the Lessons it communicates for your practice. You know what it 
is, —for you have walked in its chambers of marvellous light, and drank at the 
fountains of its gushing waters. Regard it as you will, it is, under any aspect, a 
most benignant and elevated conception ; every where busy, erecting schools and 
infirmaries and asylums, for the destitute, the unfortunate and the oppressed,— 
hushing the sob of the fatherless little one, and causing the widow’s heart to 
sing for joy! 

It is abroad, upon its errand of beneficence, in every country, and climate, and 
kingdom under Heaven ; wherever charity can be exercised, — wherever suffer- 
ing can be alleviated, — wherever good can be done. 

It is around us, and about us ; in every whisper of mercy, — in every movement 
of love. 

This is Masonry! And, my Companions, — this meek and gentle Spirit, is 
committed to your care ; — the purity of its spotless character, is entrusted to your 
keeping. As the Stewards of its mysteries then, be ye always faithful and watch- 
ful and circumspect, so that when the Great Master cometh, to itiquire after 
his talent; he may not find it wrapt in a napkin, and hidden in the earth. 

Make it your serious study to become perfect in every good work. Be true to 
the principles of your profession ; and you cannot be disloyal to the interests of 
the Institution, or the duties you owe to yourselves and to one another. Add to 
your faith, virtue; anil to virtue, knowledge; and to knowledge, temperance ; 
and to te/nperance, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kiud ness, Charity. Do 
good unto all men ; more especially, be active in your offices of kindness to 
the household of a Brother. 

Finally, my Companions, be ye all of one mind. Live in vtact! I know not 
how it is, — but never, during .the ministrations of the station I have been so long 
honored with among you, have I been called upon to give this “ little charge” to 
my Brethren in Masonry, without a lively appreciation of the loveliness ot bis 
character, who was permitted to lean upon the Master’s breast; and, perhaps, 
to catch a double portion of the benignity of the Master’s spirit. You all know 
to whom I allude ; Him of the Apocalypse!— the patron Saint of our Order. 

While sojourning amidst the magnificent scenery of the tt Celestial City,” and 
holding commune with the masterful Beings, who thronged its golden streets ; 
listening to the uninterrupted tide of adoration, that welled up around the rain- 



THC KNIGHT TEMPLAR. 


273 . 


bow Throne, like the sound of “ many waters,” — there passed upon him, the 
same infusion of Spirit, and heavenly unction, that animate the blessed Intelli- 
gences, who swept across the mystical panorama of his lofty vision ; and hence, 
bis sweet epistles breathe the sentiments, while they speak the dialect of the 
“ Upper Sanctuary.” Surely no more enduring eulogy, could be written for our 
Institution, than the simple statement, that upon the burthen of his every dis- 
course, there is personified the embodiment, and poured out the very soul of Ma- 
sonry. 

We emblazon his name, and record his actions, upon the proudest page of our 
associated history, — we are accustomed to set apart a solemn Festival, to com- 
memorate his anniversary ; and we plant our altars and dedicate our Lodge- 
rooms, to the memory of the “ Holt Saint John.” We are all of us, therefore, 
most imperatively bound to respect and revere his opinions. Will you then per- 
mit me, in addition to what I have so imperfectly,— but affectionately advised ; 
to invoke his honored presence among you ; and thus to catch as it were, from 
his own lips, — his own most beautiful teachings? And I would to Heaven, my 
Companions, that the noble lessons, were graven upon our gates and upon our 
door posts, — that they were bound as a sign upon our hands, and as frontlets be- 
tween our eyes,— and so to be taught diligently to our children forever. 

Hear him then : “ Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old 
commandment, which ye have had from the beginning; and this is the message 
you have heard from the beginning: — that ye love one another . He that loveth 
his Brother, abideth in the light , but he that nateth his Brother, walketh in dark- 
ness/ God is love ; and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God, and God in 
him!” 

Most strange and inexplicable amalgamation ! Deity incorporated into the 
creature,— the creature lifted up into Deity ! There is no human arithmetic 
that can compute the height of the dignity of this exaltation ; human language 
cannot express the unmeasured sublimity of such a destiny. It surpasses com- 
prehension, — it is bewildering, — but it is true. And there it is, with all its lofty 
and glorious distinctiveness; within the reach of every one of you, that will con- 
form to the plain and simple prescription of its requirements. I will then reite- 
rate in conclusion — Live in peace, — Dwell in Love with one another. And may 
the God of Love and Peace, guide you in all your doings, — be with you in all 
the relations of life ; — family, social and Masonic, — watch over, protect, and 
abundantly bless you. • 


THE KNIGHT TEMPLAR. 

A TALE OF TIIE CRUSADERS. 

[selected.] 

The sun yet rode high in the broad blue canopy that was extended over the 
earth, when a solitary and way-worn Knight might be observed toiling through 
the burning sands of Palestine. 

His garb, that consisted of a suit of steel armor, over which was thrown a 
white robe that bore in front a long Red Cross, proclaimed him to be one of those 
who were denominated the Knights of the “ Order of Templars.” 

He still journeyed onward. 

About nightfall, as the golden luminary was sinking into his western rest, he 
approached an elevated hillock, from whence he beheld the range of tents that 
belonged to the array of Richard Cceur de Lion, that had encamped in this vast 
wilderness, where nothing was presented to the eye but oceans of sand. 

u Haste thee, good Rosamond ; we must ere long reach the camp,” said he, 
addressing his steed. 


35 



274 


THE KNIGHT TEMPLAR, 


The noble animal, at the prick of the spar, bounded onward, and Hugh de 
Montfort, its valorous master, was soon in the pavilion of Briton’s monarch. 

Among the vast number that accompanied Richard to the Holy Land, none 
was more daring or ready to joust for “ honor and the ladies” than the young' 
Frank, Hugh de Montfort. 

Before forsaking his home, he was betrothed to Edith D’HautviHe, the daughter 
of a rich and mighty Baron, who would not sanction their love unless the Knight 
could furnish him with proofs of his valor. 

The time for the parting of the lovers neared ; hastily tearing himself from 
Edith, Hugh mounted his horse, that stood at the castle gate, and ere long dis- 
appeared in the distance. 

After surmounting numerous obstacles, and the loss of many of bis followers, 
“ The Lion-hearted” pitched his camp in the conntry of the Moors. 

- Reclining on a couch in the royal pavilion, surrounded by his Barons and com- 
pantons-m-arros, the haughty Scot, the fierce and warlike Briton, and the cultiva- 
ted Frank, lay the herculean form of the English monarch. 

“ By my halidom !” exclaimed he, as the folds of the tent were drawn aside, 
and Hugh de Montfort entered, “ methinks, Sir Knight, thou hast speedily ac- 
complished thine errand 1” 

He bowed low to the king, and giving him a packet, bound with a silken cord 
and highly perfumed, he stepped aside among his comrades. 

After perusing it silently, he read it aloud. It was as follows : — 

“Greeting:— To King Richard, Saladin sendeth greeting, and acknow- 
ledged his presence in Palestine, and humbly desireth that, for a trial of 
strength, and as a pledge of amity, a tournament may take place within a few 
days, between the Christian Knights and Moorish Emirs, at a short distance from 
Jana, wherein we do now remain. 

“ Given by our hand, 

“ Saladin, Ruler of the Holy Land.” 

“ By the cross, it shall be done ! Say not so ?” asked Richard of the Barons. 

' “ Your will is ours, my liege !” responded they. 

The aurora broke bright and beautiful ; the sun rose in a mass of fleecy clouds 
that were slightly tinged by his golden pencil, and all nature looked fair. The 
inhabitants of Jaffa poured forth in masses from their city, eager to behold the 
wished-for tournament that was about to take place. 

A band of Emirs, clothed in rich dresses, and bedecked with jewels of im- 
mense value, each bearing in his hand a long-steel-pointed lance that glistened 
like a mass of silver in the rays of old Sol, while from their sides depended the 
broad cimeters, advanced to meet a body of Knights led by Richard, wbo were 
to take part in the sports. 

The two monarchs descended from their barbs, and, after respectfully saluting 
each other, remounted, Saladin scouring over the plain with bis light-horsemen, 
while the Briton proceeded at a more easy pace to the lists. 

The heralds gave three loud blasts. The Christians shouted w St. George !” 
tt St George !” the Infidels “Alla !” “Alla!” The earth shook onder the thunder 
of horses’ hoofs ; the lances snapped in twain ; and many of the combatants em- 
braced the earth. Richard and Saladin at length met Crouching, like a tiger 
about to spring from the lair upon the prey, the Moor aimed a blow at the Eng- 
lishman, which, striking with force his morion, nearly unhorsed him. A tremen- 
dous battle-axe poised By a noble arm hung o’er Saladin’s turban, descending, he 
fell to the ground. A burst of applause issued from the spectators, and he was 
declared victor Knight by many of the dark-eyed beauties. 

At this moment a shrill whistle burst on the morning air, and numberless Infi- 



THE KNIGHT TEMPLAR. 


275 


M*, commanded by Saphadin, tbe brother of the Saracen emperor, filled the 
lists, whb surrounded the Christians. 

“ Treachery, by the cross ! Ho ! Sir Hugh de Montford sound to the rescue P* 
thundered Richard. 

.Placing to his lips a golden bugle that hung at his saddle-bow, Hugh wound 
. Uirice a peculiar blast, which was answered not far distant, and a body of Chris- 
tians rushed from a small copse to the aid of their companions. 

Saphadin was abashed and disconcerted on seeing his designs anticipated. 

Shout the war cry, and charge on the knaves !” commanded Cceur-de-Lion. . 

a St George! St. George !” burst from the Englishmen; and “St Andrew ! 
St Andrew 4” from the Scots. 

The Moors gave way before the impetuosity of the attaok, and yielded without 
striking a blow in their defence. Saphadin, spurring on his steed, escaped and 
fled over the plain. ^ 

u By the mass !” exclaimed Richard, “the traitor has escaped !” 


The sun still peeped forth from behind the blue tops of the distant mountains, 
when a weary minstrel, whose dress bore vestiges of his having accomplished no 
•mall journey, might be perceived directing his steps towards the castle of 
D Hautville, whose dark, peering turrets and battlements basked in the golden 
sunshine. 

U mea 9 et h this gayety ?” demanded, the pilgrim of the seneschal, as he 
entered the court-yard, and observed that a scene of festivity was being enacted. 

Sir minstrel: the Baron de Pratelle is about to become the bridegroom of 
Edith de Hautville, the fair daughter of our good master. Enter and be merry.” 

In a magnificent hall of the castle sat about thirty knights and noblemen, at 
a long oaken table that groaned beneath the vast weight it bore. There, 6n 
massive dishes, cooked in the daintiest style to gratify the taste of the epicurean, 
and Jtuffed with racy spices, from which ascended an exhaling odor that was 
delightfully iphaled by the nostrils of the guests, lay huge boars, accompariied 
with the smoking peacock, that still retained the object or its pride, while other 
animals of a smaller class, and of less flavor, were disposed on the board, to- 
<®tner ( with huge pasties, to drown which were supplied laree golden . flagons 
filled until the choicest juice of the luxurious grape, also hommy tankards of 
foaming beer. 

The drunken knights, on the entrance of the musician, uttered a shout of exul- 
tation, and called loudly on him for a ballad. 

As he charmed their ears with the soft, sweet music of his harp, he joined in 
“ 1S tnellow voice and sang the adventures of a noble knight and his lady- 

“ Hist! Sir minstrel !” 

Turning to gaze upon the intruder, he observed a fair page, who placing in his 
hand a billet, disappeared. Watching a favorable opportunity, he unclosed the 

.“Good Sir :--Steal as soon as possible from the convivial scene to the vesti- 
bule of the castle, and seek there the bearer of this, who will accompany thee to 
. . Lady Edith.” 

Imprinting on it a fervent kiss, he placed it in his fluttering bosom. Why it 
fluttered, the reader need not be informed. 


Agentle tap aroused Edith. Rising, she admitted the minstrel and page. 

“ Hast been to Palestine P” said she. 

u » 

« Didst know him ?” 

. * He gave me this, and commanded me with the severest injunctions, to 
deliver it to none but thee.” 

He gave her a letter which contained the following 



276 


MASONIC ANECDOTE. 


u D earest Edith: — I lie on my dying couch, addressing to you my last 
words. Farewell ! Remember tbine oath, never to marry any but me. May our 
separation be short, and may we soon see each other once more, and forever, 
above ! Thine, 

“Hugh de Montfort.” 

A piercing shriek resounded through tbe apartment that made the minstrel 
stand aghast 


It was morn. The bridal party had assembled in the chapel that adjoined 
the mansion of the D’Hautvilles ; the lady Edith was about to become the bride 
of tbe Baron de Pratelle, when the door was burst open, and a Knight clothed in 
shining armor, rushed in, and clasped in his embrace the maiden. 

M Who was he, reader ?” 

Tradition says the Templar led his bride to the altar. 


MASONIC ANECDOTE. 

THE LATE MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ROBERT ROLLO GILLESPIE, K. C. B. 

The subject of this anecdote was born at Comber, county Down, in 1756. He 
became a member of the Fraternity of Freemasons in his native town in the year 
1783 ; his name yet remains in the Lodge, and his flag and banners in which he 
was initiated are preserved. Shortly after, he was gazetted to a cornetcy in tbe 
Sixth Carbineers. In the early part of his service to his Sovereign and country, 
he ‘highly distinguished himself in the West Indies, viz., at Tiburon ; Port-au- 
Prince ; Fort-de-l’Hopital ; St. Lucia ; and at St. Domingo ; on the latter island, 
then in the possession of the French, his life was threatened, and he was on the j 
point of being put to death by order of the governor, General Santhonax, under 1 
the following circumstances : — He was selected by his commander-in-chief to be 
the bearer of a despatch with a summons to surrender the island, and having ! 
been sent under a flag of truce, so great was Gillespie’s anxiety to reach the 
shore from the English squadron from whence he was despatched, his boat got i 
stranded and upset, and his flag and papers having been lost in the sea, he swam j 
ashore with his sword in his mouth ; upon which occasion he was several times 
fired at and miraculously escaped. On being brought a prisoner before the gov- 
ernor he was charged with being a spy, and instantly threatened to be hanged, 
when Gillespie espied on the governor’s or attendant’s buttons the insignia or 
device of Freemasonry ; Gillespie gave the sign, when the pass-words were inter- 
changed ; he was immediately released, sumptuously entertained, and sent back 
to the squadron, and his friends and companions in arms, under a guard of pro- 
tection, by order of Santhonax. 

In the year 1813, on his return to Calcutta, after the conquest of Java, he be- 
came a member of the Moira Lodge, (still extant,) established by the Marquis of 
Hastings, on his lordship’s arrival as governor-general, under the auspices of hi 
Sovereign, and by deputation from the United Grand Lodge of England. s 


THE KNIGHTS HOSPITALLERS AND TEMPLARS 

EXEMPTED FROM THE PAYMENT OF THE HOLY 
LAND TAX. 

In the 20th year of the reign of King Edward the first, A. D. 1292, Nich- 
olas the fourth, “The Pope, granted unto the King of England, & tenth of all 
ecclesiastical goods of religious persons, only Hospitallers and Templars ex- 
cepted, for six years, towards the recovery of Jerusalem.” — Stow* a Jtonola of 
England , p. 307. T. Clifford. 


ODE. 


277 


ODE, 

Written by R. W. Brother Thomas Power, E*q. t and sung on the occasion of p'acing the 
Tablets in the base of the Bunker Hill Monument, by King Solomon’s Lodge, Charles, 
town, on the festival of St. John, June 24, A. L. 6846. 

Gathered on the hallowed spot 
Ne’er by faithful sons forgot, — 

Who, this festal day, would not 
Join onr solemn rite ? 

Ne’er be said, our social ties 
Fail with patriot zeal to rise j 
Ne’er be said, we coldly prize 
Valor’s honored height. 

While fraternal watch-fires glow, 

Ages still untold shall know 
Where the dauntless met the foe, 

Marked with manly grace. 

See where honor led our sires ! 

See where Freedom lit her fires ! 

Fame directs, and Truth inspires, 

Deeds of arms to trace ! 

On the hill-top’s radiant brow, 

Seen in rising glory now 

Points the spire where freemen bow, 

To each Brother dear. 

Who shall mingled feelings tell, 

On the field where Warben fell 1 
Who shall break the cherished spell 
Binding hearts sincere ! 

Who that, on the ocean wave, 

Marks the spot where fell the brave, 

Would not, o’er the hero’s grave, 

Give one silent tear ! 

Who that treads our native shore 
Brings to valor’s shrine, no more, 

Hearts with generous thoughts in store, 

Love that lingers near ! 

Tears be here to manhood's pride, 

Blending in affection’s tide ; 

Never be the boon denied, 

Dear to deathless fame ; 

May the lettered tablets' form, 

Hallowed by devotion warm, 

Still surviving each rude storm, » 

Daring deeds proclaim ! 

Join we now one holy prayer, 

Still His guardian love to share, 

Who decreed our fathers’ care, 

Dangers all around ! 

Join we now the lofty strain, 

Rising over hill and plain, 

Freedom’s Temple to maintain 
On her sacred ground t 



278 THE ORDEH OP H-R-D-M. 

THE ORDER OF H-R~D-M, OF KILWINNING, 

SCOTLAND. 

The union of the sublime order of H-R-D-M, with the Knights of Palestine, 
took place at Kilwinning, on the 30th November, 1293. St. Andrew’s day, 
therefore, to the members of this Order, is a season of peculiar interest It marks 
one of the most important eras in their history. It is also the day on which our 
Scottish Brethren hold their annual Masonic festival. 

Masonry, with the Knights of Kilwinning, has remained pure and unpolluted 
as the truth , of which it is the symbol. In the 13th century, this Order was held 
in so high esteem and in so great veneration, that at its assemblies at Kilwin- 
ning, the Scottish kings presided in person, as Grand Masters ; and none but 
those who had distinguished themselves in public life and acquired a character 
for courage, virtue and honor, were admitted within its portals. Indeed, it was 
exclusively confined to those who were ever ready to draw their swords and shed 
their blood, in defence of their king and country. The degree was conferred as 
an Order of merit for splendid actions, important discoveries, or valuable servi- 
ces rendered to the country or to humanity. 

Robert Bruce, immediately after the celebrated battle of Bannockburn, which 
happened on the 24th June, 1314, old style, (answering to July 4, new style,) 
conferred the Order of Rose Croix, on the field of battle, on all the Knights of 
H-R-D-M, in his army, and decorated them with the “ mystical star,” which is 
worn embroidered on the left breast, with the motto — “ Gloria in excdsis Dco. n * 

Masonic us. 

♦Battle of Bannockburn. The English Knight Sir Robert Clifford made a circuit 
eastward, where some low ground concealed his manoeuvres, when the eagle eye of Bruce 
detected a line of dust, with glancing of spears and .flashing of armor, taking northward, in 
the direction of Stirling. He pointed this out to Randolph. “ They have passed where 
you kept ward,” said he, “ ah, Randolph, there is a rose fallen ftom your chaplet l 1 ’ &c. Ac. 
Ac. On the morning of St. Barnaby, called the Blight, being the 24th of June, 1314, (4th 
July n. s.,) Edward advanced in full form to the attack, of the Scots, whom h» found in 
their position of the preceding evening, Ac. 

“ Edward himself commanded this tremendous array, and in order te guard his person, 
was attended by four hundred chosen men at arms. Immediately around the King waited 
Sir Aymer de Valence, that Earl of Pembroke who defeated Bruce at Methven wood, bnt 
who was now to see a very different day, Sir Giles de Argentine, a Knight of St. Jolm of 
Jerusalem, who was accounted, for his deeds in Palestine, and elsewhere, one of the best 
Knights that lived, and Sir Ingram Umfraville, an Anglicised Scotlishman, also famed for 
his skill in arms. As the Scottish saw the immense display of their enemies rolling to- 
wards them like a surging ocean, they were called on to join in an appeal to Heaven 
against the strength of human foes. Maurice, the abbot of Inchaffray, bare h ead ed and 
bare fooled, walked along the Scottish line, and conferred his benediction on the soldiers, 
who knelt to receive it, and to worship the power in whose name it was bestowed.” Dur- 
ing this time the king of England was questioning Umfraville about the purpose of his 
opponents. w Will they,** said Edward, “ abide battle ?” “ They assuredly will,” replied 
Umfraville ; “ and to engage them with advantage, your Highness were best order s seem- 
ing retreat, and draw them out of their strong ground.” Edward rejected this counsel, and 
observing the Scottish soldiers kneel down, joyfully exclaimed, “ They crave mercy”-" R 
ie from Heaven, not from your Highness,” answered Umfraville : “ on that field they will 
win or die.” The king then commanded the charge to be eouaded and the attack to pint, 
&c.-Bu. of Scotland, by Sir W, Scott. 




KING aOLOMON’s LODGE IN FEBFECTION. 


379 


KING SOLOMON’S LODGE IN PERFECTION. 

A much respected correspondent suggests whether, in giving the name of the 
above Lodge, in the Magazine for May, (p. 201—3,) we have not committed an 
error, and changed the preposition of to in. We have examined the Charter of 
the Lodge, and find the name there inserted precisely as we gave it Dr. Har- 
ris, in his compilation of the history of the Grand Lodge of this State,, gives it 
differently, and in accordance with what our correspondent believes to be cor- 
rect We, however, know of no better authority than the Charter. Every man 
is presumed to know his own name. 

Our correspondent says, and he is probably correct, that this Lodge was first 
chartered, in 1791, as an ineffable Lodge of Grand Perfect and Sublime Masons, 
(working from the first to the fourteenth degree, inclusive,) by tbe Thr. Ills. fir. 
Moses Michael Hays, (then Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts,) 
in his lawful quality as such, and as a Sub. G. Master, Prince of Jerusalem, K-H. 
S. P. R. 8. and Dep. Insp. of the 33d degree, for North America ; which appoint- 
ment he received in 1762, while at Kingston, Jamaica, from the Thr. Ills. Br. 
Stephen Moira, with power to appoint others wherever it might be advisable to 
do so. This he did, says our correspondent, in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, 
Virginia, Georgia, &c. In 1798, the Lodge look a new Charter from the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts, retaining, according to our correspondent, its original 
Charter, and, of course, its authority to confer the degrees, as a Lodge of Per- 
fection, from the 4th to the 14th, inclusive. Nothing of this, however, appears 
in the records of the Grand Lodge. But it is evident, that a Charter, previous 
of that 1798, had been granted by Br. Hays. In that Charter it was undoubted- 
ly called a “ Lodge of Perfection.” In issuing the new Charter, the name was 
changed as above ; but whether by design or accident, it is now probably impos- 
sible to determine. Tbe Lodge has not been in existence for several years, 
and its records were never returned to the Grand Lodge. It was located at 
Holmes* Hole, Cape Cod. 


THE TEMPLARS FEAST THE NOBLES OF 
ENGLAND. 

About the middle of the reign of King Henry the third, u The Templars in 
London, at this time, in great glory, entertained the nobility, foreign Ambassa- 
dors, and the Prince himself, very often, insomuch, that Matthew Paris crieth 
out on them for their pride, who being at the first so poor, as that they had but 
one horse to serve two of them, (in token whereof they gave in their seal two men 
upon one horseback,) “ yet suddenly they waxed so insolent, that they distanced 
other Orders, and sorted themselves with noblemen.”— Stouts Jnnals of England. 
* p. 275. Matthew Paris 



I 


280 GRAND LODGE OF IOWA. 

ANNUAL CIRCULAR OF THE GRAND LODGE 

OF IOWA. 

The Grand Lodge of Iowa to the Masters , Wardens 

and Members of the subordinate Lodges — Greeting : 

Brethren : — The first anniversary of the Grand Lodge is now past, and with 
it have closed the labors of another Masonic year, during which, it hath pleased 
the Grand Master of the Universe to bless us with 44 health, peace and union. 9 
With each returning season wehave reaped the fruits of the land to the suste- 
nance' of our physical natures, and it gladdens our heart to add, that, our beloved 
Institution has with the increase of time strengthened in her growth of beauty, 
with a wise adaptation to the wants of frail humanity. 

But for the recollection of the storms of adversity and unhallowed persecution, 
now happily buried in the tomb of the past, it might appropriately be asked, 
could it be otherwise of a society whose first care is to promote the happiness of 
mankind? Brethren, let your labors be directed to the furtherance of this re- 
freshing work, and prosperity will crown our highest aspirations with success, 
and the realization of our fondest hopes will follow. 

The retrospect of the past affords us much cause for congratulation, and fur- 
nishes us with many useful and instructive lessons worthy of remembrance to the 
further prosecution of our labors, in erecting a great moral and Masonic edifice 
in this region of the far West We have commenced our work in a season of 
sunshine, and thus far have our labors been blessed with an abundant harvest, 
and much, very much depends on ourselves whether we shall continue so favored, 
or whether rains and storms shall impede the further progress of an enterprise 
thus happily begun. 

With the light of the past and the knowledge of the present before us, our 
Brethren look to the future with high expectations, and justly demand that 
'every step we advance, should be in due form as anciently taught, in search of 
that tight which shall benefit us here and profiteth us hereafter ; we must needs 
exhibit that improvement which becometh “Masters in Israel.” 

Only four years have elapsed since we laid t^ie corner stone of our Masonic Tem- 
ple in this newly organized Territory, and already eight courses have been pla- 
ced and cemented with that Brotherly love and affection, which bids fair to unite 
into one permanent body, from which shall emanate light and truth to guide us 
on in our way, rejoicing. 

Twelve months since, with four Lodges, comprising one hundred members, 
we constituted the Grand Lodge of Iowa, and during the past year four others 
were created by Letters of Dispensation, to all of which Charters were granted 
at our late grand annual communication ; and now, our glorious fabric is sup- 
ported by eight beautiful pillars hewn and polished by one hundred and seventy- 
two workmen, (fifty two of whom were initiated during the past year) well skilled 
in the mysteries of the Craft. 

We regret to add that Clinton Lodge, U. D. has not been so highly favored. 
Owing to the removal of many of her members and that several reside at a dis- 
tance from the seat of her operations, she has done but little work ; her officers, 
however, with commendable zeal, sustain themselves under these discouraging 
circumstances, and her Dispensation was continued till the next grand annual 
communication. 

The work of the other Lodges presented at the past communication, was care- 
fully scrutinized and with few exceptions, (and these few were too many) found 
to be square with the Rules and Regulations adopted for their government 
That the work in future may the better pass inspection we here point out the 
errors noticed. 

The 39th section of the By-laws of the Grand Lodge requirt each subordinate 
Lodge to keep a copy of the Constitution and By-laws of the Grand Lodge, to- 
gether with its Proceedings, for the inspection of the Members— and makes it 



GRAND LODGE OF IOWA. 


281 


the duty of the Masters thereof to “ observe the same,” and to “see that they are 
strictly enforced” in the Lodge over which they preside. Every Lodge has been 
furnished as above, and had they been *“ observed,” the following would have 
been “enforced.” 

Do the Masters of the subordinate Lodges observe and enforce these By-laws, 
when they fail to report to the Grand Lodge the infringement of the 11th sec- 
tion ? ' 

When they violate the 19th section, by permitting a Candidate to be advanced 
to a superior Degree without satisfactory examination as to his proficiency in the 
preceding degree, as enjoined by the Grand Lodge, some of the Masters have 
conferred two degrees on one person the same evening ? 

When they on trifling occasions and slight pretences, suffer their By-laws to 
be suspended and thus remove one of the most effective means of enforcing Ma- 
sonic Regulations but partially guarded against, in section 27? 

When they set at nought section 30, in admitting visiters without a Grand 
Lodge Certificate — the second word of this section m the printed copy should 
be visiters instead of members ? 

When they disregard the 36th section by omitting to require applicants for 
membership to present satisfactory evidence that they have regularly demitted 
ft ora the Lodge to which they last belonged ? 

The By-laws aforesaid are all salutary, and the experience of the past year 
teaches us, that they are wholesome regulations. The Grand Lodge by the 33d 
section of her By-laws, makes it obligatory upon the subordinate Lodges to “ ex- 
ercise” discipline over such Masons as reside in the vicinity of said Lodge, not 
members thereof, so far as relates to their conduct and behavior ;” which explains 
the requirements of section 11. 

And to guard against hasty and improper work, she prohibits a Candidate from 
being advanced till he has made satisfactory proficiency in the preceding de- 
grees, by informing himself of the Lectures pertaining thereto , and to suffer a can- 
didate to proceed who is ignorant in this essential particular, is calculated in a 
high degree to injure the institution and retard its usefulness. 

The By-laws are the prescribed rules of Masonic action, permitting what is 
right and prohibiting what is wrong — to suspend them, is to remove every barrier, 
overthrow the “ established usages and customs” of the Fraternity, and to oblite- 
rate the “ancient landmarks of the Order.” 

Without the precautionary measure enjoined by the 36th section, the Lodges 
are doubly liable to the imposition of the unworthy, who have fallen from their 
former standing, and estrayed from their first love. 

While the propriety of the regulation contained in section 36, is made mani- 
fest by the wotul experience of one of the Lodges, who admitted to membership 
and invested with the jewel of office a man expelled from the Fraternity by the 
Grand Lodge of a sister State. 

The Grand Lodge would admonish the Masters of the several Lodges under 
her jurisdiction, as they value the institution of Masonry, handed down to us by 
the wise and good of other days, to enforce with strictness and rigor the Consti- 
tutions of the Order, to see the By-laws of the Grand Lodge faithfully and im- 
partially executed, and on no pretence whatever to suffer any innovation to creep 
in and adulterate the pure ritual of the Brotherhood, and most earnestly would 
die exhort and direct the Brethren to guard with untiring vigilance the passes 
into the seared portals of the Temple. Let no impure hands corrupt the work- 
men, nor mar their work : but direct every effort to the “ cleansing of the sanc- 
tuary” of every impurity that may have obtained admission into her “ holy of ho- 
lies,” until her altars of Temperance, Truth and Brotherly-love shall be restored to 
the hearty of their pristine state. 

Receive ee Apprentices those only who possess the proper qualifications of 
mea “good and true,” moral, exemplary and upright in the walks of life. Em- 
ploy a a Journeymen none but those who have served their due time freely, fer- 
36 



282 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


vently and zealously endeavored to make themselves proficient in the work of 
the Craft And never set over the Fellows any who have not 44 duly and truly 
prepared” themselves for that high and honorable station, with learning, skill and 
experience sufficient for the proper discharge of its responsible duties. 

At the Past Grand Annual Communication, eight Lodges were fully repre- 
sented (there being no Delegate from Clinton Lodge, U. D.) and the business of 
the Grand Lodge was transacted in a manner becoming its legislative character. 
The Grand Lodge has set out with the determination to lay its foundation broad 
and deep, with the view of hereafter erecting upon it, a superstructure, which, 
while it possesses strength, shall exhibit beauty in itself and wisdom in its found- 
ers and supporters. 

With this object before her and designing to keep it constantly in view, she 
made an appropriation (small in the beginning, to be increased with her resour- 
ces) to be expended, under the direction of the Grand Secretary in the purchase 
of Masonic books and periodicals to form a Masonic Library for the use of the 
Grand Lodge and its members. Thereby evincing her desire to 44 receive and 
impart” all the light to be obtained from that source in which i9 deposited the 
knowledge, experience and wisdom of those Brethren 44 who have gone this way 
before us.” 

The Grand Lodge also took the initiatory steps towards the accomplishment of 
an object dear to every Brother and those most near to him — the establishment 
of an Orphan School. This praiseworthy purpose cannot of course be created 
in the year of our infancy, but the Grand Lodge intends to lend every exertion 
in that direction, till it be ultimately accomplished ; and desires each subordi- 
nate Lodge and every Brother to bear it in mind and to stretch forth a hand in 
its behalf Would it not be well for each Lodge, on the anniversary of our Pa- 
tron, St John the Baptist, like him to 44 abstain” from refreshments, and deposit 
with the Treasurer the funds usually spent on that occasion, and thus effectually 
labor to build up an institution which delights to dry the tear of the widow and 
hush the orphan’s cry ? 

The Grand Lodge in closing this word of exhortation and admonition takes 
great pleasure in making known to the Fraternity under her jurisdiction, the 
highly prosperous condition of the Masonic Institution throughout this land of 
freedom, and foreign countries, as learned from the printed proceedings of the 
several Grand Lodges, and the periodicals published under their auspices. 

May it ever be our lot thus to herald 44 glad tidings.” May the Institution grow 
in good works and be made the instrument of accomplishing much for thousands 
of the human family who have never seen her lights nor known their worth. 

Brethren, be true, be faithful, and look to the God of Truth and Immortality 
for your reward. T. S. Parvin, 

G. W. McCleart, 

Ansel Humphreys. 

January, A, D. 1845. • Committee. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Calcutta, Dec . 28, 1844. 

To R. W. Charles W. Moore, Esq. 

Editor Freemasons’ Magazine, Boston. 

R. W. Brother and Sir:— Whilst the occasion is fresh in my recollection, 
(not that time can ever efface it from my memory, though it might confuse the de- 
tails,) I sit down to give you a short sketch of our yesterday’s proceedings, which 
I doubt not will be of some interest to